Ligas metálicas não nobres são amplamente utilizadas em odontologia desde a segunda metade do século XX. Várias ligas metálicas para utilização em próteses sobre o implante dentário têm sido propostas nos últimos anos, visando uma melhor interação metal-cerâmica e maior resistência eletroquímica ao ambiente bucal. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar e comparar o comportamento eletroquímico in vitro de ligas à base de cobalto-cromo e níquel-cromo, utilizadas em supra estruturas de implantes dentários. Estas ligas foram estudadas em meios de solução aquosa de NaCl 0,15 mol L-1, saliva artificial e NaCl 0,15 mol L-1 com adição de caseína, fluoreto de sódio ou ácido acético, a partir de técnicas eletroquímicas e não eletroquímicas. Como técnicas eletroquímicas foram empregadas: medidas de potencial de circuito aberto, curvas de polarização anódica, cronoamperometria, voltametria cíclica e espectroscopia de impedância eletroquímica. As técnicas não eletroquímicas utilizadas foram: espectroscopia de absorção atômica com atomização eletrotérmica (EAA-FG), espectroscopia de fotoelétrons excitados por raios-X (XPS), microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e espectroscopia de energia dispersiva (EDS). Foram realizados testes de citotoxicidade utilizando a metodologia de incorporação do vermelho neutro. Uma boa correlação foi estabelecida entre os resultados obtidos pelas diferentes técnicas. Em solução de NaCl e saliva artificial as ligas apresentaram a seguinte ordem de resistência à oxidação: CoCrW < NiCrMo < CoCrMo. O filme formado em meio de saliva artificial se mostrou mais protetor do que o formado em meio de NaCl para todas as ligas...
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Odontologia - FOA; Próteses implantossuportadas estão sujeitas a diversos tipos de falhas, sendo o afrouxamento do parafuso de retenção a complicação mais frequente, devido à perda da pré-carga inicial. A perda da pré-carga pode ser influenciada por fatores como incidência de cargas oclusais impróprias, diferentes tipos de conexões do sistema implante/prótese e desajustes entre a coroa e o implante. Sendo assim, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a manutenção da pré-carga de parafusos de retenção de titânio e a desadaptação vertical de coroas protéticas parafusadas, antes e após a ciclagem mecânica. Para isso, três tipos de conexões implante/pilar foram utilizados: implantes de conexão interna híbrida com pilar do tipo esteticone (grupo CIE); implantes de conexão externa com pilar o tipo esteticone (grupo CEE); e implantes de conexão externa com pilar UCLA (grupo CEU). Para cada grupo, foram confeccionadas 10 coroas metálicas fundidas em liga de CoCrMo para a composição final dos corpos-de-prova. Os parafusos de retenção protéticos receberam torque de 20N.cm nos grupos CIE e CEE e 30N.cm no grupo CEU...
Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Biomédica (área de especialização em Biomateriais, Reabilitação e Biomecânica); O principal objectivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da fadiga térmica e mecânica no
tempo de vida de uma restauração dentária metalo-cerâmica, nomeadamente na resistência da
ligação entre os dois materiais. Para garantir que a restauração dentária responda
correctamente às solicitações no ambiente bucal e a longevidade da mesma seja garantida, uma
das características mais importantes é a boa adesão entre o metal e cerâmico. Com este
propósito foram realizados ensaios de fadiga em espécimes metalocerâmicos, recorrendo à liga
de CoCrMo e Cerâmica opaca sob duas configurações. A primeira, convencional, na qual a
porcelana fundida é colocada sob o metal (PFM) e se recorre apenas à temperatura para
permitir a união entre os dois materiais. Na segunda configuração, Interlayer-HP, introduziu-se
uma camada compósita (50metal-50cerâmica, %volume) entre os dois materiais, para que
ocorra uma transição suave nas propriedades dos mesmos. Estes foram fabricados pela técnica
de Hot Pressing (HP) na qual se alia a pressão à temperatura.
Os espécimes foram sujeitos a ciclos térmicos (3000...
