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Estudo da pirolise rapida de bagaço de cana em reator de leito fluidizado borbulhante; Study of fast pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a bubbling fluidized bed

Fernando de Lima Camargo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/06/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
59.26193%
O conteúdo de energia da biomassa pode ser explorado por combustão direta ou outros processos de conversão: físicos, biológicos e termoquímicos. Entre os processos termoquímicos há a pirólise que é atrativa devido à conversão de biomassa sólida para produtos líquidos apresentando algumas vantagens tais como no transporte, no armazenamento, na manufatura, reprocessamento e flexibilidade na produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi construir e operar um reator de leito fluidizado em escala de bancada com alimentação contínua de biomassa para converter o bagaço de cana de açúcar em líquidos via pirólise rápida. O reator construído tem 0,095 m de diâmetro interno e foi utilizado areia fina como material inerte. Foi desenvolvido um novo alimentador para controlar a alimentação contínua de biomassa no leito e um sistema isocinético de amostragem com o objetivo de quantificar os produtos gerados no processo. Uma metodologia experimental foi escrita para a realização de testes de pirólise rápida de biomassa. Experimentos foram realizados usando catalisadores de craqueamento de petróleo (FCC) e injeção de água no fluxo para avaliar a influência destes fatores no processo. Temperatura e altura estática do leito também foram consideradas neste estudo. A altura estática do leito e a temperatura foram as variáveis mais relevantes na maioria dos testes realizados e necessitam de atenção especial na conversão para produtos líquidos; The energy content of biomass can be exploited by direct combustion or after conversion by physical...

Gaseificação de carvão mineral brasileiro na presença de ortossilicato de lítio visando a produção aumentada de hidrogênio

Domenico, Michele Di
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 198 p.| il., tabs., grafs.
POR
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Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química, Florianópolis, 2013.; Óxidos de metais alcalino-terrosos (especialmente de cálcio e magnésio) têm sido empregados no processo de gaseificação, a fim de aumentar a produção de hidrogênio por meio da captura de CO2 in situ. Ao remover CO2 do meio reacional, as relações de equilíbrio químico são modificadas, conduzindo a uma maior produção de hidrogênio. Embora esta abordagem para a produção de H2 tenha sido demonstrada na literatura, ainda existem limitações para a sua aplicação em larga escala, sendo que algumas delas estão relacionadas a reversibilidade do processo de captura de CO2 e perda da capacidade adsortiva dos óxidos de cálcio quando estes são empregados. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a gaseificação com vapor de água de um carvão mineral brasileiro na presença de ortossilicato de lítio (Li4SiO4), avaliando-se a influência da temperatura de reação (650 oC-1000 oC), da concentração de vapor de água (10-40 %) e da razão Li4SiO4:C (1:1-10:1) na cinética das reações e na formação dos produtos gasosos, além de identificar as melhores condições de operação para aumentar a produção de H2. Três modelos teóricos foram ajustados aos dados experimentais e os parâmetros cinéticos foram encontrados. O carvão utilizado...

Production of bio-hydrocarbons by hydrotreating of pomace oil

Pinto, Filomena; Varela, F. T.; Gonçalves, Margarida; André, Rui Neto; Costa, Paula; Mendes, Benilde
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.830574%
Olive pomace oil is a by-product from the olive oil industry that is still being used in the food industry as a low value vegetable oil. Crude olive pomace oil needs to be refined and is blended with virgin olive oils before being used as edible oil. The detection of toxic compounds led to more restricted legislation and to the search of alternative valorisation processes, such as hydrotreating to obtain bio-hydrocarbons. Hydrotreating of olive pomace oil at moderate temperatures (from 300 to 430 C) and in presence of initial hydrogen pressure of 1.1 MPa led to triglycerides destruction and to their conversion into a large range of organic compounds with predominance to hydrocarbons. Even without any catalyst, conversions into hydrocarbons were always higher than 90% (v/v). Catalyst presence, such as: CoMo/Al2O3, FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) or HZSM-5 changed hydrogenated liquids composition. The highest content of alkanes was obtained with CoMo catalyst, while FCC and HZSM-5 led to the highest contents of aromatic compounds. The results obtained showed that olive pomace oil can be efficiently converted into bio-hydrocarbons with a wide range of applications. It was also studied the effect of pyrolysing olive pomace oil prior to its hydrotreating. Pyrolysis pre-treatment seems to have favoured hydrotreating process by promoting initial cracking reactions. Thus...

