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Arnica: a multivariate analysis of the botany and ethnopharmacology of a medicinal plant complex in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands

Obón, Concepcion; Rivera, Diego; Alonso, Verde; Fajardo, José; Valdés, Arturo; Alcaraz, Francisco; Carvalho, Ana Maria
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Medicinal plant complexes of different species sharing vernacular names, morphological and aromatic characteristics and uses are common in traditional medicine of different cultures. A quantitative methodology as a tool for ethnopharmacological studies is presented for systematically analyzing morphological and therapeutic features shared by several species integrating such complexes. Aim of the study The aim of this paper is to apply a novel methodology to determine whether complexes are homogeneous and species within the complexes are completely interchangeable or not. Moreover, to find out if those species giving the name to the complex are also those which provide a large number of complex descriptors. For this purpose we study the complex of medicinal plant species which share the vernacular name “Árnica” in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands, through the systematic recording of past and current local therapeutic uses and administration forms, plant-parts and localities where the different species are used. Being a newly introduced name in the region, “Árnica” offers an interesting field to study the genesis and dynamics of ethnopharmacological categories and medicinal plant complexes. Methods A systematic review of the botanical...

Photocytotoxic activity of a nitrosyl phthalocyanine ruthenium complex - A system capable of producing nitric oxide and singlet oxygen

CARNEIRO, Zumira Aparecida; MORAES, Juliana Cristina Biazzotto de; RODRIGUES, Fernando Postalli; LIMA, Renata Galvao de; CURTI, Carlos; ROCHA, Zenis Novaes da; PAULO, Michele; BENDHACK, Lusiane Maria; TEDESCO, Antonio Claudio; FORMIGA, Andre Luiz Barboza;
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
329.9074%
The synthesis, structural aspects, pharmacological assays, and in vitro photoinduced cytotoxic properties of [Ru(NO)(ONO)(pc)] (pc = phthalocyanine) are described. Its biological effect on the B16F10 cell line was studied in the presence and absence of visible light irradiation. At comparable irradiation levels, [Ru(NO) (ONO)(pc)] was more effective than [Ru(pc)] at inhibiting cell growth, suggesting that occurrence of nitric oxide release following singlet oxygen production upon light irradiation may be an important mechanism by which the nitrosyl ruthenium complex exhibits enhanced biological activity in cells. Following visible light activation, the [Ru(NO)(ONO)(pc)] complex displayed increased potency in B16F10 cells upon modifications to the photoinduced dose; indeed, enhanced potency was detected when the nitrosyl ruthenium complex was encapsulated in a drug delivery system. The liposome containing the [Ru(NO)(ONO)(pc)] complex was over 25% more active than the corresponding ruthenium complex in phosphate buffer solution. The activity of the complex was directly proportional to the ruthenium amount present inside the cell, as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the photocytotoxic activity was mainly due to apoptosis. Furthermore...

European 1: A globally important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis

SMITH, Noel H.; BERG, Stefan; DALE, James; ALLEN, Adrian; RODRIGUEZ, Sabrina; ROMERO, Beatriz; MATOS, Filipa; GHEBREMICHAEL, Solomon; KAROUI, Claudine; DONATI, Chiara; MACHADO, Adelina da Conceicao; MUCAVELE, Custodia; KAZWALA, Rudovick R.; HILTY, Markus;
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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We have identified a globally important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis by deletion analysis of over one thousand strains from over 30 countries. We initially show that over 99% of the strains of M. bovis, the cause of bovine tuberculosis, isolated from cattle in the Republic of Ireland and the UK are closely related and are members of a single clonal complex marked by the deletion of chromosomal region RDEu1 and we named this clonal complex European 1 (Eu1). Eu1 strains were present at less than 14% of French, Portuguese and Spanish isolates of M. bovis but are rare in other mainland European countries and Iran. However, strains of the Eu1 clonal complex were found at high frequency in former trading partners of the UK (USA, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia and Canada). The Americas, with the exception of Brazil, are dominated by the Eu1 clonal complex which was at high frequency in Argentina, Chile, Ecuador and Mexico as well as North America. Eu1 was rare or absent in the African countries surveyed except South Africa. A small sample of strains from Taiwan were non-Eu1 but, surprisingly, isolates from Korea and Kazakhstan were members of the Eu1 clonal complex. The simplest explanation for much of the current distribution of the Eu1 clonal complex is that it was spread in infected cattle...