Tese de doutoramento Engenharia Mecânica; The CoCrMo alloy obtained by casting and hot pressing was assessed in terms of
microstructure, corrosion resistance, hardness and metal-ceramic bond strength. The
casted alloy exhibited a dendritic microstructure whereas the hot pressed alloy
exhibited a globular microstructure. The hot pressed alloy revealed higher hardness
due to a finer microstructure. The finer microstructure was also regarded for the
enhanced corrosion resistance of hot pressed alloys over casted alloy. No significant
differences were found in metal-ceramic bond strength between the two types of
The preoxidation heat treatment, performed in CoCrMoSi dental alloy, significantly
(p<0.05) affected the metal-ceramic bond strength. Non-preoxidized specimens
exhibited higher metal-ceramic bond strength than preoxidized/ground ones. The
lower bond strength results observed in preoxidized/ground specimens were
originated by the presence of oxide remnants on their metal surface after grinding and
by the higher oxide thickness formed at the metal-ceramic interface. All preoxidized
specimens exhibited adhesive failure type while non-preoxidized presented both
adhesive and mixed failure types. Preoxidation heat treatment revealed a detrimental
effect on the adhesion of CoCrMoSi-porcelain composites for dental restorations.
Several metal/ceramic composites were used as interlayers aiming at the
improvement of the bond strength between metal and ceramic...
Alumina/alumina wear couple can lower the wear rates and thus metallic ion releasing on load bearing metallic implant materials. However, the low fracture toughness of ceramics is still a major concern. Therefore, the present study aims to process and to triboelectrochemically characterise the 5 and 10 vol.-%Al2O3 reinforced CoCrMo matrix composites. Corrosion and tribocorrosion behaviour of the composites were investigated in 8 g L21 NaCl solution at body temperature. Corroded and worn surfaces were investigated by a field emission gun scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. After tribocorrosion experi- ments, wear rates were calculated using a profilometer. Results suggest that Al2O3 particle addition decreased the tendency of CoCrMo alloy to corrosion under both static and tribocorrosion conditions. However, no significant influence on the corrosion and wear rates was observed in composites mainly due to increased porosity and insufficient matrix/ reinforcement bonding.
In the body, vascular cells continuously interact with tissues that possess nanostructured surface features due to the presence of proteins (such as collagen and elastin) embedded in the vascular wall. Despite this fact, vascular stents intended to restore blood flow do not have nanoscale surface features but rather are smooth at the nanoscale. As the first step towards creating the next generation of vascular stent materials, the objective of this in vitro study was to investigate vascular cell (specifically, endothelial, and vascular smooth muscle cell) adhesion on nanostructured compared with conventional commercially pure (cp) Ti and CoCrMo. Nanostructured cp Ti and CoCrMo compacts were created by separately utilizing either constituent cp Ti or CoCrMo nanoparticles as opposed to conventional micronsized
particles. Results of this study showed for the first time increased endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion on nanostructured compared with conventional cp Ti and CoCrMo after 4 hours’ adhesion. Moreover, compared with their respective conventional counterparts, the ratio of endothelial to vascular smooth muscle cells increased on nanostructured cp Ti and CoCrMo. In addition, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells had a better spread morphology on the nanostructured metals compared with conventional metals. Overall...
Clem, William C.; Chowdhury, Shafiul; Catledge, Shane A.; Weimer, Jeffrey J.; Shaikh, Faheem M.; Hennessy, Kristin M.; Konovalov, Valery V.; Hill, Michael R.; Waterfeld, Alfred; Bellis, Susan L.; Vohra, Yogesh K.
Ultra smooth nanostructured diamond (USND) can be applied to greatly increase the wear resistance of orthopaedic implants over conventional designs. Herein we describe surface modification techniques and cytocompatibility studies performed on this new material. We report that hydrogen (H) -terminated USND surfaces supported robust mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion and survival, while oxygen (O) and fluorine (F) -terminated surfaces resisted cell adhesion, indicating that USND can be modified to either promote or prevent cell/biomaterial interactions. Given the favorable cell response to H-terminated USND, this material was further compared with two commonly-used biocompatible metals, titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) and cobalt chrome (CoCrMo). MSC adhesion and proliferation were significantly improved on USND compared with CoCrMo, although cell adhesion was greatest on Ti-6Al-4V. Comparable amounts of the proadhesive protein, fibronectin, were deposited from serum on the three substrates. Finally, MSCs were induced to undergo osteoblastic differentiation on the three materials, and deposition of a mineralized matrix was quantified. Similar amounts of mineral were deposited onto USND and CoCrMo, whereas mineral deposition was slightly higher on Ti-6Al-4V. When coupled with recently published wear studies...
