Glioxal pode ser obtido a partir de biomassa (como da oxidação de lipídeos) e não é tóxico ou volátil, tendo sido por isso utilizado no presente trabalho como substituto de formaldeído na preparação de resina fenólica do tipo novolaca, sendo usado como catalisador o ácido oxálico, que também pode ser obtido de fontes renováveis. A resina glioxal-fenol foi utilizada na preparação de compósitos reforçados com celulose microcristalina (CM, 30, 50 e 70% em massa), uma celulose com elevada área superficial. As imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) das superfícies fraturadas demonstraram que os compósitos apresentaram boa interface reforço/matriz, consequência da elevada área superficial da CM e presença de grupos polares (hidroxilas) tanto na matriz como na celulose, o que permitiu a formação de ligações hidrogênio, favorecendo a compatibilidade entre ambas. A análise térmica dinâmico-mecânica (DMTA) demonstrou que todos os compósitos apresentaram elevado módulo de armazenamento à temperatura ambiente. Além disso, o compósito reforçado com 30% de CM apresentou baixa absorção de água, comparável à do termorrígido fenólico, que é utilizado em escala industrial. Os resultados demonstraram que compósitos com boas propriedades podem ser preparados usando elevada proporção de materiais obtidos de biomassa.; Glyoxal...
In the present study, films based on linter cellulose and chitosan were prepared using an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH)/thiourea as the solvent system. The dissolution process of cellulose and chitosan in NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution was followed by the partial chain depolymerization of both biopolymers, which facilitates their solubilization. Biobased films with different chitosan/cellulose ratios were then elaborated by a casting method and subsequent solvent evaporation. They were characterized by X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal analysis, and tests related to tensile strength and biodegradation properties. The SEM images of the biofilms with 50/50 and 60/40 ratio of chitosan/cellulose showed surfaces more wrinkled than the others. The AFM images indicated that higher the content of chitosan in the biobased composite film, higher is the average roughness value. It was inferred through thermal analysis that the thermal stability was affected by the presence of chitosan in the films; the initial temperature of decomposition was shifted to lower levels in the presence of chitosan. Results from the tests for tensile strength indicated that the blending of cellulose and chitosan improved the mechanical properties of the films and that an increase in chitosan content led to production of films with higher tensile strength and percentage of elongation. The degradation study in a simulated soil showed that the higher the crystallinity...
Tannin-phenolic polymers prepared using tannin, a macromolecule obtained from natural sources, were used in the preparation of composites reinforced with coir fibers. The composites based on tannin-phenolic polymers (50% (w/w) of tannin as substitute of the phenol) were prepared using the coir fibers as reinforcement (30-70% (w/w), 3.0-6.0 cm, randomly distributed). The Izod impact strength of the composites showed an improvement in this property due to the incorporation of coir fibers in the tannin-phenolic matrices. The SEM images showed excellent adhesion at the fiber/matrix interface. The coir fiber had bundles regularly spaced, which enhanced the diffusion of the resin into the fiber. In addition, the high lignin content of this fiber results in a high concentration of aromatic rings, which increased the compatibility with the matrix. The values of the diffusion coefficient of water, determined using Fick`s laws, show that there was no correlation between the fiber percentage and the water diffusion. The DMTA curves showed that the storage moduli of the composites reinforced with coir fibers were considerably higher than that of the thermoset, and the increase in the proportion of fibers led to a proportional increase in the storage moduli of these materials. The biobased composites obtained have potential for non-structural applications...
In the present study, the main focus was the characterization and application of the by-product lignin isolated through an industrial organosolv acid hydrolysis process from sugarcane bagasse, aiming at the production of bioethanol. The sugarcane lignin was characterized and used to prepare phenolic-type resins. The analysis confirmed that the industrial sugarcane lignin is of HGS type, with a high proportion of the less substituted aromatic ring p-hydroxyphenyl units, which favors further reaction with formaldehyde. The lignin-formaldehyde resins were used to produce biobased composites reinforced with different proportions of randomly distributed sisal fibers. The presence of lignin moieties in both the fiber and matrix increases their mutual affinity, as confirmed by SEM images, which showed good adhesion at the biocomposite fiber/matrix interface. This in turn allowed good load transference from the matrix to the fiber, leading to biobased composites with good impact strength (near 500 J m(-1) for a 40 wt% sisal fiber-reinforced composite). The study demonstrates that sugarcane bagasse lignin obtained from a bioethanol plant can be used without excessive purification in the preparation of lignocellulosic fiber-reinforced biobased composites displaying high mechanical properties. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010;107: 612-621. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals...
Lignocellulosic materials can significantly contribute to the development of biobased composites. In this work, glyoxal-phenolic resins for composites were prepared using glyoxal, which is a dialdehyde obtained from several natural resources. The resins were characterized by (1)H, (13)C, (2)D, and (31)P NMR spectroscopies. Resorcinol (10%) was used as an accelerator for curing the glyoxal-phenol resins in order to obtain the thermosets. The impact-strength measurement showed that regardless of the cure cycle used, the reinforcement of thermosets by 30% (w/w) sisal fibers improved the impact strength by one order of magnitude. Curing with cycle 1 (150 degrees C) induced a high diffusion coefficient for water absorption in composites, due to less interaction between the sisal fibers and water. The composites cured with cycle 2 (180 degrees C) had less glyoxal resin coverage of the cellulosic fibers, as observed by images of the fractured interface observed by SEM. This study shows that biobased composites with good properties can be prepared using a high proportion of materials obtained from natural resources. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; CAPES/COFECUB[422/03/05]; COFECUB; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CNPq; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP
Thermoset phenolic composites reinforced with sisal fibers were prepared to optimize the cure step. In the present study, processing parameters such as pressure, temperature, and time interval were varied to control the vaporization of the water generated as a byproduct during the crosslinking reaction. These molecules can vaporize forming voids, which in turn affect the final material properties. The set of results on impact strength revealed that the application of higher pressure before the gel point of the phenolic matrix produced composites with better properties. The SEM images showed that the cure cycle corresponding to the application of higher values of molding pressure at the gel point of the phenolic resin led to the reduction of voids in the matrix. In addition, the increase in the molding pressure during the cure step increased the resin interdiffusion. Better filling of the fiber channels decreased the possibility of water molecules diffusing through the internal spaces of the fibers. These molecules then diffused mainly through the bulk of the thermoset matrix, which led to a decrease in the water diffusion coefficient (D) at all three temperatures (25, 55 and 70 degrees C) considered in the experiments. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP (The State of Sao Paulo Research Foundation...
A tannin-phenolic resin (40 wt% of tannin, characterized by H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and C-13 NMR, Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry) was used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal fibers (30-70 wt%). Inverse gas chromatography results showed that the sisal fibers and the tannin-phenolic thermoset have close values of the dispersive component and also have predominance of acid sites (acid character) at the surface, confirming the favoring of interaction between the sisal fibers and the tannin-phenolic matrix at the interface. The Izod impact strength increased up to 50 wt% of sisal fibers. This composite also showed high storage modulus, and the lower loss modulus, confirming its good fiber/matrix interface, also observed by SEM images. A composite with good properties was prepared from high content of raw material obtained from renewable sources (40 wt% of tannin substituted the phenol in the preparation of the matrix and 50 wt% of matrix was replaced by sisal fibers). (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; FAPESP (The State of Sao Paulo Research Foundation, Brazil); FAPESP (The State of Sao Paulo Research Foundation, Brazil); CNPq (National Research Council, Brazil); CNPq (National Research Council...
Esta tese descreve diversas estratégias de preparação assim como a
caracterização de nanocompósitos com base em distintos biopolímeros. Em
particular foi estudada a incorporação de nanopartículas (NPs) metálicas,
nomeadamente de Ag, Cu e Au. Estes nanomateriais apresentam um potencial
prático enorme em diversas áreas, no entanto foi investigada especificamente
a sua aplicação como materiais antimicrobianos.
No primeiro capítulo apresenta-se uma revisão bibliográfica, onde são
realçados os principais tópicos discutidos ao longo da tese. Inicialmente
apresenta-se uma contextualização deste trabalho sendo seguidamente
apresentadas algumas considerações sobre nanocompósitos e o seu impacto
tecnológico atual. Em seguida, descrevem-se as vantagens do uso de NPs
como cargas nos materiais compósitos especificamente no caso de
bionanocompósitos. Foi focado o uso da celulose como matriz uma vez que foi
o composto “base” usado neste trabalho. Fez-se a descrição exaustiva das
metodologias existentes na literatura para a preparação dos nanocompósitos
celulósicos com diferentes NPs metálicas assim como das respetivas
aplicações. Dentro das aplicações, foi dado especial destaque às propriedades
antimicrobianas dos materiais preparados seja a nível da sua atividade
antibacteriana ou antifúngica. Esta introdução privilegia o trabalho relacionado
diretamente com os sistemas descritos nos capítulos subsequentes.
No segundo capítulo apresentam-se os resultados obtidos para
nanocompósitos de prata em matriz celulósica. Através do uso de
An estimation procedure for biobased carbon content of polyethylene composite was studied using carbon-14 (14C) concentration ratios as measured by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS). Prior to the measurement, additives and fillers in composites should be removed because they often contain a large amount of biobased carbon and may shift the estimation. Samples of resin with purity suitable for measurement were isolated from composites with a Soxhlet extractor using heated cyclohexanone. After cooling of extraction solutions, the resin was recovered as a fine semi-crystalline precipitate, which was easily filtered. Recovery rates were almost identical (99%), even for low-density polyethylene and linear low-density polyethylene, which may have lower crystallinity. This procedure could provide a suitable approach for estimation of biobased carbon content by AMS on the basis of the standard ASTM D 6866. The biobased carbon content for resin extracted from polyethylene composites allow for the calculation of biosynthetic polymer content, which is an indicator of mass percentage of the biobased plastic resin in the composite.