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Young Planetary Nebulae: Hubble Space Telescope Imaging and a New Morphological Classification System

Sahai, Raghvendra; Morris, Mark R.; Villar, Gregory G.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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55.56%
Using Hubble Space Telescope images of 119 young planetary nebulae, most of which have not previously been published, we have devised a comprehensive morphological classification system for these objects. This system generalizes a recently devised system for pre-planetary nebulae, which are the immediate progenitors of planetary nebulae (PNs). Unlike previous classification studies, we have focussed primarily on young PNs rather than all PNs, because the former best show the influences or symmetries imposed on them by the dominant physical processes operating at the first and primary stage of the shaping process. Older PNs develop instabilities, interact with the ambient interstellar medium, and are subject to the passage of photoionization fronts, all of which obscure the underlying symmetries and geometries imposed early on. Our classification system is designed to suffer minimal prejudice regarding the underlying physical causes of the different shapes and structures seen in our PN sample, however, in many cases, physical causes are readily suggested by the geometry, along with the kinematics that have been measured in some systems. Secondary characteristics in our system such as ansae indicate the impact of a jet upon a slower-moving...

What can we learn about the kinematics of bright extragalactic planetary nebulae

Richer, M. G.; Baez, S. -H.; Lopez, J. A.; Riesgo, H.; Garcia-Diaz, Ma. T.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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55.6%
We present high resolution spectroscopy in the [\ion{O}{3}]$\lambda$5007 and H$\alpha$ lines of bright planetary nebulae in the Milky Way bulge and the dwarf galaxies M32, Fornax, Sagittarius, and NGC 6822 obtained at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in the Sierra San Pedro Martir using the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph. We use the high signal-to-noise (S/N) observations of Milky Way bulge planetary nebulae to explore what kinematic information can be determined reliably when observing extragalactic planetary nebulae in the [\ion{O}{3}]$\lambda$5007 line at modest S/N. We find that the intrinsic line widths measured in [\ion{O}{3}]$\lambda$5007 and H$\alpha$ are very similar. Over the range of S/N available in this sample, the line width we measure is independent of the S/N. Finally, deviations from a Gaussian line shape are small. Thus, the line width of the [\ion{O}{3}]$\lambda$5007 line in bright extragalactic planetary nebulae should reflect the kinematics of most of the mass in the ionized nebular shell.; Comment: accepted for publication in the october 2009 issue of Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica

The Evolution of the Kinematics of Nebular Shells in Planetary Nebulae in the Milky Way Bulge

Richer, M. G.; López, J. A.; García-Díaz, Ma. -T.; Clark, D. M.; Pereyra, M.; Díaz-Méndez, E.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.6%
We study the line widths in the [\ion{O}{3}]$\lambda$5007 and H$\alpha$ lines for two groups of planetary nebulae in the Milky Way bulge based upon spectroscopy obtained at the Observatorio Astron\'omico Nacional in the Sierra San Pedro M\'artir (OAN-SPM) using the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph. The first sample includes objects early in their evolution, having high H$\beta$ luminosities, but [\ion{O}{3}]$\lambda 5007/\mathrm H\beta < 3$. The second sample comprises objects late in their evolution, with \ion{He}{2} $\lambda 4686/\mathrm H\beta > 0.5$. These planetary nebulae represent evolutionary phases preceeding and following those of the objects studied by Richer et al. (2008). Our sample of planetary nebulae with weak [\ion{O}{3}]$\lambda$5007 has a line width distribution similar to that of the expansion velocities of the envelopes of AGB stars, and shifted to systematically lower values as compared to the less evolved objects studied by Richer et al. (2008). The sample with strong \ion{He}{2} $\lambda 4686$ has a line width distribution indistinguishable from that of the more evolved objects from Richer et al. (2008), but a distribution in angular size that is systematically larger and so they are clearly more evolved. These data and those of Richer et al. (2008) form a homogeneous sample from a single Galactic population of planetary nebulae...

