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Some aspects of acetylation of untreated and mercerized sisal cellulose

CIACCO, Gabriela T.; MORGADO, Daniella Lury; FROLLINI, Elisabete; POSSIDONIO, Shirley; EL SEOUD, Omar A.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
614.37074%
We report here on some aspects of the acetylation in LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide, DMAc, of untreated and mercerized sisal cellulose, hereafter designated as sisal and M-sisal, respectively. Fiber mercerization by NaOH solution has resulted in the following changes: 29.9% decrease in the index of crystallinity; 16.2% decrease in the degree of polymerization and 9.3% increase in α-cellulose content. A light scattering study of solutions of sisal, M-sisal, microcrystalline and cotton celluloses in LiCl/DMAc has shown that they are present as aggregates, with (an apparent) average aggregation numbers of 5.2, 3.2, 9.8, and 35.3, respectively. The presence of these aggregates affects the accessibility of cellulose during its functionalization. A study of the evolution of the degree of substitution, DS, of cellulose acetate as a function of reaction time showed an increase up to 5 h, followed by a decrease at 7 h. Possible reasons for this decrease are discussed. As expected, M-sisal gave a higher DS that its untreated counterpart.; Este trabalho apresenta alguns aspectos da acetilação em LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamida, DMAc de celulose de sisal nativa e mercerizada (sisal e M-sisal). A mercerização da fibra em solução de NaOH resulta nas seguintes alterações: decréscimo de 29.9 % no índice de cristalinidade; diminuição de 16.2% no grau de polimerização e aumento de 9.3% no conteúdo de α-celulose. Estudo com espalhamento de luz de soluções de sisal...

Sisal cellulose acetates obtained from heterogeneous reactions

PAULA, M. Peres de; LACERDA, T. M.; FROLLINI, E.
Fonte: BUDAPEST UNIV TECHNOL & ECON Publicador: BUDAPEST UNIV TECHNOL & ECON
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
399.45543%
In the present work, cellulose obtained from sisal, which is a source of rapid growth, was used. Cellulose acetates were produced in heterogeneous medium, using acetic anhydride as esterifying agent and iodine as catalyst, to check if the procedure described in the literature for commercial cellulose also is adequate to sisal cellulose. The results indicated that iodine is an excellent catalyst to obtain sisal cellulose acetates, but the reaction is so fast as described in the literature when, instead of sisal, lower average molar weight cellulose (microcrystalline) is used. The crystallinity index (I(c)) of sisal cellulose acetates diminished compared to sisal cellulose, but there was no direct correlation between their degree of substitution (DS) and I(c). Probably acetyl groups were introduced more homogeneously along the short chains of microcrystalline cellulose, when compared to sisal cellulose, and then for microcrystalline cellulose acetates the Ic decreases as DS increases. Using the linear correlation that was found between degree of substitution (DS) and time reaction is possible to control the DS of sisal cellulose acetates, considering a large interval of degrees of substitution (0.3-2.8).; CNPq (National Council of Research...

Sisal, sugarcane bagasse and microcrystalline celluloses: Influence of the composition of the solvent system N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride on the solubility and acetylation of these polysaccharides

CIACCO, Gabriela T.; ASS, Beatriz A. P.; RAMOS, Ludmila A.; FROLLINI, Elisabete
Fonte: EUROPEAN POLYMER FEDERATION Publicador: EUROPEAN POLYMER FEDERATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
497.6317%
The present work describes an investigation concerning the acetylation of celluloses extracted from short-life-cycle plant sources (i.e. sugarcane bagasse and sisal fiber) as well as microcrystalline cellulose. The acetylation was carried out under homogeneous conditions using the solvent system N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride. The celluloses were characterized, and the characterizations included an evaluation of the amount of hemicellulose present in the materials obtained from lignocellulosics sources (sugarcane and sisal). The amount of LiCl was varied and its influence on the degree of acetate substitution was analyzed. It was found that the solvent system composition and the nature of the cellulose influenced both the state of chain dissolution and the product characteristics. The obtained results demonstrated the importance of developing specific studies on the dissolution process as well as on the derivatization of celluloses from various sources.

