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O uso de biomateriais em implantes fenestrados : uma revisão atual

Horn, Karina Seyboth
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.97%
A implantodontia tem sido uma das áreas da Odontologia atual que mais vem se desenvolvendo nas últimas décadas. Técnicas cirúrgicas para implantes e de enxertia óssea para a correção de defeitos ósseos vêm sendo desenvolvidas e constantemente aprimoradas. A inovação mais recente foi a introdução do uso de biomateriais para corrigir defeitos ósseos prévios ou ocorridos trans-cirurgicamente. Devido a esta introdução recente, pairam ainda sobre a prática clínica, algumas dúvidas quanto ao sucesso da utilização trans-cirúrgica desses biomateriais durante a colocação de implantes. Esta revisão de literatura tem por objetivo analisar estudos referentes ao uso dos biomateriais em casos de fenestração de implantes, abordando a taxa de neoformação óssea promovida por estes biomateriais, os níveis de osseointegração e de reabsorção óssea nos locais dos enxertos e a longevidade dos implantes dentários colocados sob estas condições.; The implant therapy has been one of the actual Dentistry areas that has evolved in recent decades. Surgical techniques for implants and bone grafting to repair bone defects has been developed and constantly improved. The more recent innovation was the introduction of the use of biomaterials to correct bone defects that occurred prior or trans-surgically. Due to this recent issue...

In vitro evaluation of three different biomaterials as scaffolds for canine mesenchymal stem cells

Pereira-Junior, Oduvaldo Câmara Marques; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Lima-Neto, João Ferreira; Landim e Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 353-360
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.97%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); PURPOSE: To evaluate in vitro ability the of three different biomaterials - purified hydroxyapatite, demineralized bone matrix and castor oil-based polyurethane - as biocompatible 3D scaffolds for canine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) intending bone tissue engineering. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from canine bone marrow, characterized and cultivated for seven days with the biomaterials. Cell proliferation and adhesion to the biomaterial surface were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy while differentiation into osteogenic lineage was evaluated by Alizarin Red staining and Sp7/Osterix surface antibody marker. RESULTS: The biomaterials allowed cellular growth, attachment and proliferation. Osteogenic differentiation occurred in the presence of hydroxyapatite, and matrix deposition commenced in the presence of the castor oil-based polyurethane. CONCLUSION: All the tested biomaterials may be used as mesenchymal stem cell scaffolds in cell-based orthopedic reconstructive therapy.

Avaliação física e radiográfica de biomateriais usados para regeneração óssea

Corbi, Samara Cruz Tfaile; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Marcantonio Júnior, Elcio; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chierici
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 101-107
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.04%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); The search for new alternatives used in bone regeneration pushes the biomaterials development, and characteristics such as form, superficial roughness and size, allied to the radiographic bone density of those biomaterials can influence their clinical use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shape, the size, the superficial aspects and the radiographic density of some of the most used bone-regenerating biomaterials grains. Radiographic results showed that all evaluated biomaterials had statistically equal radiographic densities, but all of them were higher than the radiographic bone density of rats calvaria, which is the region normally used for its test. On the physical analysis, β-TCP and HAP showed the higher superficial roughness, while the grains diameter and area showed heterogeneous results, with the lyophilized bovine bone showing the higher measures. Based on the results, it is concluded that the tested biomaterials presented higher radiographic density than the region where they are normally applied, and that significant differences in the shape, size and surface roughness could be seen, characteristics which can interfere in their clinical performance.; A busca por novos materiais para regeneração óssea incentiva o estudo dos biomateriais e sabe-se que suas características físicas...

Caracterização radiográfica ex vivo de biomateriais utilizados para regeneração óssea em mandíbulas de porcos

Corbi, Samara Cruz Tfaile; Spin Neto, Rubens; Marcantonio Júnior, Elcio; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chierici
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 169-176
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.97%
Introduction: The radiographic characteristics of a biomaterial, such as its density, may influence the evaluation of the results obtained following its clinical use. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic density of biomaterials used as bone substitutes, inserted into dental sockets and bone defects in created in the jaws of pigs. The influence of a soft tissue simulator on the results was also evaluated. Material and method: Two and three-millimeter-deep bone defects were created in the pigs mandible and the right first molar extraction socket were used. Commercial samples of five biomaterials were tested: Hydroxyapatite, Lyophilized Bovine Bone, 45S5 bioglass (generic), PerioGlass and β-Tri-Calcium Phosphate, and compared to a positive (mandibular bone) and negative (empty alveolar bone defects) controls. Radiographic images were acquired with and without a 10 mm thick soft-tissue simulator. Result: The results for the extraction sockets showed no differences between the biomaterials and the negative control. For the bone defects, the depth of the defect density influenced the density, both in the negative control (p < 0.01) and biomaterials (p < 0.05) groups. The soft- tissue simulator did not alter the results. Conclusion: The type of the evaluated defect can interfere in the radiographic features presented by each biomaterial...