Ultra smooth nanostructured diamond (USND) coatings were deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) technique using He/H2/CH4/N2 gas mixture. The RMS surface roughness as low as 4 nm (2 micron square area) and grain size of 5–6 nm diamond coatings were achieved on medical grade titanium alloy. Previously it was demonstrated that the C2 species in the plasma is responsible for the production of nanocrystalline diamond coatings in the Ar/H2/CH4 gas mixture. In this work we have found that CN species is responsible for the production of USND coatings in He/H2/CH4/N2 plasma. It was found that diamond coatings deposited with higher CN species concentration (normalized by Balmer Hα line) in the plasma produced smoother and highly nanostructured diamond coatings. The correlation between CN/Hα ratios with the coating roughness and grain size were also confirmed with different set of gas flows/plasma parameters. It is suggested that the presence of CN species could be responsible for producing nanocrystallinity in the growth of USND coatings using He/H2/CH4/N2 gas mixture. The RMS roughness of 4 nm and grain size of 5–6 nm were calculated from the deposited diamond coatings using the gas mixture which produced the highest CN/Hα species in the plasma. Wear tests were performed on the OrthoPOD®...
Novel, unitized structures with porous Ti6Al4V alloy on one side and compositionally graded, hard CoCrMo alloy surface on the other side have been fabricated using laser engineered net shaping (LENS™) process. Gradient structures with 50%, 70% and 86% CoCrMo alloy on the top surface showed high hardness in the range of 615 and 957 HV. The gradient structures were evaluated for their in vitro wear rate and Co release up to 3000 m of sliding distance. The wear rate of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene and 100% CoCrMo alloy substrates found to depend on the hardness and microstructural features of the counter surface rubbing against them. In general, the wear rate of both the substrates increased with a decrease in the CoCrMo alloy concentration on the top surface of gradient pins. However, the wear rate of gradient pins was lower than 100% CoCrMo alloy pins due to their high hardness. Lowest wear rate in the range of 5.07 to 7.99 × 10−8 mm3/Nm was observed for gradient pins having 86% CoCrMo alloy on the top surface. The amount of Co released, in the range of 0.38 and 0.91 ppm, during in vitro wear testing of gradient structures was comparable to that of 100% CoCrMo alloy (0.25 and 0.77 ppm). Present unitized structures with open porosity on one side and hard...
Biological effects of wear products (particles and metal ions) generated by metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements made of CoCrMo alloy remain a major cause of concern. Periprosthetic osteolysis, potential hypersensitivity response and pseudotumour formation are possible reactions that can lead to early revisions. To accurately analyse the biological response to wear particles from MoM implants, the exact nature of these particles needs to be characterized. Most previous studies used energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis for characterization. The present study used energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction pattern analysis to allow for a more precise determination of the chemical composition and to gain knowledge of the crystalline structure of the wear particles.
In orthopedic surgery different self-mating metal couples are used for sliding wear applications. Despite the fact that in mechanical engineering self-mating austenitic alloys often lead to adhesion and seizure in biomedical engineering the different grades of Co-base alloys show good clinical results e.g. as hip joints. The reason stems from the fact that they generate a so-called tribomaterial during articulation, which consists of a mixture of nanometer small metallic grains and organic substances from the interfacial medium, which act as boundary lubricant. Even though stainless steels also generate such a tribomaterial they were ruled out from the beginning already in the 1950 as “inappropriate”. On the basis of materials with a clinical track record this contribution shows that the cyclic creep characteristics within the shear zone underneath the tribomaterial are another important criterion for a sufficient wear behavior. By means of sliding wear and torsional fatigue tests followed by electron microscopy it is shown, that austenitic materials generate wear particles of either nano- or of microsize. The latter are produced by crack initiation and propagation within the shear fatigue zone which is related to the formation of subsurface dislocation cells and...
The microstructural and mechanical properties of the hard phases in CoCrMo prosthetic alloys in both cast and wrought conditions were examined using transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. Besides the known carbides of M23C6-type (M=Cr, Mo, Co) and M6C-type which are formed by either eutectic solidification or precipitation, a new mixed-phase hard constituent has been found in the cast alloys, which is composed of ~100 nm fine grains. The nanosized grains were identified to be mostly of M23C6 type using nano-beam precession electron diffraction, and the chemical composition varied from grain to grain being either Cr- or Co-rich. In contrast, the carbides within the wrought alloy having the same M23C6 structure were homogeneous, which can be attributed to the repeated heating and deformation steps. Nanoindentation measurements showed that the hardness of the hard phase mixture in the cast specimen was ~15.7 GPa, while the M23C6 carbides in the wrought alloy were twice as hard (~30.7 GPa). The origin of the nanostructured hard phase mixture was found to be related to slow cooling during casting. Mixed hard phases were produced at a cooling rate of 0.2 °C/s, whereas single phase carbides were formed at a cooling rate of 50 °C/s. This is consistent with sluggish kinetics and rationalizes different and partly conflicting microstructural results in the literature...