Acetylation of cellulose in LiCl-N,N-dimethylacetamide: first report on the correlation between the reaction efficiency and the aggregation number of dissolved cellulose

RAMOS, Ludmila A.; MORGADO, Daniella L.; SEOUD, Omar A. El; SILVA, Valdineia C. da; FROLLINI, Elisabete
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
717.1204%
The acylation of three cellulose samples by acetic anhydride, Ac(2)O, in the solvent system LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide, DMAc (4 h, 110 A degrees C), has been revisited in order to investigate the dependence of the reaction efficiency on the structural characteristics of cellulose, and its aggregation in solution. The cellulose samples employed included microcrystalline, MCC; mercerized cotton linters, M-cotton, and mercerized sisal, M-sisal. The reaction efficiency expresses the relationship between the degree of substitution, DS, of the ester obtained, and the molar ratio Ac(2)O/AGU (anhydroglucose unit of the biopolymer); 100% efficiency means obtaining DS = 3 at Ac(2)O/AGU = 3. For all celluloses, the dependence of DS on Ac(2)O/AGU is described by an exponential decay equation: DS = DS(o) - Ae(-[(Ac2O/AGU)/B]); (A) and (B) are regression coefficients, and DS(o) is the calculated maximum degree of substitution, achieved under the conditions of each experiment. Values of (B) are clearly dependent on the cellulose employed: B((M-cotton)) > B((M-sisal)) > B((MCC)); they correlate qualitatively with the degree of polymerization of cellulose, and linearly with the aggregation number, N(agg), of the dissolved biopolymer, as calculated from static light scattering measurements: (B) = 1.709 + 0.034 N(agg). To our knowledge...

A physical organic chemistry approach to dissolution of cellulose: effects of cellulose mercerization on its properties and on the kinetics of its decrystallization

RAMOS, Ludmila A.; MORGADO, Daniella L.; GESSNER, Fergus; FROLLINI, Elisabete; SEOUD, Omar A. El
Fonte: ARKAT USA INC Publicador: ARKAT USA INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
595.7644%
The effects of alkali treatment on the structural characteristics of cotton linters and sisal cellulose samples have been studied. Mercerization results in a decrease in the indices of crystallinity and the degrees of polymerization, and an increase in the alpha-cellulose contents of the samples. The relevance of the structural properties of cellulose to its dissolution is probed by studying the kinetics of cellulose decrystallization, prior to its solubilization in LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc). Our data show that the decrystallization rate constants and activation parameters are only slightly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of the starting celluloses. This multi-step reaction is accompanied by a small enthalpy and large, negative, entropy of activation. These results are analyzed in terms of the interactions within the biopolymer chains during decrystallization, as well as those between the two ions of the electrolyte and both DMAc and cellulose.; CNPq (National Council of Research); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); FAPESP (State of Sao Paulo Research Foundation); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

Saccharification of Brazilian sisal pulp: evaluating the impact of mercerization on non-hydrolyzed pulp and hydrolysis products

Lacerda, Talita M.; Paula, Mauricio P. de; Zambon, Marcia D.; Frollini, Elisabete
Fonte: SPRINGER; DORDRECHT Publicador: SPRINGER; DORDRECHT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
489.0296%
Cultivation of sisal, a plant with a short growth cycle, is highly productive in Brazil. This work is part of extensive research in which sisal is valued. In these studies, sisal fibers are used in the preparation of bio-based composites and in the derivatization of the pulp, including posterior preparation of films. This study aimed to examine the use of sisal pulp in the production of bioethanol, which can potentially be a high efficiency process because of the cellulose content of this fiber. A previous paper addressed the hydrolysis of sisal pulp using sulfuric acid as a catalyst. In the present study, the influence of the mercerization process on the acid hydrolysis of sisal pulp was evaluated. Mercerization was achieved in a 20% wt NaOH solution, and the cellulosic pulp was suspended and vigorously mixed for 1, 2 and 3 h, at 50 A degrees C. The previously characterized mercerized pulps were hydrolyzed (100 A degrees C, 30% H2SO4, v/v), and the results are compared with those obtained for unmercerized pulp (described in a companion paper). The starting sample was characterized by viscometry, alpha-cellulose content, crystallinity index and scanning electron microscopy. During the reactions, aliquots were withdrawn, and the liquor was analyzed by HPLC. The residual pulps (non-hydrolyzed) were also characterized by the techniques described for the initial sample. The results revealed that pretreatment decreases the polyoses content as well as causes a decrease of up to 23% in the crystallinity and up to 21% in the average molar mass of cellulose after 3 h of mercerization. The mercerization process proved to be very important to achieve the final target. Under the same reaction conditions (30% and 100 A degrees C...