Desenvolvimento de poliuretanos em unidade experimental de polimerização a partir de fontes renováveis; Development of polyurethane poymerization from renewable sources in an experimental unit

Evandro Stoffels Mallmann
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/07/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.97%
O funcionamento inadequado ou a perda de funções totais ou parciais de um órgão ou tecido, resultante de doenças ou traumas é, atualmente, um dos mais importantes e preocupantes problemas de saúde pública no mundo, atingindo um número muito significativo da população. Assim, torna-se necessário construir novos dispositivos de apoio e materiais que possibilitem uma melhor qualidade de vida aos pacientes. Este projeto de pesquisa, vinculado ao Projeto Temático intitulado "Instituto Nacional de Ciência & Tecnologia em Biofabricação: Síntese de Biomateriais, Simulação e Processos - Biofabris" (Processo FAPESP n° 2008/57860-3) objetiva a produção de poliuretanos (PUs) em bancada e em unidade experimental de polimerização a partir de fontes renováveis (óleo de mamona), que apresentem características de baixa toxicidade, biocompatibilidade e/ou biodegradabilidade adequadas para serem empregados como biomateriais para aplicações médicas. Neste trabalho foram preparados PUs em diferentes proporções de isocianatos (HDB e HDT) e poliol (ácido ricinoléico). A caracterização físico-química das amostras foi realizada através das seguintes técnicas: calorimetria diferencial exploratória, análise termogravimétrica...

An in vivo study of the host response to starch-based polymers and composites subcutaneously implanted in rats

Marques, A. P.; Reis, R. L.; Hunt, J. A.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.97%
Implant failure is one of the major concerns in the biomaterials field. Several factors have been related to the fail but in general these biomaterials do not exhibit comparable physical, chemical or biological properties to natural tissues and ultimately, these devices can lead to chronic inflammation and foreign-body reactions. Starch-based biodegradable materials and composites have shown promising properties for a wide range of biomedical applications as well as a reduced capacity to elicit a strong reaction from immune system cells in vitro. In this work, blends of corn starch with ethylene vinyl alcohol (SEVA-C), cellulose acetate (SCA) and polycaprolactone (SPCL), as well as hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced starch-based composites, were investigated in vivo. The aim of the work was to assess the host response evoked for starch-based biomaterials, identifying the presence of key cell types. The tissues surrounding the implant were harvested together with the material and processed histologically for evaluation using immunohistochemistry. At implant retrieval there was no cellular exudate around the implants and no macroscopic signs of an inflammatory reaction in any of the animals. The histological analysis of the sectioned interface tissue after immunohistochemical staining using ED1...

The use of Keratin in biomedical applications

Vasconcelos, Andreia; Paulo, Artur Cavaco
Fonte: NCBI Publicador: NCBI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.04%
Keratins are naturally derived proteins that can be fabricated into several biomaterials morphologies including films, sponges and hydrogels. As a physical matrix, keratin biomaterials have several advantages of both natural and synthetic materials that are useful in tissue engineering and controlled released applications. Like other naturally derived protein biomaterials, such as collagen, keratin possess amino acid sequences, similar to the ones found on extracellular matrix (ECM), that may interact with integrins showing their ability to support cellular attachment, proliferation and migration. The ability of developing biomaterials that mimic ECM has the potential to control several biological processes and this is the case for keratin which has been used in a variety of biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. This review describes the progress to date towards the use of keratin in the field of wound healing, tissue engineering and drug delivery applications, with highlight to reports of particular relevance to the development of the underlying biomaterials science in this area.