After the rapid growth in the use of CoCrMo metal-on-metal hip replacements since the second generation was introduced circa 1990, metal-on-metal hip replacements have experienced a sharp decline in the last two years due to biocompatibility issues related to wear and corrosion products. Despite some excellent clinical results, the release of wear and corrosion debris and the adverse response of local tissues have been of great concern. There are many unknowns regarding how CoCrMo metal bearings interact with the human body. This perspective article is intended to outline some recent progresses in understanding wear and corrosion of metal-on-metal hip replacement both in-vivo and in-vitro. The materials, mechanical deformation, corrosion, wear-assisted corrosion, and wear products will be discussed. Possible adverse health effects caused by wear products will be briefly addressed, as well as some of the many open questions such as the detailed chemistry of corrosion, tribochemical reactions and the formation of graphitic layers. Nowadays we design almost routinely for high performance materials and lubricants for automobiles; humans are at least as important. It is worth remembering that a hip implant is often the difference between walking and leading a relatively normal life...
Recent investigations indicate that innate immune “danger-signaling” pathways mediate metal implant debris induced-inflammatory responses, e.g. NALP3 inflammasome. How the physical characteristics of particles, (size, shape and chemical composition) affect this inflammatory reactivity remains controversial. We examined the role of Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloy particle shape and size on human macrophage phagocytosis, lysosomal destabilization, and inflammasome activation. Round/smooth vs. irregularly shaped/rough CoCrMo-alloy particles of ~1µm and 6 to 7µm diameter were investigated for differential lysosomal damage and inflammasome activation in human monocytes/macrophages. While spherical/smooth 1µm CoCrMo-alloy particles did not measurably affect macrophage IL-1β production, irregular 1µm CoCrMo-alloy particles induced significant IL-1β increases over controls. Both round/smooth particles and irregular CoCrMo-alloy particles that were 6 to 7µ min size induced >10-fold increases in IL-1β production compared to similarly shaped smaller particles (p<0.05). Larger irregular particles induced a greater degree of intracellular lysosomal damage and a >3-fold increase in IL-1β vs. similarly sized round/smooth particles (at an equal dose...
Fonte: TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS LTDPublicador: TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS LTD
Tipo: Contributions to ConferencesFormato: Printed
Relevância na Pesquisa
Most not cemented total hip replacements combine a titanium alloy stem, a CoCrMo
femoral head and an uUltra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) acetabular cup. In spite of the suboptimal biocompatibility, the higher cost and some dfficulties in machining, CoCrMo alloy is often preferred to titanium alloys thanks to its outstanding tribological properties, higher hardness and elastic modulus. Therefore, nowadays most of the heads of hip prostheses use CoCrMo as bearing material. Biocompatibility problems of CoCrMo are often associated with a nickel content of up to 1% in this alloy. In some clinical situations such a nickel percentage cannot be neglected.
The rationale of the present study was to investigate the effect of various surface treatments and combinations of treatments, such as electrochemical oxidation (anodization), laser surface treatments and barrel polishing, on the tribological properties of commercially pure grade 2 titanium. The goal was to find a surface treatment capable to provide a wear resistant titanium surface, with tribological properties as good as those of CoCrMo. Wear tests were performed on a multidirectional pin-on-flat screening wear testing machine, using UHMWPE pins as second bearing material. The experiments showed the possibility to improve wear resistance of titanium to the CoCrMo levels.; JRC.I.4-Nanotechnology and Molecular Imaging
COTOGNO GIULIO; HOLZWARTH UWE; FRANCHI M.; RIVETTI Stefania; CHIESA R.
Fonte: WICHTIG EDITOREPublicador: WICHTIG EDITORE
Tipo: Articles in JournalsFormato: Printed
Relevância na Pesquisa
Most not cemented total hip replacements combine a titanium alloy stem, a CoCrMo femoral head and an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) acetabular cup. In spite of its nickel content of up to 1% and the resulting biocompatibility issues in some clinical situations, the higher cost and some difficulties in machining, CoCrMo alloy is preferred to titanium alloys thanks to its outstanding tribological properties, higher hardness and elastic modulus. Nowadays most of the heads of hip prostheses use CoCrMo as bearing material.