Solventes verdes para biopolímeros: síntese e aplicação de líquidos iônicos na derivatização de celulose; Green solvents for biopolymers: synthesis of ionic liquids and their use in derivatization of cellulose

Silva, Valdinéia Cecília da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/10/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
497.99723%
Esta tese tem como objetivo estudar a derivatização da celulose sob condições homogêneas, utilizando líquidos iônicos (LIs), em micro-ondas, através de um método simples e reprodutível. Foram estudadas três etapas: i) Síntese dos LIs, buscando otimizar seu preparo; ii) Efeitos da estrutura dos LIs sobre a dissolução de celulose; iii) Otimização da derivatização da celulose em LIs. Foi realizado um planejamento experimental para a otimização da síntese dos LIs, mostrando-se que o uso de solvente molecular como diluente não traz vantagens. Na dissolução de celuloses fibrosas em LIs, observou-se a importância das estruturas dos cátions e ânions destes. Estudou-se a influência de um solvente molecular, DMSO, na reação de derivatização de celulose em LIs e percebeu-se que o uso do mesmo não é vantajoso. Por fim, realizou-se um planejamento experimental da acetilação da celulose, mostrando-se quais fatores mais afetam esse processo: tempo de reação, razão molar de anidrido acético/celulose e temperatura; The work reported has the target of studying the acylation of cellulose under homogeneous reaction conditions. Imidazolium-based ionic Liquids (ILs) were employed as solvents, and the reaction was assisted by a microwave. These following processes have been studied: Optimization of the synthesis of ILs; ii) Effects of the structure of ILs on the dissolution of cellulose; iii) Optimization of cellulose acylation. Experimental design has been applied in order to optimize the synthesis of ILs. The use of DMSO as a diluent decreased the efficiency of the synthesis. Dissolution of cellulose (eucalyptus...

Utilização da celulose de resíduos lignocelulósicos para obtenção de produtos de alto valor agregado; Utilization of cellulose from lignocellulosic residues for obtaining of products with high added value

Candido, Rafael Garcia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
399.95168%
Como conseqüência do aumento da produção de cana nos últimos anos, ocorreu o aumento da quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais gerados a partir deste processo, sendo os principais a palha e o bagaço da cana-de-açúcar. O potencial de produção desses resíduos representa em média 14% da massa da cana processada. A celulose é o principal constituinte desses materiais e pode dar origem a outros materiais por meio de reações de derivatização. Entre os derivados de celulose mais importantes, estão os éteres e os ésteres de celulose. A celulose também pode ser fragmentada, a fim de se utilizar seu monômero formador, a glicose. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo extrair a celulose da palha e do bagaço de cana para utilizá-la na produção de dois derivados, o acetato de celulose e a carboximetilcelulose, além de fragmentá-la a glicose, visando a estudar a hidrólise enzimática necessária para produção de etanol celulósico. Para isso, foram testadas duas vias de obtenção da celulose, uma via denominada ácida e outra, denominada alcalina. Ao término de cada etapa das vias, os materiais produzidos foram caracterizados quimicamente com a finalidade de se elucidar o que acontecia em cada etapa. Ao final dos dois processos...

