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Some aspects of acetylation of untreated and mercerized sisal cellulose

CIACCO, Gabriela T.; MORGADO, Daniella Lury; FROLLINI, Elisabete; POSSIDONIO, Shirley; EL SEOUD, Omar A.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
522.42617%
We report here on some aspects of the acetylation in LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide, DMAc, of untreated and mercerized sisal cellulose, hereafter designated as sisal and M-sisal, respectively. Fiber mercerization by NaOH solution has resulted in the following changes: 29.9% decrease in the index of crystallinity; 16.2% decrease in the degree of polymerization and 9.3% increase in α-cellulose content. A light scattering study of solutions of sisal, M-sisal, microcrystalline and cotton celluloses in LiCl/DMAc has shown that they are present as aggregates, with (an apparent) average aggregation numbers of 5.2, 3.2, 9.8, and 35.3, respectively. The presence of these aggregates affects the accessibility of cellulose during its functionalization. A study of the evolution of the degree of substitution, DS, of cellulose acetate as a function of reaction time showed an increase up to 5 h, followed by a decrease at 7 h. Possible reasons for this decrease are discussed. As expected, M-sisal gave a higher DS that its untreated counterpart.; Este trabalho apresenta alguns aspectos da acetilação em LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamida, DMAc de celulose de sisal nativa e mercerizada (sisal e M-sisal). A mercerização da fibra em solução de NaOH resulta nas seguintes alterações: decréscimo de 29.9 % no índice de cristalinidade; diminuição de 16.2% no grau de polimerização e aumento de 9.3% no conteúdo de α-celulose. Estudo com espalhamento de luz de soluções de sisal...

Acetylation of cellulose in LiCl-N,N-dimethylacetamide: first report on the correlation between the reaction efficiency and the aggregation number of dissolved cellulose

RAMOS, Ludmila A.; MORGADO, Daniella L.; SEOUD, Omar A. El; SILVA, Valdineia C. da; FROLLINI, Elisabete
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
940.0383%
The acylation of three cellulose samples by acetic anhydride, Ac(2)O, in the solvent system LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide, DMAc (4 h, 110 A degrees C), has been revisited in order to investigate the dependence of the reaction efficiency on the structural characteristics of cellulose, and its aggregation in solution. The cellulose samples employed included microcrystalline, MCC; mercerized cotton linters, M-cotton, and mercerized sisal, M-sisal. The reaction efficiency expresses the relationship between the degree of substitution, DS, of the ester obtained, and the molar ratio Ac(2)O/AGU (anhydroglucose unit of the biopolymer); 100% efficiency means obtaining DS = 3 at Ac(2)O/AGU = 3. For all celluloses, the dependence of DS on Ac(2)O/AGU is described by an exponential decay equation: DS = DS(o) - Ae(-[(Ac2O/AGU)/B]); (A) and (B) are regression coefficients, and DS(o) is the calculated maximum degree of substitution, achieved under the conditions of each experiment. Values of (B) are clearly dependent on the cellulose employed: B((M-cotton)) > B((M-sisal)) > B((MCC)); they correlate qualitatively with the degree of polymerization of cellulose, and linearly with the aggregation number, N(agg), of the dissolved biopolymer, as calculated from static light scattering measurements: (B) = 1.709 + 0.034 N(agg). To our knowledge...