The present study investigates the effect of various surface treatments and combinations of treatments, such as electrochemical oxidation (anodization), laser surface melting and barrel polishing, on the tribological properties of commercially pure grade 2 titanium. The aim of the study was to characterize surface treatments capable of improving the tribological properties of titanium surface to the same extent of CoCrMo. The tribological properties were characterized by multidirectional pin-on-flat screening wear tests, using UHMWPE pins as bearing surface. The experiments showed the possibility to improve the wear resistance of titanium to the CoCrMo extent. Although further efforts will be required to optimize the experimented treatments...
Die Fluoridexposition im Rahmen der täglichen Zahnpflege kann das galvanische Korrosionsverhalten von Implantatmaterialien empfindlich beeinflussen. Von besonderem Interesse ist dabei die Dynamik der Reaktion auf eine spontane Fluoridexposition. Zur Untersuchung dieser Dynamik wurde die Reaktion der Kopplungen Ti/Ti und Ti/CoCrMo auf die Zugabe verschiedener Fluoridkonzentrationen sowohl im neutralen als auch im sauren Milieu mittels elektrochemischer Rauschmessungen aufgezeichnet. Anschließend erfolgten eine optische Oberflächenbewertung und eine Ermittlung des Massenverlustes an den Proben. Während sich Ti/CoCrMo nicht beeinflussen ließ, zeigte Ti/Ti – abhängig von pH-Wert und Fluoridkonzentration – Veränderungen im galvanischen Korrosionsverhalten. Diese reichten von einer temporären Beeinträchtigung der Passivierungsschicht mit anschließender Repassivierung bis zur aktiven Korrosion mit signifikantem Massenverlust. Aus den Untersuchungen folgt, dass bei Ti/Ti die Kombination von hoher Fluoridkonzentration und niedrigem pH-Wert zu vermeiden ist – insbesondere bei längerer Expositionsdauer. Dagegen ist Ti/CoCrMo gegenüber Fluoriden äußerst unempfindlich.
Because of their excellent mechanical, tribological, and electrochemical properties, Cobalt Chromium Molybdenum alloys have been used as the material for both the stem and head of modular hip implants. Corrosion is one mechanism by which metal debris, from these implants, is generated, which can lead to adverse events that requires revision surgery. Manufacturing process such as wrought, as-cast, and powder metallurgy influences the microstructure, material properties, and performance of these implants
The current research focuses on analyzing the microstructure of CoCrMo alloys from retrieved hip implants with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, energy disperse spectroscopy was utilized to determine weight composition of cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum in solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used as an accelerated corrosion testing method to determine the electrochemical behavior of the different microstructures. In agreement with prior literature, it was found that Low Carbon Wrought CoCrMo Alloys have the best corrosion resistance properties.
BACKGROUND--Dental technician's pneumoconiosis is a dust-induced fibrotic lung disease of fairly recent origin. This study was carried out to estimate its occurrence in Sweden. METHODS--Thirty seven dental technicians in central and south eastern Sweden with at least five years of exposure to dust from cobalt chromium molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys, identified by postal survey, agreed to undergo chest radiography and assessment of lung function and exposure to inorganic dust. RESULTS--Six subjects (16%; 95% confidence interval 6% to 23%) showed radiological evidence of dental technician's pneumoconiosis. The lung function of the study group was reduced compared with historical reference material. With local exhaust ventilation dust levels were generally low, whereas in dental laboratories without such equipment high levels of dust, particularly cobalt, were found. CONCLUSIONS--Pneumoconiosis may result from exposure to inorganic dust in the manufacturing of CoCrMo-based dental constructions. It is possible to reduce this hazard substantially by local exhaust ventilation.
Proteins can adsorb on the surface of artificial joints immediately after being implanted. Although research studying protein adsorption on medical material surfaces has been carried out, the mechanism of the proteins’ adsorption which affects the corrosion behaviour of such materials still lacks in situ observation at the micro level. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on CoCrMo alloy surfaces was studied in situ by AFM and SKPFM as a function of pH and the charge of CoCrMo alloy surfaces. Results showed that when the specimens were uncharged, hydrophobic interaction could govern the process of the adsorption rather than electrostatic interaction, and BSA molecules tended to adsorb on the surfaces forming a monolayer in the side-on model. Results also showed that adsorbed BSA molecules could promote the corrosion process for CoCrMo alloys. When the surface was positively charged, the electrostatic interaction played a leading role in the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption occurred at the isoelectric point (pH 4.7) of BSA.