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Controlos veterinários nos postos de inspeção fronteiriços

Leite, Joana Filipa Siquenique
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 14/12/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.27%
Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária; O comércio de produtos animais, de origem animal e animais vivos entre a União Europeia (UE) e países terceiros, bem como as trocas intracomunitárias, estão assentes num vasto conjunto de diretivas, decisões e regulamentos que permitem uma abordagem harmonizada por parte das autoridades veterinárias dos vários Estados Membros. À chegada à UE, tais produtos e animais são controlados em pontos de entrada específicos e aprovados, denominados Posto de Inspeção Fronteiriço (PIF). Estes encontram-se sob responsabilidade dos médicos veterinários oficiais, os quais realizam os controlos veterinários e asseguram que os animais e produtos que entram na UE são seguros e satisfazem as condições específicas de importação estabelecidas na legislação europeia. O PIF de Lisboa é o maior e o principal posto de inspeção fronteiriço em Portugal, tendo um papel fundamental no controlo das remessas/lotes introduzidas na UE através do território português. No entanto, estas representam apenas uma pequena fração do total de remessas/lotes que entram diariamente na UE. Dois dos principais PIF europeus localizam-se na Holanda, no porto de Roterdão e no aeroporto de Amesterdão...

Pathogenesis of Mucosal Injury in the Blind Loop Syndrome: BRUSH BORDER ENZYME ACTIVITY AND GLYCOPROTEIN DEGRADATION

Jonas, Anita; Flanagan, Peter R.; Forstner, Gordon G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1977 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
The effect of intestinal bacterial over-growth on brush border hydrolases and brush border glycoproteins was studied in nonoperated control rats, control rats with surgically introduced jejunal self-emptying blind loops, and rats with surgically introduced jejunal self-filling blind loops. Data were analyzed from blind loop segments, segments above and below the blind loops, and three corresponding segments in the nonoperated controls. Rats with self-filling blind loops had significantly greater fat excretion than controls and exhibited significantly lower conjugated:free bile salt ratios in all three segments. Maltase, sucrase, and lactase activities were significantly reduced in homogenates and isolated brush borders from the self-filling blind loop, but alkaline phosphatase was not affected. The relative degradation rate of homogenate and brush border glycoproteins was assessed by a double-isotope technique involving the injection of d-[6-3H]glucosamine 3 h and d-[U-14C]glucosamine 19 h before sacrifice, and recorded as a 3H:14C ratio. The relative degradation rate in both homogenate and brush border fractions was significantly greater in most segments from rats with self-filling blind loops. In the upper and blind loop segments from rats with self-filling blind loops...

Cytokine modulation of Na(+)-dependent glutamine transport across the brush border membrane of monolayers of human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

Souba, W W; Copeland, E M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.28%
Previous studies have demonstrated that Na(+)-dependent brush border glutamine transport is diminished in septic patients. To examine the potential regulation of this decreased transport by endotoxin, cytokines, or glucocorticoids, the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line was studied in vitro. Na(+)-dependent glutamine transport across the apical brush border membrane was assayed in confluent monolayers of differentiated cells that were 10 days old. Uptake of 50 microM glutamine was determined after a 12-hour incubation with varying doses (10 to 1000 U/mL) of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, and various combinations of these cytokines. Studies were also done in cells incubated with E. coli endotoxin (1 micrograms/mL) or dexamethasone (1 and 10 microM). Endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 alone and in combination did not significantly reduce Na(+)-dependent glutamine transport across the brush border of Caco-2 cells. Dexamethasone decreased glutamine transport by 20%, but this decrease was not apparent for 48 hours. Interferon consistently decreased glutamine transport by 30%; this was due to a reduction in carrier maximal transport velocity (3427 +/- 783 pmol/mg protein/minute in controls versus 2279 +/- 411 in interferon...

Brush border transport of glutamine and other substrates during sepsis and endotoxemia.

Salloum, R M; Copeland, E M; Souba, W W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.27%
The effects of severe infection on luminal transport of amino acids and glucose by the small intestine were investigated. Studies were done in endotoxin-treated rats and in septic patients who underwent resection of otherwise normal small bowel. In rats the kinetics of the brush border glutamine transporter and the glutaminase enzyme were examined. In patients the effects of severe infection on the transport of glutamine, alanine, leucine, and glucose were studied. Transport was measured using small intestinal brush border membrane vesicles that were prepared by Mg++ aggregation/differential centrifugation. Uptake of radiolabeled substrate was measured using a rapid mixing/filtration technique. Vesicles demonstrated 15-fold enrichments of enzyme markers, classic overshoots, transport into an osmotically active space, and similar 2-hour equilibrium values. The sodium-dependent pathway accounted for nearly 90% of total carrier-mediated transport. Kinetic studies on rat jejunal glutaminase indicated a decrease in activity as early as 2 hours after endotoxin secondary to a decrease in enzyme affinity for glutamine (Km = 2.23 +/- 0.20 mmol/L [millimolar] in controls versus 4.55 +/- 0.67 in endotoxin, p less than 0.03), rather than a change in Vmax. By 12 hours the decrease in glutaminase activity was due to a decrease in Vmax (222 +/- 36 nmol/mg protein/min in controls versus 96 +/- 16 in endotoxin...

Smuggling and cross border shopping of tobacco in Europe.

Joossens, L.; Raw, M.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/05/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
Governments have recently become concerned about cross border shopping and smuggling because it can decrease tax revenue. The tobacco industry predicted that, with the removal of border controls in the European Union, price differences between neighbouring countries would lead to a diversion of tobacco trade, legally and illegally, to countries with cheaper cigarettes. According to them this diversion would be through increased cross border shopping for personal consumption or through increased smuggling of cheap cigarettes from countries with low tax to countries with high tax, where cigarettes are more expensive. These arguments have been used to urge governments not to increase tax on tobacco products. The evidence suggests, however, that cross border shopping is not yet a problem in Europe and that smuggling is not of cheap cigarettes to expensive countries. Instead, more expensive "international" brands are smuggled into northern Europe and sold illegally on the streets of the cheaper countries of southern Europe.

Gaps in Border Controls Are Related to Quarantine Alien Insect Invasions in Europe

Bacon, Steven James; Bacher, Sven; Aebi, Alexandre
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/10/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Alien insects are increasingly being dispersed around the world through international trade, causing a multitude of negative environmental impacts and billions of dollars in economic losses annually. Border controls form the last line of defense against invasions, whereby inspectors aim to intercept and stop consignments that are contaminated with harmful alien insects. In Europe, member states depend on one another to prevent insect introductions by operating a first point of entry rule – controlling goods only when they initially enter the continent. However, ensuring consistency between border control points is difficult because there exists no optimal inspection strategy. For the first time, we developed a method to quantify the volume of agricultural trade that should be inspected for quarantine insects at border control points in Europe, based on global agricultural trade of over 100 million distinct origin-commodity-species-destination pathways. This metric was then used to evaluate the performance of existing border controls, as measured by border interception results in Europe between 2003 and 2007. Alarmingly, we found significant gaps between the trade pathways that should be inspected and actual number of interceptions. Moreover...

North African Migration and Europe’s Contextual Mediterranean Border in Light of the Lampedusa Migrant Crisis of 2011

MCMAHON, Simon
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
In the opening months of 2011 thousands of migrants arrived on the small Italian island of Lampedusa. In their responses, national governments in Europe appeared to self-interestedly close their national borders, rather than establish a common protection of the Mediterranean border to ‘Fortress Europe’. Different border controls appeared in Lampedusa, the Italian peninsula and the Franco-Italian border. This paper examines this case and asks why controls arose in different times and places in Southern Europe. The border is conceptualised as a process of differentiation tied to politically contingent decision making processes in which Italian, French and European actors attempted to define the nature of the flows and the responses to take within the structural framework of the EU’s border regime. The analysis illustrates the political dynamics by which migration through Europe’s Southern border can be regulated and controlled in contextually contingent locations.

Re-casting the U.S.-Mexico border security net

Cory, Bettina J.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; The terrorist attack in 2001 left the United States with a sense of vulnerability and generated both demand and need to protect the nation. Fortifying the border has created diminishing returns. In addition, it has created negative side effects and unintended consequences that undermine the very nature and reason for installing border fences. Immigrants have been forced into the hands of criminal organizations and are more vulnerable now than in the past. Building a wall has deterred some illicit activity, but it does not deter the motivational factors. By hardening the borderline, the U.S. has issued a challenge, practically daring anyone to attempt entry though immigration has been reduced, drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) have picked up the gauntlet thrown by the United States and are finding ingenious methods to overcome and bypass the tightening border controls. Determined and motivated people will continue to find a way, even if it takes multiple times to find loopholes and weakness in the border. Border policy has resulted in unintended consequences, specifically, attracting DTOs, stimulating innovation, creating sophisticated networks within the black market arena...

O papel dos Centros de Cooperação Policial e Aduaneira (CCPA) entre Portugal e Espanha no reforço da Segurança Transfronteirça

Gazapo, Tomás
Fonte: IESM Publicador: IESM
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
Realizado na frequência do Curso de Estado-maior Conjunto 2012/13, o presente trabalho tem como tema “O papel dos Centros de Cooperação Policial e Aduaneira (CCPA) entre Portugal e Espanha no reforço da Segurança Transfronteiriça”. Com o estudo realizado pretende-se analisar os resultados obtidos e retirar conclusões que sirvam para melhorar o funcionamento dos CCPA, com o fim de facilitar o máximo aproveitamento das suas potencialidades e recursos, no seio da luta contra a criminalidade transfronteiriça entre Portugal e a Espanha. Um dos objetivos da União Europeia (UE) é a livre circulação de pessoas entre os Estados-Membros, e a sua realização gradual criou uma crescente necessidade de cooperação entre as Forças e Serviços de Segurança (FSS) A supressão dos controlos nas fronteiras internas entre os Estados Schengen, que começou em 1995, criou a necessidade de melhorar o intercâmbio de informações nas áreas fronteiriças, promovendo a criação de esquadras de polícia comuns, às que seguiram os Centros de Cooperação Policial e Aduaneira (CCPA) como uma medida compensatória pela abolição dos controlos nas fronteiras internas. O CCPA é uma ferramenta valiosa no processo de cooperação transfronteiriça direta...

Reform by Numbers : Measurement Applied to Customs and Tax Administrations in Developing Countries

Cantens, Thomas; Ireland, Robert; Raballand, Gaël
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
This paper is organized as follows. In chapter two, Samson Bilangna and Marcellin Djeuwo from the Cameroon customs administration present the history and the outcomes of the performance measurement policy launched by their administra-tion: the General Directorate of Customs signed 'performance contracts' with the frontline customs officers in 2010 and with some importers in 2011. In chapter three, Jose-Maria Munoz, an anthropologist, offers a complementary view of the introduction of figures in the Cameroon tax administration. The fourth chapter ends the book's first part, which focuses on performance measurement. Xavier Pascual from the French customs administration describes the system implemented by his administration to measure the collective performance of customs units and bureaus. In chapter five, Anne-Marie Geourjon and Bertrand Laporte, who are both economists, and Ousmane Coundoul and Massene Gadiaga, who are from the Senegalese customs administration, present the use of data mining to select imports for inspection. This project is being developed in Senegal and embodies the concept of risk analysis. Sharing the same global aim to make controls more efficient...

Entering the Union : European Accession and Capacity-Building Priorities

Wilson, John S.; Luo, Xubei; Broadman, Harry G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
The authors examine the impact of trade facilitation on bilateral trade flows. They examine trade facilitation and capacity-building priorities in 12 countries in the Europe and Central Asia region-eight of the current members of the European Union: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia, and three candidate members: Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. The results suggest that behind-the-border factors play an important role in determining bilateral trade flows (controlling for the effects of tariffs, development levels, distance, and regional characteristics of exporters and importers, among other factors). The development of new data sets to expand work related to trade facilitation, including strengthening the empirical work explored here, is a key priority without which intelligent policy and priorities cannot be made. The authors' analysis is based on data from the World Economic Forum, Global Competitiveness Report 2001-2002, World Competitiveness Yearbook 2000, and Kaufmann, Kraay, and Zoido-Lobaton (2002). The results indicate that more gains in exports than in imports are expected should the values of three out of the four indicators (port efficiency, regulatory regimes, and information technology infrastructure) of the new and candidate member countries improve halfway to the EU15 average. These countries would expect large trade gains as well as improvements in trade balances as their integration into the EU continues. For example...

Borderless Bazaars and Regional Integration in Central Asia : Emerging Patterns of Trade and Cross-Border Cooperation

Kaminski, Bartlomiej; Mitra, Saumya
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
Local populations' economic opportunities can be enhanced through special arrangements governing movement of people and goods in neighboring areas. For instance, in the Tajikistan-Uzbekistan border-crossing points (BCPs), preferential treatment accorded to residents in contiguous regions varies from one BCP to another, even within one borderline, restricting the distance allowed for travel into the territory of another country to the closest large city or marketplace. When governments impose restrictions on the movements of individuals, vehicles, or goods or close BCPs or bazaars, they may do so on public policy grounds. Security is often cited as a factor for imposing controls, as is prevention of contraband trade. Such government imposed obstacles are a blunt and expensive instrument to attain such public policy aims. The income and welfare costs levied on poor communities of such public policies may be disproportionate to achieve stated public policy goals. Instead, BCPs and bazaars could be opened but made subject to strict and effective policing, ideally using risk-based criteria; similarly, risk-based surveillance or vehicle searches could take the place of an outright ban. Moreover, a government may find that the security benefits of stronger community ties across borders may be considerable; after all...

Cross Border Banking Supervision : Incentive Conflicts in Supervisory Information Sharing between Home and Host Supervisors

D'Hulster, Katia
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
The global financial crisis has uncovered a number of weaknesses in the supervision and regulation of cross border banks. One such weakness was the lack of effective cooperation among banking supervisors. Since then, international bodies, such as the G-20, the Financial Stability Board and the Basel Committee have actively promoted the use of supervisory colleges. The objective of this paper is to explore the obstacles to effective cross border supervisory information sharing. More specifically, a schematic presentation illustrating the misalignments in incentives for information sharing between home and host supervisors under the current supervisory task-sharing anchored in the Basel Concordat is developed. This paper finds that in the absence of an ex ante agreed upon resolution and burden-sharing mechanism and deteriorating health of the bank, incentive conflicts escalate and supervisory cooperation breaks down. The promotion of good practices for cooperation in supervisory colleges is thus not sufficient to address the existing incentive conflicts. What is needed is a rigorous analysis and review of the supervisory task-sharing framework...

Estimating Informal Trade across Tunisia's Land Borders

Ayadi, Lotfi; Benjamin, Nancy; Bensassi, Sami; Raballand, Gaël
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.31%
This paper uses mirror statistics and research in the field to estimate the magnitude of Tunisia's informal trade with Libya and Algeria. The aim is to assess the scale of this trade and to evaluate the amount lost in taxes and duties as a result as well as to assess the local impact in terms of income generation. The main findings show that within Tunisian trade as a whole, informal trade accounts for only a small share (5 percent of total imports). However, informal trade represents an important part of the Tunisia's bilateral trade with Libya and Algeria, accounting for more than half the official trade with Libya and more than total official trade with Algeria. The main reasons behind this large-scale informal trade are differences in the levels of subsidies on either side of the border as well as the varying tax regimes. Tackling informal trade is not simply a question of stepping up the number of controls and sanctions, because differences in prices lead to informal trade (and to an increase in corruption levels among border officials) even in cases where the sanctions are severe. As local populations depend on cross-border trade for income generation...

Right to asylum and border control : implications of european union policies on access to EU territory of people in need of international protection

Kalaydzhieva, Varka
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
Depuis plusieurs années, les États membres de l’Union européenne (UE) se soumettent à des politiques restrictives, en matière d’asile, qui les contraignent à respecter leur engagement de protéger les personnes qui fuient la persécution. Plusieurs politiques de dissuasion de l’UE sont controversées. Certaines ont d’abord été élaborées dans différents États, avant que l’UE ne mette en place une politique commune en matière d’asile. Certaines des ces politiques migratoires ont été copiées, et ont un effet négatif sur la transformation des procédures d’asile et du droit des réfugiés dans d’autres pays, tel le Canada. En raison des normes minimales imposées par la législation de l’UE, les États membres adoptent des politiques et instaurent des pratiques, qui sont mises en doute et sont critiquées par l’UNHCR et les ONG, quant au respect des obligations internationales à l'égard des droits de la personne. Parmi les politiques et les pratiques les plus critiquées certaines touchent le secteur du contrôle frontalier. En tentant de remédier à l’abolition des frontières internes, les États membres imposent aux demandeurs d’asile des barrières migratoires quasi impossibles à surmonter. Les forçant ainsi à s’entasser dans des centres de migration...

Optic Disc Margin Anatomy in Patients with Glaucoma and Normal Controls with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

Reis, Alexandre S. C.; Sharpe, Glen P.; Yang, Hongli; Nicolela, Marcelo T.; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Chauhan, Balwantray C.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC; NEW YORK Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC; NEW YORK
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.47%
Objective: To characterize optic nerve head (ONH) anatomy related to the clinical optic disc margin with spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: Patients with open-angle glaucoma with focal, diffuse, and sclerotic optic disc damage, and age-matched normal controls. Methods: High-resolution radial SD-OCT B-scans centered on the ONH were analyzed at each clock hour. For each scan, the border tissue of Elschnig was classified for obliqueness (internally oblique, externally oblique, or nonoblique) and the presence of Bruch's membrane overhanging the border tissue. Optic disc stereophotographs were co-localized to SD-OCT data with customized software. The frequency with which the disc margin identified in stereophotographs coincided with (1) Bruch's membrane opening (BMO), defined as the innermost edge of Bruch's membrane; (2) Bruch's membrane/border tissue, defined as any aspect of either outside BMO or border tissue; or (3) border tissue, defined as any aspect of border tissue alone, in the B-scans was computed at each clock hour. Main Outcome Measures: The SD-OCT structures coinciding with the disc margin in stereophotographs. Results: There were 30 patients (10 with each type of disc damage) and 10 controls...

The Wilder Shores of Power: Migration, Border Controls and Democracy in Postwar Japan

Morris-Suzuki, Tessa
Fonte: Sage Publications Inc Publicador: Sage Publications Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Japan has often been regarded as an ethnically homogeneous society whose restrictive immigration policies reflect the deep-seated cultural peculiarities of this 'island nation'. By contrast, I shall argue that Japan's post- 1945 cultural separation from t

Time and the migrant other: European border controls and the temporal economics of illegality

Andersson, Ruben
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Publicador: John Wiley & Sons
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
The rich world’s borders increasingly seem like a battleground where a new kind of ‘threat’ is fought back – the so-called ‘illegal migrant’. At Europe’s southern frontiers, sea patrols, advanced surveillance machinery and fencing keep migrants out, much like at the US, Israeli or Australian borders. Such investments have created a dense web of controls that displaces the border both inward and outwards, into the borderlands beyond it. This article, building upon recent border studies and ethnographies of illegality, explores Europe’s migration controls by focusing on their temporal aspects. In the borderlands, it shows, irregular migrants are not only subjected to extended periods of waiting, as migrants often are; they also face an active usurpation of time by state authorities through serial expulsions and retentions. The ways in which migrants’ time is appropriated reveal a complex economics of illegality, complementing existing ‘biopolitical’ perspectives on Europe’s borders.

Minefields and Humanitarian Demining at the Chile-Bolivia Border: A Step-by-Step Approach

Aranda Bustamante,Gilberto Cristian; Salinas Cañas,Sergio Fernando
Fonte: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte Publicador: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
The border is a place of encounter for geopolitical and literary accounts as well as historiographical and anthropological ones, but also is, like the doors guarded by the god Janus, a location where the dichotomy between control and integration-the paradox of globalization-is apparent. All this may allow an informal measurement of relations between neighbors. This article will discuss the implementation, over 30 years, of border controls at the Chilean-Bolivian frontier through the deployment of one of the most aggressive policies seen in teichopolitics: mine-laying that resulted in a virtual wall between both countries. Finally, the reasons that led Chile in recent years to remove mines and reduce its control of the border will be analyzed.

Forging the frontiers: Travellers and documents on the South Africa-Mozambique border, 1890s-1940s

MacDonald,Andrew
Fonte: Kronos Publicador: Kronos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
It is well known that the Union of South Africa started to build an onerous border regime at the turn of the twentieth century in order to secure a White Man's Country in southern Africa. Newly formed, ambitious Immigration Departments consequently targeted 'Asiatics', poor whites and finally 'surplus' Africans from the 1920s onwards. An infrastructure of exclusion (detention and deportation compounds, police patrols, fingerprint offices and so on) soon emerged at the region's maritime gateways as the colonial states sought to undermine decentralised indigenous societies characterised by long-term mobility. This article shows that the Union remained vulnerable on its eastern frontier with Mozambique and Swaziland, where 'undesirables' continued to arrive in numbers. Long-distance movement had a long precedent in these borderlands, and it proved difficult for colonial states to forge effective border controls until deep into the twentieth century. Based on extensive and critical engagement with multiple border control archives, the article traces the gradual 'paperisation of the border, and follows a thriving market in identity permits in southern Mozambique and Swaziland, which became important backdoor entry points to the Union. The main people to exploit corrupt local officials and entrepreneurial headmen on either side of the border were those associated with the merchant houses of coastal west India...