Estrutura e dinâmica da interação de éteres de celulose com surfactantes

Martins, Ricardo Martins de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
351.6035%
As técnicas de fluorimetria, condutometria, viscosimetria, turbidimetria, espalhamento de luz e espalhamento de raios-X a baixo ângulo (SAXS) foram empregadas no estudo da agregação de diferentes surfactantes aniônicos em presença de soluções aquosas diluídas de (hidroxipropil)celulose (HPC) 0,25% m/m, (hidroxipropilmetil)celulose (HPMC) 0,20% m/m e HPMC 0,10% m/m / NaCl 0,10 mol L-1. Também foram investigadas através de SAXS soluções concentradas de HPC (30, 40 e 50% m/m). Admitindo-se uma faixa geral de concentração, entre 10-4 e 10-1 mol L-1, foram utilizados neste estudo os surfactantes colato de sódio (CS), deoxicolato de sódio (DC), derivados dos sais biliares, e o alquilsintético dodecilsulafato de sódio (SDS). Observou-se que os polímeros contribuem diferentemente no processo de agregação de cada surfactante, evidenciado pela mudança dos valores da concentração de agregação crítica (CAC) em relação à concentração micelar crítica (CMC). Os resultados condutométricos confirmaram a interação éteres de celulose/sais biliares, embora a mesma tenha se mostrado mais fraca em relação a éteres de celulose/SDS. Os dados termodinâmicos demonstraram que a formação de agregados polímero/surfactante apresenta maior estabilidade do que as próprias micelas livres. Os resultados de viscosimetria e turbidimetria evidenciaram as diferenças estruturais entre HPC e HPMC...

Studies on anionic surfactant structure in the aggregation with (hydroxypropyl)cellulose

Martins, Ricardo Martins de; Silva, Carolina A. da; Becker, Cristiane Miotto; Samios, Dimitrios; Bica, Clara Ismeria Damiani; Christoff, Marcelo
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
726.01086%
Abstract: Fluorescence probing, viscosity and light scattering measurements have been combined to study the aggregation of different anionic surfactants mainly in dilute solutions (0.5% w/v) of (hydroxypropyl)cellulose (HPC MW 173,000), in moderate ionic strength (NaCl 0.1 mol.L-1). The set of surfactants includes natural cholesterol derivatives, sodium cholate (CS) and sodium deoxycholate (DC), and the alkylsulphate, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS). At 298 K the critical surfactant concentration related to aggregate/HPC formation (C1) decreases for SDS and DC whereas it increases slightly for CS. At 312 K the C1 values for CS and DC are slightly shifted toward higher values whereas it is not changed for SDS. All surfactant/HPC systems increase C1 values as the HPC concentration increases to 1.2%. Above C1 the viscosity increases for all surfactant/HPC systems but it is sharper in the increasing order CS, DC and SDS. The hydrodynamic behavior indicates that CS induces higher diffusion to HPC than SDS and DC. The aggregation in the surfactant/HPC systems is analyzed through the feature of surfactant/aggregate structure (size, charge density, etc).

Nanocápsulas de núcleo lipídico : estudos de penetração cutânea e proposição de estratégias para a avaliação da liberação in vitro; Lipid-core nanocapsules: cutaneous penetration studies and proposition of strategies to assess the in vitro drug release

Andrade, Diego Fontana
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
405.5705%
Neste trabalho foi avaliada a permeação/penetração cutânea in vitro (pele suína) de propionato de clobetasol nanoencapsulado incorporado em um semissólido, empregando células de difusão de Franz. A nanoencapsulação foi capaz de reduzir a quantidade de fármaco que penetra nas camadas da pele (estrato córneo, epiderme e derme) sem alterar a forma (distribuição percentual) como o propionato de clobetasol se distribui. A adequabilidade de diferentes membranas sintéticas (acetato de celulose, policarbonato e membrana de diálise) para a avaliação da liberação in vitro, empregando células de difusão de Franz, a partir desta formulação foi também estudada. A partir da combinação de diferentes técnicas analíticas (espalhamento de luz dinâmica, microscopias eletrônicas de transmissão e varredura) foi observado que a membrana de menor tamanho de poro (membrana de diálise, 12 kDa de cut off) é a mais adequada para a condução deste tipo de avaliação, pois é a única capaz de evitar a passagem de nanocápsulas íntegras da formulação para o meio receptor das células de difusão, em detrimento das membranas de policarbonato e acetato de celulose (0,05 μm e 0,45 μm de tamanho de poro, respectivamente). Além disso...