The Mid-term and Long-term Solar Quasi-periodic Cycles and the Possible Relationship with Planetary Motions

Tan, Baolin; Cheng, Zhuo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.6%
This work investigates the solar quasi-periodic cycles with multi-timescales and the possible relationships with planetary motions. The solar cycles are derived from long-term observations of the relative sunspot number and microwave emission at frequency of 2.80 GHz. A series of solar quasi-periodic cycles with multi-timescales are registered. These cycles can be classified into 3 classes: (1) strong PLC (PLC is defined as the solar cycle with a period very close to the ones of some planetary motions, named as planetary-like cycle) which is related strongly with planetary motions, including 9 periodic modes with relatively short period (P<12 yr), and related to the motions of the inner planets and of Jupiter; (2) weak PLC, which is related weakly to planetary motions, including 2 periodic modes with relatively long period (P>12 yr), and possibly related to the motions of outer planets; (3) non-PLC, which so far has no obvious evidence to show the relationship with any planetary motions. Among planets, Jupiter plays a key role in most periodic modes by its sidereal motion or spring tidal motions with other planets. Among planetary motions, the spring tidal motion of the inner planets and of Jupiter dominates the formation of most PLCs. The relationships between multi-timescale solar periodic modes and the planetary motions will help us to understand the essential natures and prediction of solar activities.; Comment: 10 pages...

Planetary Nebula Populations and Kinematics

Richer, Michael G.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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55.61%
The brightest planetary nebulae achieve similar maximum luminosities, have similar ratios of chemcial abundances, and apparently share similar kinematics in all galaxies. These similarities, however, are not necessarily expected theoretically and appear to hide important evolutionary differences. As predicted theoretically, metallicity appears to affect nebular kinematics, if subtly, and there is a clear variation with evolutionary stage. To the extent that it can be investigated, the internal kinematics for galactic and extragalactic planetary nebulae are similar. The extragalactic planetary nebulae for which kinematic data exist, though, probably pertain to a small range of progenitor masses, so there may still be much left to learn, particularly concerning the kinematics of planetary nebulae that descend from the more massive progenitors.; Comment: Invited Review, IAU Symp. 283, Planetary Nebulae: An Eye to the Future

A search for magnetic fields on central stars in planetary nebulae

Leone, F.; Corradi, R. L. M.; González, M. J. Martínez; Ramos, A. Asensio; Sainz, R. Manso
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.59%
One of the possible mechanisms responsible for the panoply of shapes in planetary nebulae is the presence of magnetic fields that drive the ejection of ionized material during the proto-planetary nebula phase. Therefore, detecting magnetic fields in such objects is of key importance for understanding their dynamics. Still, magnetic fields have not been detected using polarimetry in the central stars of planetary nebulae. Circularly polarized light spectra have been obtained with the Focal Reducer and Low Dispersion Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory and the Intermediate dispersion Spectrograph and Imaging System at the William Herschel Telescope. Nineteen planetary nebulae spanning very different morphology and evolutionary stages have been selected. Most of central stars have been observed at different rotation phases to point out evidence of magnetic variability. In this paper, we present the result of two observational campaigns aimed to detect and measure the magnetic field in the central stars of planetary nebulae on the basis of low resolution spectropolarimetry. In the limit of the adopted method, we can state that large scale fields of kG order are not hosted on the central star of planetary nebulae.; Comment: Paper accepted to be published in Astronomy and Astrophysics on 20/01/2014

Survey of Planetary Nebulae at 30 GHz with OCRA-p

Pazderska, B. M.; Gawronski, M. P.; Feiler, R.; Birkinshaw, M.; Browne, I. W. A.; Davis, R.; Kus, A. J.; Lancaster, K.; Lowe, S. R.; Pazderski, E.; Peel, M.; Wilkinson, P. N.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.57%
We report the results of a survey of 442 planetary nebulae at 30 GHz. The purpose of the survey is to develop a list of planetary nebulae as calibration sources which could be used for high frequency calibration in future. For 41 PNe with sufficient data, we test the emission mechanisms in order to evaluate whether or not spinning dust plays an important role in their spectra at 30 GHz. The 30-GHz data were obtained with a twin-beam differencing radiometer, OCRA-p, which is in operation on the Torun 32-m telescope. Sources were scanned both in right ascension and declination. We estimated flux densities at 30 GHz using a free-free emission model and compared it with our data. The primary result is a catalogue containing the flux densities of 93 planetary nebulae at 30 GHz. Sources with sufficient data were compared with a spectral model of free-free emission. The model shows that free-free emission can generally explain the observed flux densities at 30 GHz thus no other emission mechanism is needed to account for the high frequency spectra.; Comment: 10 pages, 7 Postscript figures, to be published in A&A