Derivatização de celulose sob condições homogêneas: cinética e mecanismo de acilação do biopolímero em LiCI/DMAC e liquídos iônicos/solventes apróticos dipolares; Cellulose derivatization under homogeneous conditions: kinetics and mechanism of biopolymer acylation in LiCl/DMAC and ionic liquids-dipolar aprotic solvents

Nawaz, Haq
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
517.22758%
O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar a reatividade de acilação de celulose por anidridos de ácidos carboxílicos sob condições homogêneas em solventes apróticos dipolares (SAD), incluindo LiCl/N,N-dimetilacetamida (DMAC) e líquidos iônicos (LIs)/SAD. Os factores que contribuem para a reatividade foram quantificados através do estudo da dependência das constantes de velocidade e parâmetros de ativação sobre a composição do solvente. Após estabelecer que a condutividade é uma técnica experimental adequada para calcular as constantes de velocidade, foi estudada a acilação não catalisada e catalisada de celulose microcristalina, MCC. Foram empregados anidridos de ácidos carboxílicos com diferentes grupos acila (acetil a hexanoil; Nc = 2 a 6) nos seguintes sistemas de solventes: LiCl/DMAC, misturas de LI cloreto de 1-alil-3-metilimidazólio ( AlMeImCl ) e acetonitrila (MeCN), DMAC , dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO ) e sulfolano. Na celulose, a unidade anidra de glucose possui um grupo hidroxila primário e dois hidroxilas secundários. Usamos ciclohexilmetanol, CHM, e trans-1 ,2- ciclo-hexanodiol, CHD , como compostos modelo para os grupos (OH) primário e secundários, respectivamente. As razões das constantes de velocidade de acilação dos compostos modelo (CHM; Prim-OH) e (CHD; SEC-OH) foram empregados...

Thermal behavior of cellulose acetate produced from homogeneous acetylation of bacterial cellulose

Barud, Hernane S.; de Araujo Junior, Adalberto M.; Santos, Daniele B.; de Assuncao, Rosana M. N.; Meireles, Carla S.; Cerqueira, Daniel A.; Rodrigues Filho, Guimes; Ribeiro, Clovis A.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 61-69
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
627.53363%
Cellulose acetate (CA) is one of the most important cellulose derivatives and its main applications are its use in membranes, films, fibers, plastics and filters. CAs are produced from cellulose sources such as: cotton, sugar cane bagasse, wood and others. One promissory source of cellulose is bacterial cellulose (BC). In this work, CA was produced from the homogeneous acetylation reaction of bacterial cellulose. Degree of substitution (DS) values can be controlled by the acetylation time. The characterization of CA samples showed the formation of a heterogeneous structure for CA samples submitted to a short acetylation time. A more homogeneous structure was produced for samples prepared with a long acetylation time. This fact changes the thermal behavior of the CA samples. Thermal characterization revealed that samples submitted to longer acetylation times display higher crystallinity and thermal stability than samples submitted to a short acetylation time. The observation of these characteristics is important for the production of cellulose acetate from this alternative source. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Synthesis and characterization of cellulose acetate produced from recycled newspaper

Rodrigues Filho, Guirnes; Monteiro, Douglas Santos; Meireles, Carla da Silva; Nascimento de Assuncao, Rosana Maria; Cerqueira, Daniel Alves; Barud, Hernane Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.; Messadeq, Younes
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 74-82
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
407.79508%
In this work, the viability of recycling newspaper for producing cellulose acetate was tested. Newspaper recycling is extremely important not only for the environment preservation, but also from the economical point of view of aggregating value to this residue. Cellulose acetate was produced from a homogeneous acetylation, and then characterized by FTIR, DSC and TGA. Acetylation times were 48 h for as received newspaper (CA48) and 24 h for delignified newspaper (CA24), resulting in cellulose diacetate (DS = 1.98 +/- 0.22) for CA48 and cellulose triacetate (DS = 2.79 +/- 0.02) for CA24, respectively. Membranes of these materials were produced and characterized according to the previously mentioned techniques and by measurements of water vapor flux, which were compared to membranes of nanofiltration SG from Osmonix (R). Results showed that independently of a purification step, it is possible to produce cellulose acetate membranes through the chemical recycling of newspaper and that membrane CA24 presents thermal stability comparable to membranes produced of commercial cellulose acetate. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Obtenção de acetato de celulose proveniente do bagaço de cana-de-açucar e avaliação de sua aplicação em sistemas de difusão controlada; Cellulose acetate production from sugarcane bagasse and evaluation of its application in controlled diffusion systems

Lisa Caroline Carvalho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/06/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
398.3107%
Atualmente, novas rotas de obtenção de polímeros naturais vêm sendo exploradas para as mais diversas finalidades, como forma alternativa aos polímeros provenientes do petróleo. A celulose, biopolímero mais abundante de todas as substâncias naturais, encontrado em diversos tipos de biomassa, com destaque para o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, é constituída por grupos hidroxilas, com diferentes graus de reatividade. Vários métodos têm sido utilizados para extrair e modificar a celulose, sendo a modificação química fundamental para aumentar sua aplicabilidade, customizando sua funcionalidade. Neste trabalho, uma rota mais simplificada do que a existente na literatura foi sugerida para realizar a extração de celulose do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar. As etapas foram combinadas e otimizadas visando facilitar o scale-up para o nível industrial. A celulose foi obtida, inicialmente, através de um pré-tratamento químico seqüencial utilizando-se solução alcalina associada ao peróxido de hidrogênio. Nesta etapa foi avaliada a influência da moagem e remoção dos extrativos na obtenção da celulose. As caracterizações mostraram, qualitativamente, um comportamento muito semelhante em todas as amostras analisadas. Para o estudo...

Bacterial cellulose as a feasible cell carrier for Retinal Pigment Epithelium cell transplantation

Gonçalves, Sara; Silva, João P.; Dourado, Fernando; Rodrigues, L. R.
Fonte: Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS) Publicador: Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /06/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
397.5992%
Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cell transplantation is a potential therapy for retinal degenerative diseases that affect millions of people worldwide. However, for its use in cell therapy, RPE cells need to be transplanted as a functional cell monolayer, thus requiring a carrier substrate. An ideal substrate for this application should support acquisition and/or maintain the RPE phenotype; allow fluid transport and metabolites exchange; enable easy surgical manipulation; be well tolerated in the subretinal space; and biodegrade or integrate over time. Several biomaterials have been studied for this application, such as collagen, poly-L-lactic acid, gelatin, fibrinogen, deepithelialized amniotic membrane, among others. Although growth of healthy RPE has been achieved on both biodegradable and non biodegradable, synthetic and biologic substrates, only an exceptionally low number of these substrates show acceptable tissue response. Growth of RPE cell monolayers on bacterial cellulose (BC) surfaces presents itself as an interesting alternative for the replacement of both the RPE in degeneration and the compromised Bruch’s membrane (BM) in retinal degenerative diseases. BC, produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinum, is a safe, non-degradable biomaterial and can be obtained with a thickness similar to BM...

Some aspects of acetylation of untreated and mercerized sisal cellulose

Ciacco,Gabriela T.; Morgado,Daniella Lury; Frollini,Elisabete; Possidonio,Shirley; El Seoud,Omar A.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
614.37074%
We report here on some aspects of the acetylation in LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide, DMAc, of untreated and mercerized sisal cellulose, hereafter designated as sisal and M-sisal, respectively. Fiber mercerization by NaOH solution has resulted in the following changes: 29.9% decrease in the index of crystallinity; 16.2% decrease in the degree of polymerization and 9.3% increase in α-cellulose content. A light scattering study of solutions of sisal, M-sisal, microcrystalline and cotton celluloses in LiCl/DMAc has shown that they are present as aggregates, with (an apparent) average aggregation numbers of 5.2, 3.2, 9.8, and 35.3, respectively. The presence of these aggregates affects the accessibility of cellulose during its functionalization. A study of the evolution of the degree of substitution, DS, of cellulose acetate as a function of reaction time showed an increase up to 5 h, followed by a decrease at 7 h. Possible reasons for this decrease are discussed. As expected, M-sisal gave a higher DS that its untreated counterpart.

The acetylation of hemoglobin by aspirin. In vitro and in vivo.

