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Partial purification and characterisation of Candida nodaensis Killer toxin

Silva, Sónia Carina; Aguiar, Cristina; Veríssimo, P.; Pires, E.; Lucas, C.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2004 ENG
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Comunicação efectuada no Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology Meeting, Seattle, 2004.; Preliminary experiments showed that C. nodaensis K factor keeps its biological activity at high NaCl concentrations and is stable after incubation in a relatively broad range of temperature and pH values, whether or not in the presence of salt. The isolation of this K toxin was already achieved by a experimental protocol involving ethanol precipitation of C. nodaensis culture supernatants. Several different approaches are now in progress in order to achieve its purification and further molecular and biochemical characterisation. The identification of the cell wall receptor for this K toxin is also under study, to perform toxin purification by affinity chromatography.

Chemical and microbiological characterisation of "Salpicao de Vinhais" and "Chourica de Vinhais": traditional dry sausages produced in the North of Portugal

Ferreira, Vânia; Barbosa, Joana; Silva, Joana; Vendeiro, Sandra; Mota, Ana; Silva, Fátima; Monteiro, Maria João; Hogg, Tim; Gibbs, Paul; Teixeira, Paula
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 ENG
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"Chouriça de Vinhais" and "Salpicão de Vinhais" are traditional smoked naturally fermented meat products produced in the North of Portugal, Trás-os-Montes. The objective of this study was the characterisation of these products, giving particular attention to their microbiological and chemical safety. Nitrite, nitrate, heavy metals and biogenic amines were within accepted limits for meat products. Globally, the need for improvements in the good manufacturing practices was demonstrated in this study as various lots were considered of unsatisfactory microbiological quality according to the guidelines published by the Food Safety Authority of Ireland.

Cohomological characterisation of monads

Macias Marques, Pedro; Soares, Helena
Fonte: Mathematische Nachrichten Publicador: Mathematische Nachrichten
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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Let X be an n-dimensional smooth projective variety with an n-block collection of coherent sheaves on X that generate the bounded derived category D^b(X). We give a cohomological characterisation of torsion-free sheaves on X that are the cohomology of monads of a given form. We apply the result to get a cohomological characterisation when X is the projective space, the smooth hyperquadric or the Fano threefold V_5. We construct a family of monads on a Segre variety and apply our main result to this family.

Synthesis and spectroscopic characterisation of n-alkyl quaternary ammonium salts typical precursors of cyanines

Pardal, Ana Cristina; Ramos, S.S.; Santos, P. F.; Reis, L. V.; Almeida, P.
Fonte: Repositório Comum de Portugal Publicador: Repositório Comum de Portugal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 ENG
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The synthesis and spectroscopic characterisation of some representative N-alkylsubstituted quaternary ammonium salts derived from benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzoselenazole, indole and quinoline are described. These heterocyclic salts, bearing an activated methyl group in the 2-position in relation to the nitrogen atom and N-methyl, -pentyl, -hexyl and -decyl chains, are typical precursors of cyanine dyes.

Molecular and biochemical characterisation of Trypanosoma cruzi phosphofructokinase

Rodríguez,Evelyn; Lander,Noelia; Ramirez,Jose Luis
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2009 EN
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The characterisation of the gene encoding Trypanosoma cruzi CL Brener phosphofructokinase (PFK) and the biochemical properties of the expressed enzyme are reported here. In contradiction with previous reports, the PFK genes of CL Brener and YBM strain T. cruzi were found to be similar to their Leishmania mexicana and Trypanosoma brucei homologs in terms of both kinetic properties and size, with open reading frames encoding polypeptides with a deduced molecular mass of 53,483. The predicted amino acid sequence contains the C-terminal glycosome-targeting tripeptide SKL; this localisation was confirmed by immunofluorescence assays. In sequence comparisons with the genes of other eukaryotes, it was found that, despite being an adenosine triphosphate-dependent enzyme, T. cruzi PFK shows significant sequence similarity with inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent PFKs.