Anionic surfactant aggregation with (Hydroxypropyl)cellulose in the presence of added salt

Martins,Ricardo M.; Silva,Carolina A. da; Becker,Cristiane M.; Samios,Dimitrios; Christoff,Marcelo; Bica,Clara I. D.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
733.9582%
The aggregation of different anionic surfactants in dilute aqueous solutions of (hydroxypropyl)cellulose (HPC) under moderate ionic strength (NaCl 0.1 mol L-1) was studied. The surfactants were sodium cholate (CS), sodium deoxycholate (DC) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS). By fluorescence probing, the critical aggregate concentration (C1) decreased for SDS and DC in comparison to the critical micelle concentration (CMC) whereas it increased for CS at 298 K. The relative viscosity reached a maximum for SDS/HPC but remained constant for CS/HPC and DC/HPC. By light scattering, cloud points were verified to increase. By dynamic light scattering, it was concluded that, at low surfactant contents, the fast mode of HPC is related to surfactant/HPC aggregates and shorter HPC chains; at high contents, to free micelles. The slow mode is linked to interchain polymer-surfactant complexes and HPC clusters. For the bile salts/ HPC systems, the mechanism of aggregation may occur in two steps.

Some aspects of acetylation of untreated and mercerized sisal cellulose

Ciacco,Gabriela T.; Morgado,Daniella Lury; Frollini,Elisabete; Possidonio,Shirley; El Seoud,Omar A.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
522.42617%
We report here on some aspects of the acetylation in LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide, DMAc, of untreated and mercerized sisal cellulose, hereafter designated as sisal and M-sisal, respectively. Fiber mercerization by NaOH solution has resulted in the following changes: 29.9% decrease in the index of crystallinity; 16.2% decrease in the degree of polymerization and 9.3% increase in α-cellulose content. A light scattering study of solutions of sisal, M-sisal, microcrystalline and cotton celluloses in LiCl/DMAc has shown that they are present as aggregates, with (an apparent) average aggregation numbers of 5.2, 3.2, 9.8, and 35.3, respectively. The presence of these aggregates affects the accessibility of cellulose during its functionalization. A study of the evolution of the degree of substitution, DS, of cellulose acetate as a function of reaction time showed an increase up to 5 h, followed by a decrease at 7 h. Possible reasons for this decrease are discussed. As expected, M-sisal gave a higher DS that its untreated counterpart.

Studies on Anionic Surfactant Structure in the Aggregation with (Hydroxypropyl)cellulose

Martins,Ricardo M. de; Silva,Carolina A.; Becker,Cristiane; Samios,Dimitrios; Bica,Clara I. D.; Christoff,Marcelo
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Polímeros Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Polímeros
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
726.01086%
Fluorescence probing, viscosity and light scattering measurements have been combined to study the aggregation of different anionic surfactants mainly in dilute solutions (0.5% w/v) of (hydroxypropyl)cellulose (HPC MW 173,000), in moderate ionic strength (NaCl 0.1 mol.L-1). The set of surfactants includes natural cholesterol derivatives, sodium cholate (CS) and sodium deoxycholate (DC), and the alkylsulphate, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS). At 298 K the critical surfactant concentration related to aggregate/HPC formation (C1) decreases for SDS and DC whereas it increases slightly for CS. At 312 K the C1 values for CS and DC are slightly shifted toward higher values whereas it is not changed for SDS. All surfactant/HPC systems increase C1 values as the HPC concentration increases to 1.2%. Above C1 the viscosity increases for all surfactant/HPC systems but it is sharper in the increasing order CS, DC and SDS. The hydrodynamic behavior indicates that CS induces higher diffusion to HPC than SDS and DC. The aggregation in the surfactant/HPC systems is analyzed through the feature of surfactant/aggregate structure (size, charge density, etc).

Light scattering experiments on aqueous solutions of selected cellulose ethers: contribution to the study of polymer-mineral interactions in a new injectable biomaterial

Bohic, Sylvain; Weiss, Pierre; Roger, Philippe; Daculsi, Guy
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
516.305%
Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) is used as a ligand for a bioactive calcium phosphate ceramic (the filler) in a ready-to-use injectable sterilized biomaterial for bone and dental surgery. Light scattering experiments were usually used to study high water-soluble polymers and to determine the basic macromolecular parameters. In order to gain a deeper understanding of polymer/mineral interactions in this type of material, we have investigated the effect of divalent and trivalent ions (Ca2+, PO43−) and steam sterilization on dilute solutions of HPMC and HEC. The sterilization process may cause some degradation of HEC taking into account its high molecular weight and some rigidity of the polymer chain. Moreover, in the case of HPMC, the changes in the conformations rather than degradation process are supposed. These effects of degradation and flocculation are strengthened in alkaline medium. Experimental data suggested the formation of chelate complexes between Ca2+ and HPMC which improve its affinity to the mineral blend and consolidate the injectable biomaterial even in the case of its hydration by biological fluid.

Temperature-responsive self-assembly of charged and uncharged hydroxyethylcellulose-graft-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) copolymer in aqueous solution

Phan, Hang T. T.; Zhu, Kaizheng; Kjøniksen, Anna-Lena; Nyström, Bo
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
393.97984%
Temperature-induced interchain association and contraction of species in aqueous solutions of charged (MHEC(−)-g-PNIPAAM) and uncharged (MHEC-g-PNIPAAM) modified hydroxyethylcellulose-graft-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) copolymer have been studied with the aid of turbidimetry and dynamic light scattering (DLS). It was shown that by attaching PNIPAAM chains to the backbone of a hydrophilic cellulose derivative, a strongly temperature-responsive copolymer could be prepared. The results show an intriguing interplay between interchain association and contraction of the multichain species. The transition zone for compression is narrow, and the compaction effect is promoted by a low polymer concentration and charges on the polymer moieties. The findings from DLS revealed two populations of species, namely molecularly dispersed molecules or small clusters and interchain complexes, which exhibit temperature-induced collapse. The magnitude of the cluster contraction can be modulated by changing the polymer concentration and charge density of the copolymer.

Effect of Osmotic Pressure on the Stability of Whole Inactivated Influenza Vaccine for Coating on Microneedles

Choi, Hyo-Jick; Song, Jae-Min; Bondy, Brian J.; Compans, Richard W.; Kang, Sang-Moo; Prausnitz, Mark R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/07/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
520.2904%
Enveloped virus vaccines can be damaged by high osmotic strength solutions, such as those used to protect the vaccine antigen during drying, which contain high concentrations of sugars. We therefore studied shrinkage and activity loss of whole inactivated influenza virus in hyperosmotic solutions and used those findings to improve vaccine coating of microneedle patches for influenza vaccination. Using stopped-flow light scattering analysis, we found that the virus underwent an initial shrinkage on the order of 10% by volume within 5 s upon exposure to a hyperosmotic stress difference of 217 milliosmolarity. During this shrinkage, the virus envelope had very low osmotic water permeability (1 – 6×10−4 cm s–1) and high Arrhenius activation energy (Ea = 15.0 kcal mol–1), indicating that the water molecules diffused through the viral lipid membranes. After a quasi-stable state of approximately 20 s to 2 min, depending on the species and hypertonic osmotic strength difference of disaccharides, there was a second phase of viral shrinkage. At the highest osmotic strengths, this led to an undulating light scattering profile that appeared to be related to perturbation of the viral envelope resulting in loss of virus activity, as determined by in vitro hemagglutination measurements and in vivo immunogenicity studies in mice. Addition of carboxymethyl cellulose effectively prevented vaccine activity loss in vitro and in vivo...

Avaliação das propriedades físico-químicas de sistemas a base de carboximetilcelulose e poli (N-isopropilacrilamida) em soluções aquosas para aplicação na indústria do petróleo

Lima, Bruna Vital de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química; Físico-Química; Química Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química; Físico-Química; Química
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
414.1068%
Sustainable development is a major challenge in the oil industry and has aroused growing interest in research to obtain materials from renewable sources. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is a polysaccharide derived from cellulose and becomes attractive because it is water-soluble, renewable, biodegradable and inexpensive, as well as may be chemically modified to gain new properties. Among the derivatives of carboxymethylcellulose, systems have been developed to induce stimuli-responsive properties and extend the applicability of multiple-responsive materials. Although these new materials have been the subject of study, understanding of their physicochemical properties, such as viscosity, solubility and particle size as a function of pH and temperature, is still very limited. This study describes systems of physical blends and copolymers based on carboxymethylcellulose and poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), with different feed percentage compositions of the reaction (25CMC, 50CMC e 75CMC), in aqueous solution. The chemical structure of the polymers was investigated by infrared and CHN elementary analysis. The physical blends were analyzed by rheology and the copolymers by UV-visible spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)...