Planetary Nebulae in the VISTA Magellanic Cloud (VMC) Survey

Miszalski, B.; Napiwotzki, R.; Cioni, M. -R. L.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Udalski, A.; Nie, J.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.57%
The multi-epoch YJKs sub-arcsecond photometry of the VMC survey provides a long anticipated deep near-infrared (NIR) window into further understanding the stellar populations of the Magellanic Clouds. The first year of observations consisted of six tiles covering ~9% of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) survey region and contains 102 objects previously classified as planetary nebulae (PNe). A large proportion of the sample were found to be contaminated by non-PNe. These initial results underline the importance of establishing a clean catalogue of LMC PNe before they are applied in areas such as the planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) and searches for binary central stars. As the VMC survey progresses it will play a fundamental role in cleaning extant PN catalogues and a complementary role in the discovery of new PNe.; Comment: To appear in IAU Symposium 283: Planetary Nebulae, an Eye to the Future. 2 pages, 1 figure

Kinematic study of planetary nebulae in NGC 6822

Flores-Durán, S. N.; Peña, M.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; García-Rojas, J.; Ruiz, M. T.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.6%
By measuring precise radial velocities of planetary nebulae (which belong to the intermediate age population), H II regions, and A-type supergiant stars (which are members of the young population) in NGC 6822, we aim to determine if both types of population share the kinematics of the disk of H I found in this galaxy. Spectroscopic data for four planetary nebulae were obtained with the high spectral resolution spectrograph Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) on the Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Data for other three PNe and one H II region were obtained from the SPM Catalog of Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae which employed the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer attached to the 2.1m telescope at the Observatorio Astron\'omico Nacional, M\'exico. In the wavelength calibrated spectra, the heliocentric radial velocities were measured with a precision better than 5-6 km s$^{-1}$. Data for three additional H II regions and a couple of A-type supergiant stars were collected from the literature. The heliocentric radial velocities of the different objects were compared to the velocities of the H i disk at the same position. From the analysis of radial velocities it is found that H II regions and A-type supergiants do share the kinematics of the H I disk at the same position...

When asymmetric cosmic bubbles betray a difficult marriage: the study of binary central stars of Planetary Nebulae

Boffin, Henri M. j.; Miszalski, Brent
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.56%
Planetary Nebulae represent a powerful window into the evolution of low-intermediate mass stars that have undergone extensive mass-loss. The nebula manifests itself in an extremely wide variety of shapes, but exactly how the mass lost is shaped into such a diverse range of morphologies is still highly uncertain despite over thirty years of vigorous debate. Binaries have long been thought to offer a solution to this vexing problem. Now, thanks to recent surveys and improved observing strategies, it appears clearly that a binary channel, in particular common-envelope (CE) evolution, is responsible for a large fraction of planetary nebulae. Moreover, as planetary nebulae are just "fresh out of the oven" compared to other post-CE systems, they provide invaluable contributions to the study of common-envelope evolution and to the formation of jets in binary systems. Our studies have also started to identify strong links between binarity and morphology, including a high proportion of bipolar nebulae and rings of low ionisation filaments resembling SN 1987A. Equally important are the newly found binary CSPN with intermediate periods, which appear linked to chemically peculiar stars whose composition was modified by binary evolution. Their study may also reveal much information on mass and angular momentum transfer processes in binary stars. Here we show examples of four PNe for which we have discovered their binary nature...

The evolution of planetary nebulae VII. Modelling planetary nebulae of distant stellar systems

Schönberner, D.; Jacob, R.; Sandin, C.; Steffen, M.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
By means of hydrodynamical models we do the first investigations of how the properties of planetary nebulae are affected by their metal content and what can be learned from spatially unresolved spectrograms of planetary nebulae in distant stellar systems. We computed a new series of 1D radiation-hydrodynamics planetary nebulae model sequences with central stars of 0.595 M_sun surrounded by initial envelope structures that differ only by their metal content. At selected phases along the evolutionary path, the hydrodynamic terms were switched off, allowing the models to relax for fixed radial structure and radiation field into their equilibrium state with respect to energy and ionisation. The analyses of the line spectra emitted from both the dynamical and static models enabled us to systematically study the influence of hydrodynamics as a function of metallicity and evolution. We also recomputed selected sequences already used in previous publications, but now with different metal abundances. These sequences were used to study the expansion properties of planetary nebulae close to the bright cut-off of the planetary nebula luminosity function. Our simulations show that the metal content strongly influences the expansion of planetary nebulae: the lower the metal content...