Propriedades fotoquímicas e fotofísicas, e investigação teórica de um novo monômero-complexo de Ru(II)-bipiridina; Photochemistry and photophysics properties and teoric investigation of novel complex-monomer of the Ru(II)-bipyridine

Inglez, Simone Delezuk
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/03/2008 PT
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As sínteses, o cálculo do OM, as propriedades fotoquímicas e fotofísicas dos complexos cis-[Ru(bpy)2(L)x](PF6)2, onde a bpy é 2,2'-bipiridina e L é 5,6-bis(3-amidopiridina)-7-oxanorborneno (3amdpy2oxaNBE, complexo 2) ou 3-aminopiridina (3amnpy; complexo 3) foram estudados. 3amdpy2oxaNBE é o novo ligante quelato 5,6-bis(3-amidopiridina)-7-oxanorborneno (1) e apresenta duas amidas piridinas substituídas -conectadas ao monômero oxanorborneno - que são originadas da reação da 3amnpy e do monômero 5,6-bis-carboxilato-7-oxanorborneno. Os complexos 2 e 3 exibem absorções na região de 350 nm e entre 420-500 nm, atribuídas a uma contribuição das transições MLCT (dπ →bpy and dπ →L; L = 3amdpy2oxaNBE ou 3amnpy). Fotólise do complexo 3 levou ao cis-[Ru(bpy)2(3amnpy)(solvente)]2+, enquanto o complexo 2 é inerte à fotossubstituíção. Os comprimentos de onda de irradiação (330 > 440 > 500 nm) e os solventes (DMF > CH3CN > CH2Cl2 ~ THF) influenciam na fotolabilidade do complexo 3. A formação de cis-[Ru(bpy)2(CH3CN)2]2+ foi observada por RMN de 1H quando o complexo 3 foi irradiado em 420 nm em CH3CN. A emissão do complexo 2, em 594 nm, é atribuída como uma emissão MLCT (Ru →bpy) e é caracterizada por um tempo de vida longo à temperatura ambiente (650 ns em CH3CN e 509 ns em H2O). A emissão é independente do λirr...

Redes complexas: novas metodologias e modelagem de aquisição de conhecimento; Complex Networks: New methodologies and knowledge acquisition modeling

Silva, Filipi Nascimento
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2009 PT
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Estudos em redes complexas têm ganhado cada vez mais atenção devido ao seu potencial de representação simples de modelos complexos em diversas áreas de conhecimento. A obtenção de modelos quantitativos que representem fenômenos observados da natureza, assim como o desenvolvimento de metodologias de caracterização de redes complexas, tornaram-se essenciais para a compreensão e desenvolvimento de pesquisas com essas estruturas. Este trabalho tem como objetivo desenvolver e estudar alguns métodos recentes, usados para a caracterização de redes complexas, explorando-os no contexto da modelagem de conhecimento. Para isso, duas redes complexas foram geradas, uma rede de colaboração de pesquisadores da USP e outra obtida a partir do banco de dados de artigos da Wikipédia, considerando apenas aqueles da categoria de teoremas matemáticos. As medidas concêntricas, que foram recentemente formalizadas, são exploradas e aplicadas às redes descritas, assim como para diversos modelos teóricos, fornecendo informações muito relevantes sobre a topologia dessas redes. Resultados ainda mais interessantes são obtidos pela caracterização dos vértices da rede de colaboração, que revelam padrões de interdisciplinaridade entre as diferentes áreas do conhecimento. Um modelo de aquisição de conhecimento também foi proposto...

Photocytotoxic activity of a nitrosyl phthalocyanine ruthenium complex - A system capable of producing nitric oxide and singlet oxygen

CARNEIRO, Zumira Aparecida; MORAES, Juliana Cristina Biazzotto de; RODRIGUES, Fernando Postalli; LIMA, Renata Galvao de; CURTI, Carlos; ROCHA, Zenis Novaes da; PAULO, Michele; BENDHACK, Lusiane Maria; TEDESCO, Antonio Claudio; FORMIGA, Andre Luiz Barboza;
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
329.9074%
The synthesis, structural aspects, pharmacological assays, and in vitro photoinduced cytotoxic properties of [Ru(NO)(ONO)(pc)] (pc = phthalocyanine) are described. Its biological effect on the B16F10 cell line was studied in the presence and absence of visible light irradiation. At comparable irradiation levels, [Ru(NO) (ONO)(pc)] was more effective than [Ru(pc)] at inhibiting cell growth, suggesting that occurrence of nitric oxide release following singlet oxygen production upon light irradiation may be an important mechanism by which the nitrosyl ruthenium complex exhibits enhanced biological activity in cells. Following visible light activation, the [Ru(NO)(ONO)(pc)] complex displayed increased potency in B16F10 cells upon modifications to the photoinduced dose; indeed, enhanced potency was detected when the nitrosyl ruthenium complex was encapsulated in a drug delivery system. The liposome containing the [Ru(NO)(ONO)(pc)] complex was over 25% more active than the corresponding ruthenium complex in phosphate buffer solution. The activity of the complex was directly proportional to the ruthenium amount present inside the cell, as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the photocytotoxic activity was mainly due to apoptosis. Furthermore...

The Moura Phylonitic Complex: An Accretionary Complex related with obduction in the Southern Iberia Variscan Suture

Araújo, António Alexandre; Fonseca, Paulo; Munhá, José; Moita, Patrí­cia; Pedro, Jorge; Ribeiro, António
Fonte: Lavoisier Publicador: Lavoisier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 304339 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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Abstract The structure of the southernmost domain of the Ossa Morena Zone in Portugal (south sector of the Iberian Autochthonous Terrane) is strongly controlled by earlier deformation events. The first two deformation events correspond to tangential strain regimes, marked by sub-horizontal milonitic foliations. These events seem to be directly related with the obduction/subduction process during the Variscan ocean closure and the emplacement of the Beja-Acebuches Oceanic Terrane. In this domain (Évora-Beja Domain), the upper tectono-stratigraphic unit (Moura Phyllonitic Complex) is mainly represented by phyllites and corresponds to a strongly imbricated complex, involving several layers of autochthonous sequence (mainly rocks of a volcano-sedimentary complex), but it also includes dismembered and scattered slices of ophiolites. The widespread greenschists facies overprint an earlier high-pressure metamorphic event (blueschists in the central sector of Évora-Beja Domain and eclogites in the western sector). With regard to its geochemical signature, the Moura Phyllonitic Complex includes amphibolites ranging from N-MORB to T/P-MORB (ophiolitic slices) and mafic alkaline and peralkaline metavolcanics (autochthonous slices). At macroscopic scale...

Study on the interaction between morin-bi(III) complex and DNA with the use of methylene blue dye as a fluorophor probe

Ensafi,Ali A.; Hajian,Reza; Ebrahimi,Sara
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
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330.20152%
Based on our investigation, although both morin-Bi(III) complex and morin can bind to DNA, the nature of the binding was found to be different for each of them. In the presence and absence of the DNA, the morin-Bi(III) complex shows different spectral characteristics which agree with those observed for other intercalators. In this work, the interaction of morin-Bi(III) complex with calf thymus DNA was investigated with the use of methylene blue (MB) dye as a spectral probe and application of UV-Vis spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The 2:1 morin-Bi(III) complex ratio was calculated by UV-Vis spectroscopy (mole ratio method). The fluorescence signal of Bi(III)-morin complex is increased with DNA addition whereas the fluorescence signal of Morin is decreased with DNA addition. The fluorescence signal of the DNA-complex is quenched by addition of MB which confirms the displacement of the complex with MB. Cyclic voltammetry studies confirm the intercalation reaction. The results showed that only morin-Bi(III) complex can intercalate into the double helix of the DNA. The apparent binding constant of morin-Bi(III) complex with DNA is found to be 2.8 × 10(4) L mol-1, while morin binds in a non-intercalation mode.

Human CIA30 is involved in the early assembly of mitochondrial complex I and mutations in its gene cause disease

Dunning, C.; McKenzie, M.; Sugiana, C.; Lazarou, M.; Silke, J.; Connelly, A.; Fletcher, J.; Kirby, D.; Thorburn, D.; Ryan, M.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
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330.20152%
In humans, complex I of the respiratory chain is composed of seven mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and 38 nuclear-encoded subunits that assemble together in a process that is poorly defined. To date, only two complex I assembly factors have been identified and how each functions is not clear. Here, we show that the human complex I assembly factor CIA30 (complex I intermediate associated protein) associates with newly translated mtDNA-encoded complex I subunits at early stages in their assembly before dissociating at a later stage. Using antibodies we identified a CIA30-deficient patient who presented with cardioencephalomyopathy and reduced levels and activity of complex I. Genetic analysis revealed the patient had mutations in both alleles of the NDUFAF1 gene that encodes CIA30. Complex I assembly in patient cells was defective at early stages with subunits being degraded. Complementing the deficiency in patient fibroblasts with normal CIA30 using a novel lentiviral system restored steady-state complex I levels. Our results indicate that CIA30 is a crucial component in the early assembly of complex I and mutations in its gene can cause mitochondrial disease.; C.J. R Dunning, M. McKenzie, C. Sugiana, M. Lazarou, J. Silke, A. Connelly...

Phylogenetics of the Cotesia flavipes species complex: towards the effective control of stemborer pests in Australia.

Muirhead, Kate
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
331.1593%
The Cotesia flavipes species complex of parasitoid wasps are economically important worldwide for the biological control of lepidopteran stemborers. The complex currently comprises three species: Cotesia flavipes Cameron, C. sesamiae (Cameron) and C. chilonis (Matsumura), which appear morphologically similar. Despite their economic importance, considerable confusion surrounds the identity of species and host-associated biotypes. Differences in the biology and variation in host range of geographic populations have generally been interpreted as genetic divergence among strains, but direct genetic evidence is lacking. In Australia, several stemborer pests in neighbouring countries have been identified as significant threats to the sugar industry. However, the status of C. flavipes in Australia is unknown. To examine the genetic variation among worldwide populations of the C. flavipes complex and investigate the status of the Australian C. flavipes-like species, a pilot study based on 21 geographic populations of the complex and four outgroups was carried out using partial sequence data generated for mitochondrial gene regions, 16S rRNA and COI. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of the complex and the existence of genetically divergent populations of C. flavipes and C. sesamiae. The geographically isolated Australian haplotypes formed a distinct lineage within the complex and were ~3.0% divergent from the other species. Based on molecular...

Ontogeny and homology of the neural complex and the claustrum of otophysan Ostariophysi (Actinopterygii: Teleostei); Ontogenese und Homologie des Neuralkomplexes und des Claustrums bei otophysen Ostariophysi (Actinopterygii: Teleostei)

Hoffmann, Matthias
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
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329.9074%
I studied the development and homology of the neural complex and the claustrum in the ostariophysan subgroup Otophysi including for the first time representatives of all four major otophysan lineages. I found that supradorsal cartilages, paired autogenous elements at the medial side of the neural arches, play a previously unrecognized ma-jor role during the ontogeny and evolution of the neural complex. In most otophysan taxa, supradorsals 3 and 4 fuse with supraneurals 2 and 3 (cypriniforms) or with supraneural 3 (characiforms, some siluriforms, gymnotiforms) during ontogeny to form the neural complex. In the major-ity of siluriforms the neural complex is exclusively formed by suprador-sals 3 and 4. In loricarioid siluriforms, a neural complex is missing, the fourth neural arch fuses to the occiput in development, and the first free vertebra is the fifth. Of the four otophysan subgroups, siluriforms are the most and cypriniforms the least diverse in the structure and development of their neural complex. Among characiforms I discovered striking het-erochronic shifts in the development of the components that form the neural complex. I review previous hypotheses about the homology of the different elements of the neural complex and discuss these in light of my new findings. My investigation of the development of the claustrum revealed the following results. The claustrum of cypriniforms has a cartilaginous pre-cursor...

Locuciones prepositivas en español medieval: siglos XIII-XV; Präpositionale Wortgruppen im Altspanischen: 13.-15. Jahrhundert; Complex prepositions in Old Spanish: 13th-15th centuries

Codita, Viorica
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
ES
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331.40273%
Der Untersuchungsgegenstand dieser Dissertation sind präpositionale Wortgruppen (PWG) (locuciones prepositivas) in kastilischen Texten aus dem Mittelalter. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist eine kontrastive Analyse von PWG an Hand von zwei Diskurstraditionen, einer juristischen und einer historischen, während des 13., 14. und 15.Jahrhunderts. Das Hauptkorpus beinhaltet zu jedem Jahrhundert einen juristischen und einen chronistischen Text. Um der Gefahr der einseitigen Konzentration auf juristische und chronistische Texte zu entgehen, werden für jedes Jahrhundert ein zusätzlicher Text aus der Gattung der Literatur ausgewertet (Calila e Dimna, El Conde Lucanor und La Celestina). Ausgangspunkt dieser Arbeit ist die Beobachtung, dass PWG in altspanischen juristischen Texten äußerst relevant sind, und produktive Tendenzen aufweisen, die bisher in der Forschung wenig beachtet wurden (Codita 2009). In linguistischen Studien wird die Armut von PWG in mittelalterlichen Texten betont. Angesichts dieser Auffassung, hat diese Arbeit darlegt, dass die PWG in den ersten altkastilischen Texten als privilegiertes Instrument erscheinen, um die sprachlichen Anforderungen der neu entstehenden Sprache zu erfüllen. Die Dissertation ist in elf Kapitel unterteilt. Kapitel 1 behandelt theoretische Fragen und beinhaltet außerdem eine Erklärung des Untersuchungsgegenstands und –ziels...

Directional, Shift-Insensitive, Complex Wavelet Transforms with Controllable Redundancy

Fernandes, Felix; Fernandes, Felix
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
330.20152%
PhD Thesis; Although the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is a powerful tool for signal and image processing, it has three serious disadvantages. First, the DWT is shift sensitive because input-signal shifts generate unpredictable changes in DWT coefficients. Second, the DWT suffers from poor directionality because DWT coefficients reveal only three spatial orientations. Third, DWT analysis lacks the phase information that accurately describes non-stationary signal behavior. To overcome these disadvantages, we introduce the notion of projection-based complex wavelet transforms. These two-stage, projection-based complex wavelet transforms consist of a projection onto a complex function space followed by a DWT of the complex projection. Unlike other popular transforms that also mitigate DWT shortcomings, the decoupled implementation of our transforms has two important advantages. First, the controllable redundancy of the projection stage offers a balance between degree of shift sensitivity and transform redundancy. This allows us to create a directional, non-redundant, complex wavelet transform with potential benefits for image coding systems. To the best of our knowledge, no other complex wavelet transform is simultaneously directional and non-redundant. The second advantage of our approach is the flexibility to use any DWT in the transform implementation. We exploit this flexibility to create the Complex Double-density DWT (CDDWT): a shift-insensitive...

Deformation types of real and complex manifolds

Catanese, Fabrizio M. E.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Leit-Faden of the article (which is partially a survey) is a negative answer to the question whether, for a compact complex manifold which is a $K(\pi, 1)$ the diffeomorphism type determines the deformation type. We show that a deformation in the large of complex tori is again a complex torus, and then that the same holds for products of a torus with a curve of genus $g\geq 2$. Together with old results of Blanchard, Calabi, and Sommese, who showed the existence of non K\"ahler complex structures on the product of a curve with a two dimensional complex torus, this gives the first counterexamples. We generalize these constructions and we study the small deformations of what we call Blanchard-Calabi 3-folds. These give infinitely many deformation components. We give also a criterion for a complex manifold to be a complex torus, namely, to have the same integral cohomology algebra of a complex torus, and to possess $n$ independent holomorphic and d-closed 1-forms. As a corollary, we give a classification of deformation types of real tori. We illustrate then simple new examples of the author of surfaces of general type which are $K(\pi, 1)$'s, and for which there are, for a fixed differentiable structure, two different deformation types. These surfaces are quotients of products of curves...

Complex numbers in 5 dimensions

Olariu, Silviu
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/08/2000
Relevância na Pesquisa
330.45113%
A system of commutative complex numbers in 5 dimensions of the form u=x_0+h_1x_1+h_2x_2+h_3x_3+h_4x_4 is described in this paper, the variables x_0, x_1, x_2, x_3, x_4 being real numbers. The operations of addition and multiplication of the 5-complex numbers introduced in this work have a geometric interpretation based on the the modulus d, the amplitude \rho, the polar angle \theta_+, the planar angle \psi_1, and the azimuthal angles \phi_1,\phi_2. The exponential function of a 5-complex number can be expanded in terms of polar 5-dimensional cosexponential functions g_{5k}(y), k=0,1,2,3,4, and the expressions of these functions are obtained from the properties of the exponential function of a 5-complex variable. Exponential and trigonometric forms are obtained for the 5-complex numbers, which depend on the modulus, the amplitude and the angular variables. The 5-complex functions defined by series of powers are analytic, and the partial derivatives of the components of the 5-complex functions are closely related. The integrals of 5-complex functions are independent of path in regions where the functions are regular. The fact that the exponential form of the 5-complex numbers depends on the cyclic variables \phi_1, \phi_2 leads to the concept of pole and residue for integrals on closed paths. The polynomials of 5-complex variables can be written as products of linear or quadratic factors.; Comment: 18 pages...

Complex numbers in 6 dimensions

Olariu, Silviu
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/08/2000
Relevância na Pesquisa
330.45113%
Two distinct systems of commutative complex numbers in 6 dimensions of the polar and planar types of the form u=x_0+h_1x_1+h_2x_2+h_3x_3+h_4x_4+h_5x_5 are described in this work, where the variables x_0, x_1, x_2, x_3, x_4, x_5 are real numbers. The polar 6-complex numbers introduced in this paper can be specified by the modulus d, the amplitude \rho, and the polar angles \theta_+, \theta_-, the planar angle \psi_1, and the azimuthal angles \phi_1, \phi_2. The planar 6-complex numbers introduced in this paper can be specified by the modulus d, the amplitude \rho, the planar angles \psi_1, \psi_2, and the azimuthal angles \phi_1, \phi_2, \phi_3. Exponential and trigonometric forms are given for the 6-complex numbers. The 6-complex functions defined by series of powers are analytic, and the partial derivatives of the components of the 6-complex functions are closely related. The integrals of polar 6-complex functions are independent of path in regions where the functions are regular. The fact that the exponential form of ther 6-complex numbers depends on cyclic variables leads to the concept of pole and residue for integrals on closed paths. The polynomials of polar 6-complex variables can be written as products of linear or quadratic factors...

Polar complex numbers in n dimensions

Olariu, Silviu
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/08/2000
Relevância na Pesquisa
330.45113%
Polar commutative n-complex numbers of the form u=x_0+h_1x_1+h_2x_2+...+h_{n-1}x_{n-1} are introduced in n dimensions, the variables x_0,...,x_{n-1} being real numbers. The polar n-complex number can be represented, in an even number of dimensions, by the modulus d, by the amplitude \rho, by 2 polar angles \theta_+,\theta_-, by n/2-2 planar angles \psi_{k-1}, and by n/2-1 azimuthal angles \phi_k. In an odd number of dimensions, the polar n-complex number can be represented by d, \rho, by 1 polar angle \theta_+, by (n-3)/2 planar angles \psi_{k-1}, and by (n-1)/2 azimuthal angles \phi_k. The exponential function of a polar n-complex number can be expanded in terms of the polar n-dimensional cosexponential functions g_{nk}(y), k=0,1,...,n-1. Expressions are given for these cosexponential functions. The polar n-complex numbers can be written in exponential and trigonometric forms with the aid of the modulus, amplitude and the angular variables. The polar n-complex functions defined by series of powers are analytic, and the partial derivatives of the components of the polar n-complex functions are closely related. The integrals of polar n-complex functions are independent of path in regions where the functions are regular. The fact that the exponential form of a polar n-complex numbers depends on the cyclic variables \phi_k leads to the concept of pole and residue for integrals on closed paths. The polynomials of polar n-complex variables can be written as products of linear or quadratic factors...

Planar complex numbers in even n dimensions

Olariu, Silviu
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/08/2000
Relevância na Pesquisa
330.20152%
Planar commutative n-complex numbers of the form u=x_0+h_1x_1+h_2x_2+...+h_{n-1}x_{n-1} are introduced in an even number n of dimensions, the variables x_0,...,x_{n-1} being real numbers. The planar n-complex numbers can be described by the modulus d, by the amplitude \rho, by n/2 azimuthal angles \phi_k, and by n/2-1 planar angles \psi_{k-1}. The exponential function of a planar n-complex number can be expanded in terms of the planar n-dimensional cosexponential functions f_{nk}, k=0,1,...,n-1, and expressions are given for f_{nk}. Exponential and trigonometric forms are obtained for the planar n-complex numbers. The planar n-complex functions defined by series of powers are analytic, and the partial derivatives of the components of the planar n-complex functions are closely related. The integrals of planar n-complex functions are independent of path in regions where the functions are regular. The fact that the exponential form of the planar n-complex numbers depends on the cyclic variables \phi_k leads to the concept of pole and residue for integrals on closed paths. The polynomials of planar n-complex variables can always be written as products of linear factors, although the factorization may not be unique.; Comment: 32 pages, 3 figures

On volume preserving complex structures on real tori

Catanese, Fabrizio; Oguiso, Keiji; Peternell, Thomas
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/12/2009
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A basic problem in the classification theory of compact complex manifolds is to give simple characterizations of complex tori. It is well known that a compact K\"ahler manifold $X$ homotopically equivalent to a a complex torus is biholomorphic to a complex torus. The question whether a compact complex manifold $X$ diffeomorphic to a complex torus is biholomorphic to a complex torus has a negative answer due to a construction by Blanchard and Sommese. Their examples have however negative Kodaira dimension, thus it makes sense to ask the question whether a compact complex manifold $X$ with trivial canonical bundle which is homotopically equivalent to a complex torus is biholomorphic to a complex torus. In this paper we show that the answer is positive for complex threefolds satisfying some additional condition, such as the existence of a non constant meromorphic function.; Comment: 20 pages, preliminary version of an article to be submitted to a memorial issue of the Journal of Mathematics of Kyoto University, in memory of Professor Nagata

Characterisation of the AP-3 adaptor-like complex

Peden, Andrew Alexander
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Clinical Biochemistry Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Clinical Biochemistry
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
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Clathrin coated vesicles were the first type of coated vesicle to be characterised. The coat consists of two components, clathrin and adaptor (or AP) complexes, the AP-1 complex is associated with the clathrin coated vesicles that bud from the TGN and the AP-2 complex is associated with the clathrin coated vesicles that bud from the plasma membrane. A new type of adaptor-like complex was discovered in our laboratory and was published in 1996. The complex has been shown to consist of two known proteins, beta3B and mu3B, and two unknown proteins of 160kD and 22kD. Unlike the conventional adaptor complexes this complex is not associated with clathrin. The aim of this thesis was to complete the characterisation of the adaptor-like complex and to establish its function. My studies have shown that, the adaptor-like complex consist of an alpha/gamma like subunit, delta, a beta subunit (beta3A/B), a mu subunit (mu3A/B) and a sigma subunit (sigma3A/B). We named the adaptor-like complex AP-3, by analogy with the AP-1 and AP-2 complexes. The AP-3 complex is localised to perinuclear and more peripheral membranes in non-neuronal cells, with little overlap with endocytic markers. The beta subunit of the AP-3 complex is the major target for phosphorylation. Analysis of mice with mutations in the beta3A subunit...