Real Time Characterisation of the Mobile Multipath Channel

Teal, Paul D
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN
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In this thesis a new approach for characterisation of digital mobile radio channels is investigated. The new approach is based on recognition of the fact that while the fading which is characteristic of the mobile radio channel is very rapid, the processes underlying this fading may vary much more slowly. The comparative stability of these underlying processes has not been exploited in system designs to date. ¶ Channel models are proposed which take account of the stability of the channel. Estimators for the parameters of the models are proposed, and their performance is analysed theoretically and by simulation and measurement. ¶ Bounds are derived for the extent to which the mobile channel can be predicted, and the critical factors which define these bounds are identified. ¶ Two main applications arise for these channel models. The first is the possibility of prediction of the overall system performance. This may be used to avoid channel fading (for instance by change of frequency), or compensate for it (by change of the signal rate or by power control). The second application is in channel equalisation. An equaliser based on a model which has parameters varying only very slowly can offer improved performance especially in the case of channels which appear to be varying so rapidly that the convergence rate of an equaliser based on the conventional model is not adequate. ¶ The first of these applications is explored...

The use of MSSV pyrolysis to assist the molecular characterisation of aquatic natural organic matter

Berwick, L.; Greenwood, P.; Smernik, R.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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Microscale sealed vessel pyrolysis (MSSVpy) with online gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used with several other established and complementary analytical methods to robustly characterize the structure of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) and to practically assess the analytical value of MSSVpy. The NOM used in the study was from North Pine (NP) reservoir, which is one of the major source waters supplying Brisbane, the capital city of the Australian state of Queensland. The reservoir has moderate dissolved organic carbon (DOC; 5mgL(-1)) levels and is impacted by algae which periodically occur in bloom proportions. The hydrophobic (HPO; 65% initial DOC) and transphilic (TPI; 12%) fractions showed H/C values >1, low UV(abs) and low aryl-C measured by NMR which are all indicative of low aromaticity. MSSVpy produced distinctly higher product concentrations than traditional flash pyrolysis and the molecular profile of the HPO and TPI fractions revealed by MSSVpy was correlated with the other analytical data to help establish their structural relevance. Prolific distributions of alkyl substituted aromatic (e.g., benzenes, naphthalenes) and hydroaromatic (e.g., tetralins) products detected in the HPO fraction were attributed to the aromatisation of terpanes and other aliphatic compounds from algal...

Site characterisation for geological storage of carbon dioxide: examples of potential sites from the North West Shelf, Australia.

Gibson-Poole, Catherine Mary
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
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Release of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere is a concern for global warming. Thus, practical and economic solutions are being sought to combat this problem. One possible methodology for reducing emissions is the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO₂). The subsurface behaviour of CO₂is influenced by many variables; therefore, accurate appraisal of a potential CO₂storage site requires detailed site characterisation. In particular, potential sites need to be evaluated geologically in terms of their injectivity, containment and capacity. Detailed site characterisation was undertaken for two possible sites for geological storage of CO₂, located offshore northwest Australia in the Petrel and Barrow sub-basins. The injection targets in the Petrel Sub-basin are the Jurassic Plover and Elang formations, locally sealed by the Frigate Formation, and the overlying Cretaceous Sandpiper Sandstone, regionally sealed by the Bathurst Island Group. The Plover/Elang formations are laterally extensive, fluvio–deltaic sandstones of fair to good reservoir quality, with likely excellent lateral and vertical connectivity. The Frigate Formation may not be an effective seal up-dip, but the overlying secondary reservoir (Sandpiper Sandstone) and thick regional seal (Bathurst Island Group) will ensure continued CO₂containment. The Jurassic–Cretaceous post-rift sediments are structurally simple and dip gently up towards the basin margins with no defined structural closures. Therefore...

Reservoir characterisation using artificial bee colony optimisation

Sayyafzadeh, M.; Haghighi, M.; Bolouri, K.; Arjomand, E.
Fonte: Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association Publicador: Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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To obtain an accurate estimation of reservoir performance, the reservoir should be properly characterised. One of the main stages of reservoir characterisation is the calibration of rock property distributions with flow performance observation, which is known as history matching. The history matching procedure consists of three distinct steps: parameterisation, regularisation and optimisation. In this study, a Bayesian framework and a pilot-point approach for regularisation and parameterisation are used. The major focus of this paper is optimisation, which plays a crucial role in the reliability and quality of history matching. Several optimisation methods have been studied for his¬tory matching, including genetic algorithm (GA), ant colony, particle swarm (PS), Gauss-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt and Limited-memory, Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno. One of the most recent optimisation algorithms used in different fields is artificial bee colony (ABC). In this study, the application of ABC in history matching is investigated for the first time. ABC is derived from the intelligent foraging behaviour of honey bees. A colony of honey bees is comprised of employed bees, onlookers and scouts. Employed bees look for food sources based on their knowledge...