Bridges, K R; Schmidt, G J; Jensen, M; Cerami, A; Bunn, H F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1975 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
490.1266%
The chemical modification of hemoglobin by aspirin (ASA) has been studied, both in intact human red cells and in purified hemoglobin solutions. After incubation of red cells with 20 mM [acetyl-1minus14C]ASA, incorporation of radioactivity into hemoglobin was observed in agreement with the results of Klotz and Tam (1973. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 70: 1313-1315). In contrast, no labeling of hemoglobin was seen when [carbosyl-14-C]ASA was used. These results indicate that ASA acetylates hemoglobin. The acetylated hemoglobin was readily separated from unmodified hemoglobin by both gel electrofocusing and by column chromatography. Quantitation of the extent of acetylation by densitometric scanning of gels agreed very well with estimates obtained from radioactivity measurements. Hemolysates prepared from red cells incubated with ASA showed normal oxygen affinity and heme-heme interaction. Purified acetylated hemoglobin had a slightly increased oxygen affinity and decreased heme-heme interaction. There was no difference in the rate of acetylation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. ASA acetylated column-purified hemoglobin A more readily than hemoglobin in crude hemolysate, but less rapidly than purified human serum albumin. The rate of acetylation of hemoglobulin increased with pH up to approximately pH 8...

Metabolism of Monoterpenes: Acetylation of (—)-Menthol by a Soluble Enzyme Preparation from Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves 1

Croteau, Rodney; Hooper, Caroline Lee
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1978 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
486.1332%
The essential oil from mature leaves of flowering peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) contains up to 15% (—)-menthyl acetate, and leaf discs converted exogenous (—)-[G-3H]menthol into this ester in approximately 15% yield of the incorporated precursor. Leaf extracts catalyzed the acetyl coenzyme A-dependent acetylation of (—)-[G-3H]menthol and the product of this transacetylase reaction was identified by radiochromatographic techniques. Transacetylase activity was located mainly in the 100,000g supernatant fraction, and the preparation was partially purified by combination of Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and chromatography on O-diethylaminoethyl-cellulose. The transacetylase had a molecular weight of about 37,000 as judged by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration, and a pH optimum near 9. The apparent Km and velocity for (—)-menthol were 0.3 mm and 16 nmol/hr· mg of protein, respectively. The saturation curve for acetyl coenzyme A was sigmoidal, showing apparent saturation near 0.1 mm. Dithioerythritol was required for maximum activity and stability of the enzyme, and the enzyme was inhibited by thiol directed reagents such as p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Diisopropylfluorophosphate also inhibited transacylation suggesting the involvement of a serine residue in catalysis. The transacylase was highly specific for acetyl coenzyme A; propionyl coenzyme A and butyryl coenzyme A were not nearly as efficient as acyl donors (11% and 2%...

O-Acetylation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

Gille, Sascha; Pauly, Markus
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
497.13188%
Plant cell walls are composed of structurally diverse polymers, many of which are O-acetylated. How plants O-acetylate wall polymers and what its function is remained elusive until recently, when two protein families were identified in the model plant Arabidopsis that are involved in the O-acetylation of wall polysaccharides – the reduced wall acetylation (RWA) and the trichome birefringence-like (TBL) proteins. This review discusses the role of these two protein families in polysaccharide O-acetylation and outlines the differences and similarities of polymer acetylation mechanisms in plants, fungi, bacteria, and mammals. Members of the TBL protein family had been shown to impact pathogen resistance, freezing tolerance, and cellulose biosynthesis. The connection of TBLs to polysaccharide O-acetylation thus gives crucial leads into the biological function of wall polymer O-acetylation. From a biotechnological point understanding the O-acetylation mechanism is important as acetyl-substituents inhibit the enzymatic degradation of wall polymers and released acetate can be a potent inhibitor in microbial fermentations, thus impacting the economic viability of, e.g., lignocellulosic based biofuel production.