Stochastic modeling of the thermal and catalytic degradation of polyethylene using simultaneous DSC/TG analysis

Trindade, Nuno Miguel Passarinho
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
39.635657%
Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Química e Bioquímica; In the present work a stochastic model to be used for analyzing and predicting experimental data from simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments on the thermal and catalytic degradation of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was developed. Unlike the deterministic models, already developed, with this one it’s possible to compute the mass and energy curves measured by simultaneous TG/DSC assays, as well as to predict the product distribution resulting from primary cracking of the polymer, without using any experimental information. For the stochastic model to predict the mass change as well as the energy involved in the whole process of HDPE pyrolysis, a reliable model for the cracking reaction and a set of vaporization laws suitable to compute the vaporization rates are needed. In order to understand the vaporization process, this was investigated separately from cracking. For that, a set of results from TG/DSC experiments using species that vaporize well before they crack was used to obtain a global correlation between the kinetic parameters for vaporization and the number of C-C bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. The best fitting curves were chosen based on the model ability to superimpose the experimental rates and produce consistent results for heavier hydrocarbons. The model correlations were implemented in the program’s code and allowed the prediction of the vaporization rates. For the determination of the global kinetic parameters of the degradation reaction to use in the stochastic model...

Comparing Thermal-Cracking and Catalytic Hydrocracking in the Presence of Rh and Ru Catalysts to Produce Liquid Hydrocarbons from Vegetable Oils

Rodrigues,Juliana P.; Jacinto,Marcos J.; Oliveira,Henrique L.; Falcão,Yuri H. O.; Suarez,Paulo A. Z.; Rossi,Liane M.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.690972%
We describe herein the production of liquid hydrocarbons through the catalytic hydrocracking of soybean, palm tree and castor oils, in the presence and absence of ruthenium and rhodium nanoparticle catalysts. The reaction at 200 ºC leads to the hydrogenation of C=C double bonds only. However, at 400 ºC, the decomposition of the triacylglycerides was observed, leading to hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds. The catalyzed hydrocracking of vegetable oils in the presence of Rh and Ru strongly increased the amount of deoxygenated products and the formation of long-chain linear hydrocarbons, which are suitable for use as diesel fuel, when compared with pyrolysis reaction in the absence of the catalysts. The Ru catalyst is more effective than Rh, especially in the case of castor oil, probably due to its higher oxophilicity when compared to Rh.

Catalytic pyrolysis of waste rice husk over mesoporous materials

Jeon, Mi-Jin; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ji Man; Sohn, Jung Min; Lee, See-Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
40.251094%
Catalytic fast pyrolysis of waste rice husk was carried out using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [Py-GC/MS]. Meso-MFI zeolite [Meso-MFI] was used as the catalyst. In addition, a 0.5-wt.% platinum [Pt] was ion-exchanged into Meso-MFI to examine the effect of Pt addition. Using a catalytic upgrading method, the activities of the catalysts were evaluated in terms of product composition and deoxygenation. The structure and acid site characteristics of the catalysts were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption analysis. Catalytic upgrading reduced the amount of oxygenates in the product vapor due to the cracking reaction of the catalysts. Levoglucosan, a polymeric oxygenate species, was completely decomposed without being detected. While the amount of heavy phenols was reduced by catalytic upgrading, the amount of light phenols was increased because of the catalytic cracking of heavy phenols into light phenols and aromatics. The amount of aromatics increased remarkably as a result of catalytic upgrading, which is attributed to the strong Brönsted acid sites and the shape selectivity of the Meso-MFI catalyst. The addition of Pt made the Meso-MFI catalyst even more active in deoxygenation and in the production of aromatics.