The effect of acid mucopolysaccharides and acid mucopolysaccharide–proteins on fibril formation from collagen solutions

Mathews, M. B.; Decker, L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1968 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
435.8775%
1. The effects of acid mucopolysaccharides and acid mucopolysaccharide–proteins on the size and rate of formation of fibril aggregates from collagen solutions in pH7·6 buffers were studied by turbidimetric and light-scattering methods. 2. Serum albumin, orosomucoid, methylated cellulose, chondroitin sulphate A and chondroitin sulphate C of molecular weight less than 20000, and hyaluronate of molecular weight less than 40000 did not influence rates of fibril formation. Chondroitin sulphate A, chondroitin sulphate C and hyaluronate of high molecular weight retarded the rate of fibril formation. This effect of high-molecular-weight chondroitin sulphate C decreased with increasing ionic strength. Heparin, though of low molecular weight (13000), was highly effective, as was also heparitin sulphate. The chondroitin sulphate–proteins of very high molecular weight were highly effective, despite the fact that for some preparations the component chondroitin sulphate chains had molecular weights much less than 20000. 3. Agents that had delayed fibril formation were also effective in producing an increase in degree of aggregation of fibrillar collagen, as indicated by dissymmetry changes observed in light-scattering experiments at low collagen concentrations. Methylated cellulose and heparin at 2·5μg./ml. were unusual in decreasing aggregation...

Conformational studies of carboxymethylcellulose in aqueous saline solutions as a function of ionic strength

Marcera, Donna M.
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
526.8451%
The conformation of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in salt solutions was studied using viscometry, light scattering and gel permeation chromatography. From the viscosity data, the conformation of CMC in aqueous saline solutions was determined to be elliptical. At high ionic strengths, for example 2.5N NaCl, the macromolecule collapses upon itself. The gel permeation chromatography data indicated the presence of large molecular weight CMC particles (~2 x 109 daltons). The light scattering data also showed the presence of large CMC particles. The presence of large CMC particles explains the change in concentration dependence of the viscosity data between low and high CMC concentrations. Two species in solution, CMC molecules and CMC aggregates, each contribute to the observed viscosity. Both CMC molecules and aggregates, at low concentrations, show a linear relationship between viscosity and concentration, however, the slopes of the lines are different. A model is cited which provides an explanation of the viscous behavior of CMC in distilled water and salt solutions over time, based on solvation of CMC aggregates. This research suggests that the solvation time can be greatly reduced by autoclaving the solutions, thereby achieving an equilibrium viscosity.

Adsorption Pattern of Mixtures of Trimethylammonium-Modified Hydroxyethylcellulose and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate at Solid-Liquid Interfaces

Zimin, D; Craig, Vincent; Kunz, Werner
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
624.01926%
We studied mixtures of aqueous solutions of cationic hydroxyethylcellulose JR400 polymer and anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate using dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A ternary phase diagram was established showing three interesting realms of the polymer-surfactant-water mixture: a preprecipitation area of lowered viscosity (polymer excess) compared to the pure polymer solution, a postprecipitation area (resolubilization at surfactant excess), and highly diluted samples with a stoichiometrical surfactant-polymer ratio close to that of maximum precipitation. Samples with various compositions representing these areas were imaged by atomic force microscopy on mica and on hydrophobically modified silica in contact mode. A correlation between light scattering data concerning particle size and, more important, structuring in the bulk on one hand and AFM images on the other hand was observed. It was revealed that the influence of surface properties is of less importance for adsorption, compared to the influence of the mixture in the bulk, provided that the mixture is prepared prior to adsorption.