The pattern of xylan acetylation suggests xylan may interact with cellulose microfibrils as a twofold helical screw in the secondary plant cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana

Busse-Wicher, Marta; Gomes, Thiago C F; Tryfona, Theodora; Nikolovski, Nino; Stott, Katherine; Grantham, Nicholas J; Bolam, David N; Skaf, Munir S; Dupree, Paul
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
410.02234%
The interaction between xylan and cellulose microfibrils is important for secondary cell wall properties in vascular plants; however, the molecular arrangement of xylan in the cell wall and the nature of the molecular bonding between the polysaccharides are unknown. In dicots, the xylan backbone of β-(1,4)-linked xylosyl residues is decorated by occasional glucuronic acid, and approximately one-half of the xylosyl residues are O-acetylated at C-2 or C-3. We recently proposed that the even, periodic spacing of GlcA residues in the major domain of dicot xylan might allow the xylan backbone to fold as a twofold helical screw to facilitate alignment along, and stable interaction with, cellulose fibrils; however, such an interaction might be adversely impacted by random acetylation of the xylan backbone. Here, we investigated the arrangement of acetyl residues in Arabidopsis xylan using mass spectrometry and NMR. Alternate xylosyl residues along the backbone are acetylated. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we found that a twofold helical screw conformation of xylan is stable in interactions with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic cellulose faces. Tight docking of xylan on the hydrophilic faces is feasible only for xylan decorated on alternate residues and folded as a twofold helical screw. The findings suggest an explanation for the importance of acetylation for xylan–cellulose interactions...

Bacterial cellulose as a support for the growth of retinal pigment epithelium

Gonçalves, S.; Padrão, Jorge; Rodrigues, I. P.; Silva, João P.; Sencadas, V.; Lanceros-Méndez, S.; Girão, H.; Dourado, Fernando; Rodrigues, L. R.
Fonte: ACS Publications Publicador: ACS Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
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The feasibility of bacterial cellulose (BC) as a novel substrate for retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) culture was evaluated. Thin (41.6 ± 2.2 m of average thickness) and heatdried BC substrates were surface modified via acetylation and polysaccharide adsorption, using chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose. All substrates were characterized according to their surface chemistry, wettability, energy, topography and also regarding their permeability, dimensional stability, mechanical properties and endotoxin content. Then, their ability to promote RPE cell adhesion and proliferation in vitro was assessed. All surface-modified BC substrates presented similar permeation coefficients with solutes of up to 300 kDa. Acetylation of BC decreased its swelling and the amount of endotoxins. Surface modification of BC greatly enhanced the adhesion and proliferation of RPE cells. All samples showed similar stress-strain behavior; BC and acetylated BC showed the highest elastic modulus, but the latter exhibited a slightly smaller tensile strength and elongation at break as compared to pristine BC. Although similar proliferation rates were observed among the modified substrates, the acetylated ones showed higher initial cell adhesion. This difference may be mainly due to the moderately hydrophilic surface obtained after acetylation.

The pattern of xylan acetylation suggests xylan may interact with cellulose microfibrils as a two-fold helical screw in the secondary plant cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Busse-Wicher, Marta; Gomes, Thiago C. F.; Tryfona, Theodora; Nikolovski, Nino; Stott, Katherine; Grantham, Nicholas J.; Bolam, David N.; Skaf, Munir S.; Dupree, Paul D.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the accepted version of the following article: "Busse-Wicher, M; Gomes, T.C.F; Tryfona, T; Nikolovski, N; Stott, K; Grantham, N.J; Bolam, D.N; Skaf, M.S; Dupree, P. (2014) "The pattern of xylan acetylation suggests xylan may interact with cellulose microfibrils as a two-fold helical screw in the secondary plant cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana." The Plant Journal. Accepted article [electronic] 10.1111/tpj.12575", which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tpj.12575/abstract; The interaction between xylan and cellulose microfibrils is important for secondary cell wall properties in vascular plants. However, the molecular arrangement of xylan in the cell wall and the nature of the molecular bonding between the polysaccharides are unknown. In dicots, the xylan backbone of ?-(1,4)-linked xylosyl residues is decorated by occasional glucuronic acid and approximately one half of the xylosyl residues are O-acetylated at C-2 or C-3. We recently proposed that the even periodic spacing of GlcA residues in the major domain of dicot xylan might allow the xylan backbone to fold as a 2-fold helical screw to facilitate alignment along, and stable interaction with, cellulose fibrils (Bromley et al. 2013). However...