New Results for the Open Cluster Bica 6 and its Associated Planetary Nebula Abell 8

Turner, David G.; Rosvick, Joanne M.; Balam, David D.; Henden, Arne A.; Majaess, Daniel J.; Lane, David J.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
The likely membership of the planetary nebula Abell 8 (PN G167.0--00.9) in the open cluster Bica 6 is confirmed by CCD spectra, UBV(RI)c photometry, and radial velocities for luminous cluster stars. The reddening, estimated distance, and radial velocity of the planetary nebula agree with parameters derived for Bica 6 of E(B-V)=0.42, d=1.60+-0.11 kpc, and Vr=57+-1 km/s, with a cluster age of 1 Gyr, a diagnostic blue hook, and a few blue stragglers, including a peculiar B1 Vnn star (HDE 277593) that may be a post-AGB star. The results identify Bica 6 as a potential calibrator of the planetary nebula distance scale. The central star of the planetary nebula has a reddening of E(B-V)=0.49+-0.02, with a possible circumnebular excess, and an estimated luminosity of Mv=+7.44+-0.16. It is also an optical double in 2MASS images, with a likely progenitor according to evolutionary considerations being a late B-type dwarf of ~2.3 Msun.; Comment: Accepted for Publication (PASP)

The San Pedro M\'artir Planetary Nebula Kinematic Catalogue: Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae

Richer, M. G.; López, J. A.; Díaz-Méndez, E.; Riesgo, H.; Báez, S. -H.; García-Díaz, Ma. -T.; Meaburn, J.; Clark, D. M.; Olvera, R. M. Calderón; Soto, G. López; Rebolo, O. Toledano
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.6%
We present kinematic data for 211 bright planetary nebulae in eleven Local Group galaxies: M31 (137 PNe), M32 (13), M33 (33), Fornax (1), Sagittarius (3), NGC 147 (2), NGC 185 (5), NGC 205 (9), NGC 6822 (5), Leo A (1), and Sextans A (1). The data were acquired at the Observatorio Astron\'omico Nacional in the Sierra de San Pedro M\'artir using the 2.1m telescope and the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer in the light of [\ion{O}{3}]$\lambda$5007 at a resolution of 11 km/s. A few objects were observed in H$\alpha$. The internal kinematics of bright planetary nebulae do not depend strongly upon the metallicity or age of their progenitor stellar populations, though small systematic differences exist. The nebular kinematics and H$\beta$ luminosity require that the nebular shells be accelerated during the early evolution of their central stars. Thus, kinematics provides an additional argument favoring similar stellar progenitors for bright planetary nebulae in all galaxies.; Comment: Accepted for publication in the October 2010 issue of the Revista Mexicana de Astronom\'ia y Astrof\'isica

A morpho-kinematic and spectroscopic study of the bipolar nebulae: M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104

Clyne, Niall; Akras, Stavros; Steffen, Wolfgang; Redman, Matt; Goncalves, Denise R.; Harvey, Eamonn
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
Context. Complex bipolar shapes can be generated either as a planetary nebula or a symbiotic system. The origin of the material ionised by the white dwarf is very different in these two scenarios, and it complicates the understanding of the morphologies of planetary nebulae. Aims. The physical properties, structure, and dynamics of the bipolar nebulae, M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104, are investigated in detail with the aim of understanding their nature, shaping mechanisms, and evolutionary history. Methods. Long-slit optical echelle spectra are used to investigate the morpho-kinematics of M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104. Near-infrared (NIR) data, as well as optical, spectra are used to separate Galactic symbiotic-type nebulae from genuine planetary nebulae by means of a 2MASS J-H/H-Ks diagram and a {\lambda}4363/H{\gamma} vs. {\lambda}5007/H\b{eta} diagnostic diagram, respectively. Results. The best-fitted 3-D models for M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104 provide invaluable kinematical information on the expansion velocity of its nebular components by means of synthetic spectra. Kinematical ages of the different structures of M 2-9 and Mz 3 have also been determined. Both diagnostic diagrams show M 2-9 and Hen 2-104 to fall well within the category of having a symbiotic source...