Gauging geological characterisation for CO2 storage: the Australasian experience so far...

Bunch, M.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Ltd. Publicador: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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The techno-economic resource–reserve pyramid for CO2 storage is a concept for expressing the reduction in uncertainty in predicting realisable geological capacity for storing CO2 with diminishing spatial and temporal scales of study. A similar concept is implied regarding reduction in certain storage capacity with increasing density and resolution of usable data. In general, these are determined by the collective scope of characterisation objectives, which dictate the characterisation/modelling tools employed. The relationship between the uncertainty scale (the height) of the techno-economic resource–reserve pyramid and the characterisation requirements for real CO2 storage systems is defined by an increasing number of modelling studies in Australasia and elsewhere. Together, these studies represent a range of both spatial and temporal scales, and resolutions of study, and a range of starting-points in terms of an initial information base. This paper summarises a number of these studies to provide examples that elaborate the nature of different levels of the pyramid and its suitability as a metaphor for scale of study and storage capacity estimation certainty. These examples conclude with the first Australian demonstration of geological storage of CO2...

Isolation and characterisation of tannin-resistant bacteria from the rumen of feral goats and camels.

Tjakradidjaja, Anita Sardiana
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
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Low availability and poor nutrient quality of tropical grasses result in low levels of animal production. Browse/shrub legumes such as mulga (Acacia sp.) and calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) can be used as supplements to improve animal production. However, their utilisation is limited by the presence of antinutritional compounds, such as tannins. Tannins are polyphenolic compounds that are capable of binding other nutrients to form stable complexes. Tannins comprise hydrolysable (HT) and condensed tannins (CT) with CTs being the major form found in the legumes. Their concentration in feeds determines their effect on animal production. Low levels of tannin (< 40 g.kg DM⁻¹) protect feed protein from degradation by rumen microbes, thereby increasing the amount of protein passing through the rumen, and reducing the potential for bloat. However, high concentrations of tannin retard animal production through the inhibition of enzyme activities of some rumen bacteria, decreasing the availability of protein and fibre, and reducing feed intake. Tannins in high concentrations also bind nutrients such as protein and carbohydrates; tannin-protein or tannin-carbohydrate complexes are difficult to digest by rumen microbes or by enzymes secreted by ruminants in the gastrointestinal tract. This decreases the availability of protein and carbohydrate for the animals...

Microscopic characterisation of old mortars from the Santa Maria Church in Évora

Adriano, P.; Santos Silva, A.; Veiga, R.; Mirão, J.; Candeias, A.E.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Evora Cathedral (one of the most emblematic monuments of Evora—Portugal) has suffered several conservation and restoration interventions through the ages, without, however, any type of previous knowledge about mortars and materials used. This work was carried out in order to identify the mortar's composition in different locations, which were attributed to different construction or conservation periods. The characterisation methodology involved a multidisciplinary set of chemical, physical, microstructural and mechanical techniques, and gave special attention to the use of microstructural characterisation techniques, particularly petrographical analysis and scanning electron microscopy for the identification of the mortar's constituents as well as in the evaluation of the state of conservation. The test results showed that two types of aerial binders were used, dolomitic and calcitic limes, the former being predominant. The aggregates used have a siliceous nature and are similar in composition to the granodiorites of the region around Evora. The mortars differ in the aggregate contents and, in some cases, crushed bricks were used as an additive.

Bricks in historical buildings of Toledo City: characterisation and restoration

López-Arce, Paula; García-Guinea, Javier; Gracia, Mercedes; Obis, Joaquín
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 444161 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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10 pages (final publisher version), 23 pages (attached post-print version).; Two different types of ancient bricks (12th to 14th centuries) collected from historical buildings of Toledo (Spain) were characterised by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. Physical properties such as water absorption and suction, porosity, density and compression strength were also determined. Several minerals found in the brick matrix, such as garnet, let us infer raw material sources; calcite, dolomite, illite and neoformed gehlenite and diopside phases, on temperature reached in firing; secondary calcite, on first cooling scenarios; and manganese micronodules, on late pollution environments. XRD and DTA of original and refired samples supply information about firing temperatures. Additional data on firing conditions and type of the original clay are provided by the Mössbauer study. Physical properties of both types of bricks were compared and correlated with raw materials and fabric and firing technology employed. The physicochemical characterisation of these bricks provides valuable data for restoration purposes to formulate new specific bricks using neighbouring raw materials.; The authors are especially indebted to Josefo Bedoya...