In vitro evaluation of three different biomaterials as scaffolds for canine mesenchymal stem cells

Pereira-Junior,Oduvaldo Câmara Marques; Rahal,Sheila Canevese; Lima-Neto,João Ferreira; Landim-Alvarenga,Fernanda da Cruz; Monteiro,Frederico Ozanan Barros
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.97%
PURPOSE: To evaluate in vitro ability the of three different biomaterials - purified hydroxyapatite, demineralized bone matrix and castor oil-based polyurethane - as biocompatible 3D scaffolds for canine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) intending bone tissue engineering. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from canine bone marrow, characterized and cultivated for seven days with the biomaterials. Cell proliferation and adhesion to the biomaterial surface were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy while differentiation into osteogenic lineage was evaluated by Alizarin Red staining and Sp7/Osterix surface antibody marker. RESULTS: The biomaterials allowed cellular growth, attachment and proliferation. Osteogenic differentiation occurred in the presence of hydroxyapatite, and matrix deposition commenced in the presence of the castor oil-based polyurethane. CONCLUSION: All the tested biomaterials may be used as mesenchymal stem cell scaffolds in cell-based orthopedic reconstructive therapy.

PEEK Biomaterials in Trauma, Orthopedic, and Spinal Implants

Kurtz, S. M.; Devine, J. N.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.97%
Since the 1980s, polyaryletherketones (PAEKs) have been increasingly employed as biomaterials for trauma, orthopedic, and spinal implants. We have synthesized the extensive polymer science literature as it relates to structure, mechanical properties, and chemical resistance of PAEK biomaterials. With this foundation, one can more readily appreciate why this family of polymers will be inherently strong, inert, and biocompatible. Due to its relative inertness, PEEK biomaterials are an attractive platform upon which to develop novel bioactive materials, and some steps have already been taken in that direction, with the blending of HA and TCP into sintered PEEK. However, to date, blended HA-PEEK composites have involved a trade-off in mechanical properties in exchange for their increased bioactivity. PEEK has had the greatest clinical impact in the field of spine implant design, and PEEK is now broadly accepted as a radiolucent alternative to metallic biomaterials in the spine community. For mature fields, such as total joint replacements and fracture fixation implants, radiolucency is an attractive but not necessarily critical material feature.

Biomaterials for the central nervous system

Zhong, Yinghui; Bellamkonda, Ravi V
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.97%
Biomaterials are widely used to help treat neurological disorders and/or improve functional recovery in the central nervous system (CNS). This article reviews the application of biomaterials in (i) shunting systems for hydrocephalus, (ii) cortical neural prosthetics, (iii) drug delivery in the CNS, (iv) hydrogel scaffolds for CNS repair, and (v) neural stem cell encapsulation for neurotrauma. The biological and material requirements for the biomaterials in these applications are discussed. The difficulties that the biomaterials might face in each application and the possible solutions are also reviewed in this article.

Adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to biomaterials is inhibited by fibronectin and albumin

Linnes, J.C.; Mikhova, K.; Bryers, J.D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.04%
Decades of contradictory results have obscured the exact role of adsorbed fibronectin in the adhesion of the bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), to biomaterials. Here, the ability of adsorbed fibronectin (FN) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) to modulate S. epidermidis adhesion to various biomaterials is reported. FN or BSA were adsorbed in increasing surface densities up to saturated monolayer coverage onto various common biomaterials, including poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), poly(ether urethane) (PEU), silicone, and borosilicate glass. Despite the wide range of surface characteristics represented, adsorption isotherms varied only subtly between materials for the two proteins considered. S. epidermidis adhesion to the various protein-coated biomaterials was quantified in a static-fluid batch adhesion assay. While slight differences in overall adherent cell numbers were observed between the various protein-coated substrata, all materials exhibited significant dose-dependent decreases in S. epidermidis adhesion with increasing adsorption of either protein (FN, BSA) to all surfaces. Results here indicate that S. epidermidis adhesion to FN-coated surfaces is not a specific adhesion (i.e....

Biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates

Dorozhkin, Sergey V.
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.04%
The state-of-the-art of biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates that are suitable for biomedical applications is presented in this review. Since these types of biomaterials offer many significant and exciting possibilities for hard tissue regeneration, this subject belongs to a rapidly expanding area of biomedical research. Through successful combinations of the desired properties of matrix materials with those of fillers (in such systems, calcium orthophosphates might play either role), innovative bone graft biomaterials can be designed. Various types of biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates, either those already in use or being investigated for biomedical applications, are extensively discussed. Many different formulations, in terms of the material constituents, fabrication technologies, structural and bioactive properties as well as both in vitro and in vivo characteristics, have already been proposed. Among the others, the nanostructurally controlled biocomposites, those containing nanodimensional compounds, biomimetically fabricated formulations with collagen, chitin and/or gelatin as well as various functionally graded structures seem to be the most promising candidates for clinical applications. The specific advantages of using biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates in the selected applications are highlighted. As the way from the laboratory to the hospital is a long one...

Using Small-Angle Scattering Techniques to Understand Mechanical Properties of Biopolymer-Based Biomaterials

Hyland, Laura L.; Taraban, Marc B.; Yu, Y. Bruce
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.04%
The design and engineering of innovative biopolymer-based biomaterials for a variety of biomedical applications should be based on the understanding of the relationship between their nanoscale structure and mechanical properties. Down the road, such understanding could be fundamental to tune the properties of engineered tissues, extracellular matrices for cell delivery and proliferation/differentiation, etc. In this tutorial review, we attempt to show in what way biomaterial structural data can help to understand the bulk material properties. We begin with some background on common types of biopolymers used in biomaterials research, discuss some typical mechanical testing techniques and then review how others in the field of biomaterials have utilized small-angle scattering for material characterization. Detailed examples are then used to show the full range of possible characterization techniques available for biopolymer-based biomaterials. Future developments in the area of material characterization by small-angle scattering will undoubtedly facilitate the use of structural data to control the kinetics of assembly and final properties of prospective biomaterials.

Reproducible Biofilm Cultivation of Chemostat-Grown Escherichia coli and Investigation of Bacterial Adhesion on Biomaterials Using a Non-Constant-Depth Film Fermenter

Lüdecke, Claudia; Jandt, Klaus D.; Siegismund, Daniel; Kujau, Marian J.; Zang, Emerson; Rettenmayr, Markus; Bossert, Jörg; Roth, Martin
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.09%
Biomaterials-associated infections are primarily initiated by the adhesion of microorganisms on the biomaterial surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation. Understanding the fundamental microbial adhesion mechanisms and biofilm development is crucial for developing strategies to prevent such infections. Suitable in vitro systems for biofilm cultivation and bacterial adhesion at controllable, constant and reproducible conditions are indispensable. This study aimed (i) to modify the previously described constant-depth film fermenter for the reproducible cultivation of biofilms at non-depth-restricted, constant and low shear conditions and (ii) to use this system to elucidate bacterial adhesion kinetics on different biomaterials, focusing on biomaterials surface nanoroughness and hydrophobicity. Chemostat-grown Escherichia coli were used for biofilm cultivation on titanium oxide and investigating bacterial adhesion over time on titanium oxide, poly(styrene), poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and glass. Using chemostat-grown microbial cells (single-species continuous culture) minimized variations between the biofilms cultivated during different experimental runs. Bacterial adhesion on biomaterials comprised an initial lag-phase I followed by a fast adhesion phase II and a phase of saturation III. With increasing biomaterials surface nanoroughness and increasing hydrophobicity...

Biomaterials in Tooth Tissue Engineering: A Review

Sharma, Sarang; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Grover, Shibani; Sharma, Vivek
Fonte: JCDR Research and Publications (P) Limited Publicador: JCDR Research and Publications (P) Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.09%
Biomaterials play a crucial role in the field of tissue engineering. They are utilized for fabricating frameworks known as scaffolds, matrices or constructs which are interconnected porous structures that establish a cellular microenvironment required for optimal tissue regeneration. Several natural and synthetic biomaterials have been utilized for fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. Amongst different biomaterials, polymers are the most extensively experimented and employed materials. They can be tailored to provide good interconnected porosity, large surface area, adequate mechanical strengths, varying surface characterization and different geometries required for tissue regeneration. A single type of material may however not meet all the requirements. Selection of two or more biomaterials, optimization of their physical, chemical and mechanical properties and advanced fabrication techniques are required to obtain scaffold designs intended for their final application. Current focus is aimed at designing biomaterials such that they will replicate the local extra cellular environment of the native organ and enable cell-cell and cell-scaffold interactions at micro level required for functional tissue regeneration. This article provides an insight into the different biomaterials available and the emerging use of nano engineering principles for the construction of bioactive scaffolds in tooth regeneration.

Engaging adaptive immunity with biomaterials

Mora-Solano, Carolina; Collier, Joel H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.04%
Adaptive immune responses, characterized by T cells and B cells engaging and responding to specific antigens, can be raised by biomaterials containing proteins, peptides, and other biomolecules. How does one avoid, control, or exploit such responses? This review will discuss major properties and processes that influence biomaterials-directed adaptive immunity, including the physical dimensions of a material, its epitope content, and its multivalency. Selected strategies involving novel biomaterials designs will be discussed to illustrate these points of control. Specific immunological processes that biomaterials are being developed to direct will be highlighted, including minimally inflammatory scaffolds for tissue repair and immunotherapies eliciting desired B cell (antibody) responses, T cell responses, or tolerance. The continuing development of a knowledge base for specifying the strength and phenotype of biomaterials-mediated adaptive immune responses is important, not only for the engineering of better vaccines and immunotherapies, but also for managing immune responses against newer generations of increasingly biological and biomolecular materials in contexts such as tissue repair, tissue engineering, or cell delivery.

2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges

Reichert, William “Monty”; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.04%
In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies—Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell—were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities.

Characterization of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering In Vitro

Henrich, Dirk; Verboket, René; Schaible, Alexander; Kontradowitz, Kerstin; Oppermann, Elsie; Brune, Jan C.; Nau, Christoph; Meier, Simon; Bonig, Halvard; Marzi, Ingo; Seebach, Caroline
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.04%
Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Comparative data regarding the needs of BMC for the adhesion on biomaterials and biocompatibility to various biomaterials are lacking to a large extent. Therefore, we evaluated whether a surface coating would enhance BMC adhesion and analyze the biocompatibility of three different kinds of biomaterials. BMCs were purified from human bone marrow aspirate samples. Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, without coating or coated with fibronectin or human plasma), demineralized bone matrix (DBM), and bovine cancellous bone (BS) were assessed. Seeding efficacy on β-TCP was 95% regardless of the surface coating. BMC demonstrated a significantly increased initial adhesion on DBM and β-TCP compared to BS. On day 14, metabolic activity was significantly increased in BMC seeded on DBM in comparison to BMC seeded on BS. Likewise increased VEGF-synthesis was observed on day 2 in BMC seeded on DBM when compared to BMC seeded on BS. The seeding efficacy of BMC on uncoated biomaterials is generally high although there are differences between these biomaterials. Beta-TCP and DBM were similar and both superior to BS, suggesting either as suitable materials for spatial restriction of BMC used for regenerative medicine purposes in vivo.

Calcium Orthophosphate-Containing Biocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Biomedical Applications

Dorozhkin, Sergey V.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.04%
The state-of-the-art on calcium orthophosphate (CaPO4)-containing biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials suitable for biomedical applications is presented. Since these types of biomaterials offer many significant and exciting possibilities for hard tissue regeneration, this subject belongs to a rapidly expanding area of biomedical research. Through the successful combinations of the desired properties of matrix materials with those of fillers (in such systems, CaPO4 might play either role), innovative bone graft biomaterials can be designed. Various types of CaPO4-based biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials those are either already in use or being investigated for biomedical applications are extensively discussed. Many different formulations in terms of the material constituents, fabrication technologies, structural and bioactive properties, as well as both in vitro and in vivo characteristics have been already proposed. Among the others, the nano-structurally controlled biocomposites, those containing nanodimensional compounds, biomimetically fabricated formulations with collagen, chitin and/or gelatin, as well as various functionally graded structures seem to be the most promising candidates for clinical applications. The specific advantages of using CaPO4-based biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials in the selected applications are highlighted. As the way from a laboratory to a hospital is a long one and the prospective biomedical candidates have to meet many different necessities...

Twenty-first century challenges for biomaterials

Hench, Larry L.; Thompson, Ian
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.04%
During the 1960s and 1970s, a first generation of materials was specially developed for use inside the human body. These developments became the basis for the field of biomaterials. The devices made from biomaterials are called prostheses. Professor Bill Bonfield was one of the first to recognize the importance of understanding the mechanical properties of tissues, especially bone, in order to achieve reliable skeletal prostheses. His research was one of the pioneering efforts to understand the interaction of biomaterials with living tissues. The goal of all early biomaterials was to ‘achieve a suitable combination of physical properties to match those of the replaced tissue with a minimal toxic response in the host’. By 1980, there were more than 50 implanted prostheses in clinical use made from 40 different materials. At that time, more than three million prosthetic parts were being implanted in patients worldwide each year. A common feature of most of the 40 materials was biological ‘inertness’. Almost all materials used in the body were single-phase materials. Most implant materials were adaptations of already existing commercial materials with higher levels of purity to eliminate release of toxic by-products and minimize corrosion. This article is a tribute to Bill Bonfield's pioneering efforts in the field of bone biomechanics...