The Investigation of Reducing PAHs Emission from Coal Pyrolysis by Gaseous Catalytic Cracking

Wang, Yulong; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Chun; Li, Guanlong; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fan
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The catalytic cracking method of PAHs for the pyrolysis gaseous products is proposed to control their pollution to the environment. In this study, the Py-GC-MS is used to investigate in situ the catalytic effect of CaO and Fe2O3 on the 16 PAHs from Pingshuo coal pyrolysis under different catalytic temperatures and catalyst particle sizes. The results demonstrate that Fe2O3 is effective than that of CaO for catalytic cracking of 16 PAHs and that their catalytic temperature corresponding to the maximum PAHs cracking rates is different. The PAHs cracking rate is up to 60.59% for Fe2O3 at 600°C and is 52.88% at 700°C for CaO. The catalytic temperature and particle size of the catalysts have a significant effect on PAHs cracking rate and CaO will lose the capability of decreasing 16 PAHs when the temperature is higher than 900°C. The possible cracking process of 16 PAHs is deduced by elaborately analyzing the cracking effect of the two catalysts on 16 different species of PAHs.

Preparação e caracterização de catalisadores à base de titânio suportado em MCM-41 para produção de compostos oxigenados através da pirólise catalítica do capim elefante

Fontes, Maria do Socorro Braga
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais; Processamento de Materiais a partir do Pó; Polímeros e Compósitos; Processamento de Materiais a part Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais; Processamento de Materiais a partir do Pó; Polímeros e Compósitos; Processamento de Materiais a part
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
29.916357%
In recent years, the area of advanced materials has been considerably, especially when it comes to materials for industrial use, such as is the case with structured porosity of catalysts suitable for catalytic processes. The use of catalysts combined with the fast pyrolysis process is an alternative to the oxygenate production of high added value, because, in addition to increasing the yield and quality of products, allows you to manipulate the selectivity to a product of interest, and therefore allows greater control over the characteristics of the final product. Based on these arguments, in this work were prepared titanium catalysts supported on MCM-41 for use in catalytic pyrolysis of biomass, called elephant grass. The reactions of pyrolysis of biomass were performed in a micro pyrolyzer, Py-5200, coupled to GC / MS, the company CDS Corporation, headquartered in the United States. The catalysts Ti-MCM-41 in different molar ratios were characterized by XRD, TG / DTG, FT-IR, SEM, XRF, UV-visible adsorption of nitrogen and the distribution of particle diameter and specific surface area measurement by the BET method. From the catalytic tests it was observed that the catalysts synthesized showed good results for the pyrolysis reaction.The main products were obtained a higher yield of aldehydes...

Síntese, caracterização e aplicação do MCM-41 e A1-MCM-41 na pirólise do resíduo atmosférico de petróleo

Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química; Físico-Química; Química Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química; Físico-Química; Química
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
70.502314%
In present work, mesoporous materials of the M41S family were synthesized, which were discovered in the early 90s by researchers from Mobil Oil Corporation, thus allowing new perspectives in the field of catalysis. One of the most important members of this family is the MCM-41, which has a hexagonal array of mesopores with pore diameters ranging from 2 to 10 nm and a high surface area, enabling it to become very promising for the use as a catalyst in the refining of oil in the catalytic cracking process, since the mesopores facilitate the access of large hydrocarbon molecules, thereby increasing the production of light products, that are in high demand in the market. The addition of aluminum in the structure of MCM-41 increases the acidity of the material, making it more beneficial for application in the petrochemical industry. The mesoporous materials MCM-41 and Al-MCM-41 (ratio Si / Al = 50) were synthesized through the hydrothermal method, starting with silica gel, NaOH and distilled water. CTMABr was used as template, for structural guiding. In Al-MCM-41 the same reactants were used, with the adding of pseudoboehmite (as a source of aluminum) in the synthesis gel. The syntheses were carried out over a period of four days with a daily adjustment of pH. The optimum conditions of calcination for the removal of the organic template (CTMABr) were discovered through TG / DTG and also through analysis by XRD...

Craqueamento termocatalítico de óleo de girassol na presença da peneira molecular SAPO-5

Oliveira, Ricardo Miguel de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química; Físico-Química; Química Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química; Físico-Química; Química
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
39.93558%
The catalytic cracking of triglycerides presents itself as a possible alternative to the production of biofuels with low emission of pollutants. In this work were synthesized the SAPO-5, the catalysts for the cracking reaction of soybean oil is presented. The solids were powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The analyses indicated that the synthesis method has employed to obtain materials with high surface area and high acid. The soybean oil thermal and thermal catalytic cracking, realized from the room temperature to 450 ºC in a simple distillation system, has allowed obtaining two liquid fractions, each consisting of two phases, one aqueous and another organic, organic liquid (OL). The OL obtained from first fractions has shown high acid index, even in the thermal catalytic process. The products obtained in the cracking of soybean oil were analyzed by distillation, acid number, infra-red spectroscopy, density, viscosity, carbon residue, cetane number determination and characterization. The analysis of the products obtained in the presence and in the absence of the SAPO-5 permitted to conclude that all the solids tested presented catalytic activity in the deoxygenation of final products only at the second step of the cracking process; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico; O craqueamento catalítico de triacilglicerídeos se apresenta como uma alternativa viável para a produção de biocombustíveis com baixa emissão de poluentes. Neste trabalho foi sintetizado o SAPO-5...

Degradação térmica e catalítica do resíduo atmosférico de petróleo (RAT), utilizando materiais nanoestruturados do tipo SBA-15

Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química; Físico-Química; Química Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química; Físico-Química; Química
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
39.92787%
In this work were synthesized and characterized the materials mesoporous SBA-15 and Al- SBA-15, Si / Al = 25, 50 and 75, discovered by researchers at the University of California- Santa Barbara, USA, with pore diameters ranging from 2 to 30 nm and wall thickness from 3.1 to 6.4 nm, making these promising materials in the field of catalysis, particularly for petroleum refining (catalytic cracking), as their mesopores facilitate access of the molecules constituting the oil to active sites, thereby increasing the production of hydrocarbons in the range of light and medium. To verify that the materials used as catalysts were successfully synthesized, they were characterized using techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), absorption spectroscopy in the infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) and adsorption nitrogen (BET). Aiming to check the catalytic activity thereof, a sample of atmospheric residue oil (ATR) from the pole Guamaré-RN was performed the process by means of thermogravimetry and thermal degradation of catalytic residue. Upon the curves, it was observed a reduction in the onset temperature of the decomposition process of catalytic ATR. For the kinetic model proposed by Flynn-Wall yielded some parameters to determine the apparent activation energy of decomposition...

Pyrolysis of biomass with sulfated/zirconia-titania

Liu, Yichen
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
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peer-reviewed; The project carried out in the past four years has focused on the area of biomass pyrolysis for the production of bio-oil, and the upgrading of bio-oil. In the beginning of the work, mixed metal oxide catalysts – sulfated/ zirconia-titania with different ZrO2 loading amounts were studied. One of the major parts of this work was to investigate the relationship between catalyst activity and catalyst properties, including surface area and surface acidity. Model reaction between acetic acid and ethanol was also carried out to test the catalyst activity. The investigation has shown the highest acetic acid conversion was obtained by using 60 wt% SO4 2-/ ZrO2-TiO2. Furthermore, SO4 2-/ ZrO2- TiO2 was applied in bio-oil esterification. The result showed the bio-oil properties have been improved greatly. Following on from this work, biomass hydro-pyrolysis and catalytic cracking was studied since it is a possible approach for high grade bio-oil production thus enhancing the level of biomass conversion. 60 wt% SO4 2-/ ZrO2-TiO2 was used in this study, as well as different H2 pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 20 bar. The result has shown the hydro-pyrolysis had many advantages over the conventional pyrolysis since a large amount of oxygen was removed from bio-oil in the form of water and COx. This would not only enhance the stability but also the high heating value of bio-oil. Moreover...

Estudo do efeito da presença de alumina dopada com TiO2 e ZrO2 no craqueamento do óleo de soja

Quirino, Rafael Lopes
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
29.519846%
Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Química, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, 2006.; O craqueamento catalítico de triacilglicerídeos se apresenta como uma alternativa viável para a produção de biocombustíveis com baixa emissão de poluentes. Apresenta-se aqui um estudo sobre a utilização de sólidos, formados a base de óxidos mistos de Ti, Zr e Al, como catalisadores na reação de pirólise do óleo de soja. O estudo contempla, após uma ampla revisão bibliográfica sobre o processo de obtenção de hidrocarbonetos a partir de triacilglicerídeos por pirólise de óleos vegetais e gorduras animais, a síntese por coprecipitação e a caracterização dos diversos sólidos por análise termogravimétrica, difração de raios-X, área superficial determinada pelo método BET, composição química (ICP-AES), espectroscopia Raman e determinação da acidez superficial por titulação e FTIR. Os produtos obtidos no craqueamento de óleo de soja foram analisados por destilação, índice de acidez, espectroscopia no infravermelho, densidade, viscosidade, resíduo de carbono, determinação do índice de cetano e caracterização da mistura resultante por CG-MS e CG-FID. A análise dos produtos obtidos na presença e na ausência dos óxidos sintetizados permitiu concluir que todos os sólidos testados apresentaram atividade catalítica para a desoxigenação dos produtos finais apenas na segunda etapa do processo de craqueamento. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT; The catalytic cracking of triglycerides presents itself as a possible alternative to the production of biofuels with low emission of pollutants. In this work a study of the use of solids...

Pirólise térmica e catalítica de resíduos de vácuo gerados no refino de petróleo

Lima, Regineide de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.569077%
In this study, was used a very promising technique called of pyrolysis, which can be used for obtaining products with higher added value. From oils and residues, since the contribution of heavier oils and residues has intensified to the world refining industry, due to the growing demand for fuel, for example, liquid hydrocarbons in the range of gasoline and diesel. The catalytic pyrolysis of vacuum residues was performed with the use of a mesoporous material belonging the M41S family, which was discovered in the early 90s by researchers Mobil Oil Corporation, allowing new perspectives in the field of catalysis. One of the most important members of this family is the MCM-41, which has a hexagonal arrangement of mesopores with pore diameters between 2 and 10 nm and a high specific surface area, making it very promising for use as a catalyst in petroleum refining for catalytic cracking, and their mesopores facilitate the access of large hydrocarbon molecules. The addition of aluminum in the structure of MCM-41 increases the acidity of the material, making it more positive for application in the petrochemical industry. The mesoporous material of the type Al-MCM41 (ratio Si / Al = 50) was synthesized by hydrothermal method starting from the silica gel...

Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; George, Anthe
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
39.50389%
A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock...

Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of waste engine oil using metallic pyrolysis char

Lam, Su Shiung; Liew, Rock Keey; Cheng, Chin Kui; Chase, Howard A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from [publisher] via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.04.014; Microwave pyrolysis was performed on waste engine oil pre-mixed with different amounts of metallic-char catalyst produced previously from a similar microwave pyrolysis process. The metallic-char catalyst was first prepared by pretreatment with calcination followed by analyses to determine its various properties. The heating characteristics of the mixture of waste oil and metallic-char during the pyrolysis were investigated, and the catalytic influence of the metallic-char on the yield and characteristics of the pyrolysis products are discussed with emphasis on the composition of oil and gaseous products. The metallic-char, detected to have a porous structure and high surface area (124 m2/g), showed high thermal stability in a N2 atmosphere and it was also found to have phases of metals and metal oxides attached or adsorbed onto the char, representing a potentially suitable catalyst to be used in pyrolysis cracking process. The metallic-char initially acted as an adsorptive-support to adsorb metals, metal oxides and waste oil. Then, the char became a microwave absorbent that absorbed microwave energy and heated up to a high temperature in a short time and it was found to generate arcing and sparks during microwave pyrolysis of the waste oil...

Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of HDPE using an activated carbon bed

Russell, Alan Donald
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
60.11793%
Plastics play an enormous role in modern manufacturing, but the extraction and refining of raw materials, followed by the synthesis of plastics themselves, represents an enormous energy investment into a product that is all too often simply ?thrown away? into a landfill after a single use. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is a recycling technique that allows the recovery of chemical value from plastic waste by breaking down polymers into useful smaller hydrocarbons using microwave heat in the absence of oxygen. This dissertation examines the use of a catalytic activated carbon bed in this procedure, using high density polyethylene (HDPE) as a model plastic. Initial tests with the batch input of HDPE produced a condensed pyrolysis oil comprising 35.5?45.3% aromatics, with the remainder primarily short-chain aliphatics. This oil was approximately three times lighter than that produced in the absence of catalyst, with a narrower range of molecular masses that matched those of the liquid transport fuels petrol and diesel (C5?C21). The non-condensable gases that resulted were short-chain aliphatics that could be used as feedstock for the creation of new chemicals (such as virgin HDPE), or fuels such as natural gas and LPG. The development of apparatus capable of adding sample in a continuous fashion enabled the processing of larger quantities of HDPE...