Agrochemical characterisation of “alperujo”, a solid by-product of the two-phase centrifugation method for olive oil extraction

Alburquerque Méndez, José Antonio; Gonzálvez, José; García, Diego; Cegarra Rosique, Juan
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 259768 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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6 pages, 4 tables, 1 figure.; Introduction of the two-phase centrifugation system for olive oil extraction during the early nineties in Spain has led to the generation of approximately four million tons per year of a solid olive-mill by-product called “alperujo” (AL). Agrochemical characterisation showed that AL has a high moisture content, slightly acidic pH values and a very high content of organic matter, mainly composed by lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. It also has a considerable proportion of fats, proteins, water-soluble carbohydrates and a small but active fraction of hydrosoluble phenolic substances. Amongst plant nutrients, AL is rich in potassium, less so in (mainly organic) nitrogen and poor in phosphorus and micronutrients. Some of those properties are not compatible with agricultural requirements, for which reason composting may be considered a suitable alternative for its disposal. AL needs to be characterised before composting, and so an attempt was made to correlate the easily determined ash content with other parameters; the regression models thus obtained are discussed.; This research was carried out in the framework of the EU contract FAIR5-CT97-3620 and the CICYT project OLI96-2147.; Peer reviewed

Production of pellets by pharmaceutical extrusion and spheronisation. Part II: physical characterisation of pellets; Obtenção de pellets por extrusão e esferonização farmacêutica. Parte II: avaliação das características física de pellets

Santos, Helton Max Massaranduba; Veiga, Francisco José Batista; Pina, Eugênica Maria Soares Tavares de; Sousa, João José Martins Simões de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2006 POR
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The pelletisation process described in Part I consists of the wet agglomeration of fine powders of a drug substance and excipients into spherical units referred as pellets. Pellets differ from granules in terms of the production process and the physical characteristics. The current work, the second part of a series of two, intends to describe and revise the literature of the evaluation and characterisation of active drug pellets regarding the needs of postproduction of the units namely, film coating, capsule filling, compression, handling, storing and shiping.; O processo de peletização, abordado na Parte I, consiste na aglomeração por via úmida de pós de uma substância ativa e excipientes sob a forma de unidades esféricas denominadas por pellets. Os pellets diferem de grânulos não apenas pela técnica utilizada para a produção, mas também no que respeita as características físicas conseguidas. O presente trabalho, o segundo de uma série de dois, apresenta uma revisão das características físicas e das técnicas para a caracterização física de pellets farmacêuticos abordando as principais necessidades posteriores a produção dessas multi-unidades, nomeadamente revestimento com película, enchimento de cápsulas...

Evaluation of almond shell as a culture substrate for ornamental plants. I. Characterisation: (with 4 figures & 6 tables)

Lao,MT; Jiménez,S
Fonte: Phyton (Buenos Aires) Publicador: Phyton (Buenos Aires)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2004 EN
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Some technical and economic problems currently limit the use of substrates. The main problems include the lack of reciprocal adaptation of the cultivation technics and the substrate, the possible presence of pathogens, and the cost involved. To these we must add the ecological problems of the extraction areas, since there are no short-term renewable resources, especially in the case of peat, the classic substrate. This has motivated the search for substitutes, especially amongst indigenous materials and those easily obtained locally, such as cereals straw, rice husk and cork residues. The use of these substrates should be evaluated agronomically for: physical (total porosity, available water, air content, distribution of particles size, apparent density), chemical (cation exchange capacity, assimilable elements, salinity, pH, C/N ratio) and cultural properties. The characterisation and use of almond shell (Prunus dulcis) as a horticultural substrate substitute for growing ornamental plants were studied. The study involved the characterisation of the physical and chemical properties of 4 almond shell and peat mixtures (20:80,40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 in almond shell and peat volume respectively), as well as those of a control mixture consisting of peat and expanded clay (33.3: 66.6 in volume of expanded clay and peat respectively). The almond shell in the substrate increased aeration...

Characterisation of wastewater for modelling of wastewater treatment plants receiving industrial effluent

Mhlanga,FT; Brouckaert,CJ
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/30/2013 EN
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Bio-process modelling is increasingly used in design, modification and troubleshooting of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Characterisation of the influent wastewater to a WWTP is an important part of developing such a model. The characterisation required for modelling is more detailed than that routinely employed for monitoring WWTP operation. Wastewater characteristics depend on the sources within the catchment served by a particular WWTP, and the presence of industrial effluents can cause the wastewater to be significantly different from purely domestic effluent. eThekwini's wastewater treatment system is one of those most affected by industrial effluents in South Africa. Where industrial pollutants cause particular problems, additional measurements, beyond those standardly applied in sewage treatment, are required. Since influent characteristics vary from one catchment to another, this paper presents and compares results of influent wastewater characterisation from three municipal WWTPs, two of which are operated by eThekwini Water Services, which receive a combination of industrial and domestic wastewater. The paper also presents efforts to fractionate the influent COD of another WWTP run by eThekwini municipality and receiving a complex mixture of industrial and domestic effluent. The influent characterisation involves the determination of the volumes and concentrations of the carbonaceous...

The use of ground-penetrating radar to develop a track substructure characterisation model

Vorster,D J; Gräbe,P J
Fonte: Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering Publicador: Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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360.89773%
The characterisation of track substructure is an integral component of track maintenance and rehabilitation. Traditionally this is done by determining the geotechnical properties of the discrete track formation layers by excavating test pits and sampling the substructure layers. The development of geophysical investigation techniques such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR) allows continuous assessment of the condition of the track substructure. The research described in this paper uses GPR to develop a track substructure characterisation model and provides classifications for both the ballast and formation layers. The ballast and formation were classified into four classes, namely very good, good, moderate and poor. When applying the model to two sections of track (with generally good and poor quality) 82% and 100% of classes had only one class difference compared to the traditional characterisation tests for the formation and ballast layers respectively. The GPR track substructure characterisation model that was developed therefore compares well with traditional characterisation techniques and will result in significant cost and time reduction. The characterisation of the track using GPR provides a continuous classification and enhances the accuracy of the data on which a maintenance engineer can base decisions.

Identification and characterisation of performance limiting defects and cell mismatch in photovoltaic modules

Crozier,Jacqui L; van Dyk,Ernest E; Vorster,Frederick J
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
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The performance and longevity of photovoltaic (PV) modules can be severely limited by cell mismatch occurring when a solar cell in a series-connected string produces a lower current than the other cells in that string. The current output of the entire string is limited by the weakest cell in the string so shading or damage to a single cell in a module can affect the entire module's current output. Electroluminescence (EL) occurs when a positive current and voltage are applied to a solar cell and is used to identify damage and defects in the cell. In this study, the cell mismatch in three single crystalline silicon modules was investigated using EL and current-voltage (I-V) characterisation techniques. Two modules have a white discolouration that affects the majority of the cells in the module and also have signs of mechanical damage, while the third module acts as a reference as it has no discolouration and appears undamaged. The EL signal intensity is related to cell performance and identifies material defects, bad contacts and broken cells. Cell mismatch in a module results in a decrease in the performance parameters obtained from the I-V characteristic curve of the module. The I-V curves indicate the presence of current mismatch in the degraded modules...

Applicability of analytical protocols for the characterisation of carbon-supported platinum group metal fuel cell electrocatalysts

Williams,M.; Khotseng,L.; Naidoo,Q.; Petrik,L.; Nechaev,A.; Linkov,V.
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2009 EN
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The nanoparticulate size of fuel cell electrocatalysts raises significant challenges in the analytical techniques used in their structural and electrochemical characterisation. For this reason, the applicability of analytical protocols in the qualitative and quantitative characterisation of nanophase fuel cell electrocatalysts was investigated. A set of structural and chemical properties influencing the performance of the electrocatalysts was identified. A large range of analytical tools was employed in characterising the electrocatalysts of interest. High accuracy and precision in the quantitative and qualitative structural and electrochemical characterisation of Pt/C and Pt-Ru/C nanophase electrocatalysts was demonstrated. Certain techniques were deemed to be highly applicable in discriminating between high- and low-performance electrocatalysts based on their structural and electrochemical properties. The goal of this effort is to contribute to the development of South Africa's capabilities in the emerging hydrogen economy.