Several evolutionary channels for bright planetary nebulae

Richer, M. G.; McCall, M. L.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.56%
The populations of bright planetary nebulae in the discs of spirals appear to differ in their spectral properties from those in ellipticals and the bulges of spirals. The bright planetary nebulae from the bulge of the Milky Way are entirely compatible with those observed in the discs of spiral galaxies. The similarity might be explained if the bulge of the Milky Way evolved secularly from the disc, in which case the bulge should be regarded as a pseudo-bulge.; Comment: poster presented at IAU Symposium 317

Planetary nebula kinematics in NGC 1316: a young Sombrero

McNeil-Moylan, Emily K.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Arnaboldi, Magda; Gerhard, Ortwin E.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.56%
Aims. We present positions and velocities for 796 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Fornax Brightest Cluster Galaxy NGC 1316 (Fornax A). The planetary nebulae and existing kinematics are used to explore the rotation of this merger remnant and constrain dynamical models. Methods. Using FORS2 on the VLT, the PN velocities were measured using a counter-dispersed slitless-spectroscopy technique that produced the largest-to-date sample outside of the Local Group. Spherical, non-rotating, constant-anisotropy Jeans models were con- strained by observations of the planetary nebulae and existing integrated light spectra. Results. The two-dimensional velocity field indicates dynamically-important rotation that rises in the outer parts, possibly due to the outward transfer of angular momentum during the merger. The modeling indicates a high dark matter content, particularly in the outer parts, that is consistent with previous estimates from dynamical models, lensing and stellar population models. Conclusions. The exceptionally large sample of PN velocities makes it possible to explore the kinematics of NGC 1316 in detail. Comparing the results to other early-type galaxies like NGC 1399 and NGC 4594 (M104, Sombrero), NGC 1316 represents a transi- tion phase from a major-merger event to a bulge-dominated galaxy like NGC 4594.

Magnetic fields in central stars of planetary nebulae?

Jordan, Stefan; Bagnulo, Stefano; Werner, Klaus; O'Toole, Simon J.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
Most of the planetary nebulae (PN) have bipolar or other non-spherically symmetric shapes. The presence of a magnetic field in the central star may be the reason for this lack of symmetry, but observational works published in the literature have so far reported contradictory results. We try to correlate the presence of a magnetic field with the departures from the spherical geometry of the envelopes of planetary nebulae. We determine the magnetic field from spectropolarimetric observations of ten central stars of planetary nebulae. The results of the analysis of the observations of four stars was previously presented and discussed in the literature, while the observations of six stars, plus additional measurements for a star previously observed, are presented here for the first time. All our determinations of magnetic field in the central planetary nebulae are consistent with null results. Our field measurements have a typical error bar of 150-300 G. Previous spurious field detections obtained with FORS were probably due to the use of different wavelength calibration solutions for frames obtained at different position angles of the retarder waveplate. Currently, there is no observational evidence for the presence of magnetic fields with a strength of the order of hundreds Gauss or higher in the central stars of planetary nebulae.; Comment: 5 pages...

Evolution of the central stars of young planetary nebulae

Hajduk, Marcin; van Hoof, Peter A. M.; Zijlstra, Albert A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.56%
The evolution of central stars of planetary nebulae was so far documented in just a few cases. However, spectra collected a few decades ago may provide a good reference for studying the evolution of central stars using the emission line fluxes of their nebulae. We investigated evolutionary changes of the [OIII] 5007 A line flux in the spectra of planetary nebulae. We compared nebular fluxes collected during a decade or longer. We used literature data and newly obtained spectra. A grid of Cloudy models was computed using existing evolutionary models, and the models were compared with the observations. An increase of the [OIII] 5007 A line flux is frequently observed in young planetary nebulae hosting H-rich central stars. The increasing nebular excitation is the response to the increasing temperature and hardening radiation of the central stars. We did not observe any changes in the nebular fluxes in the planetary nebulae hosting late-type Wolf-Rayet (WR) central stars. This may indicate a slower temperature evolution (which may stem from a different evolutionary status) of late-[WR] stars. In young planetary nebulae with H-rich central stars, the evolution can be followed using optical spectra collected during a decade or longer. The observed evolution of H-rich central stars is consistent with the predictions of the evolutionary models provided in the literature. Late-[WR] stars possibly follow a different evolutionary path.; Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A

The Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function: Pieces of the Puzzle

Ciardullo, Robin
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica