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Development and validation of a microbiological assay for determination of chlorhexidine digluconate in aqueous solution

Fiorentino, Flávia Angélica Másquio; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 351-358
ENG
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Chlorhexidine (CHX) is a broad-spectrum antiseptic that is used in many topical pharmaceutical formulations. Because there is no official microbiological assay reported in the literature that is used to quantify CHX, this paper reports the development and validation of a simple, sensitive, accurate and reproducible agar diffusion method for the dosage of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX-D) in an aqueous solution. The assay is based on the inhibitory effect of CHX-D upon the strain of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, which is used as the test microorganism. The design 3x3 parallel-line model was used. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and they were excellent in terms of linearity (r = 0.9999), presenting a significant regression between the zone diameter of growth inhibition and the logarithm of the concentration within the range of 0.5 to 4.5%. The results obtained were precise, having relative standard deviations (RSD) for intra-day and inter-day precision of 2.03% and 2.94%, respectively. The accuracy was 99.03%. The method proved to be very useful and appropriate for the microbiological dosage of CHX-D in pharmaceutical formulations; it might also be used for routine drug analysis during quality control in pharmaceutical industries.

Characterization of antiseptic apatite powders prepared at biomimetics temperature and pH

Belouafa,Soumia; Chaair,Hassan; Loukili,Hayate; Digua,Khalid; Sallek,Brahim
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2008 EN
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Antiseptic apatite-based calcium phosphates were prepared as the single-phase powders. Phosphocalcic oxygenated apatites were synthesized from calcium salts and orthophosphate dissolved in oxygenated water solution at 30%, under the biomimetic conditions of 37 °C and pH 7.4. The characterization and chemical analysis of the synthesized biomimetic apatite powders were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and chemical analysis. The obtained materials are a calcium deficient apatites with different morphologies.

Development and validation of a microbiological assay for determination of chlorhexidine digluconate in aqueous solution

Fiorentino,Flávia Angélica Másquio; Corrêa,Marcos Antonio; Salgado,Hérida Regina Nunes
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
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Chlorhexidine (CHX) is a broad-spectrum antiseptic that is used in many topical pharmaceutical formulations. Because there is no official microbiological assay reported in the literature that is used to quantify CHX, this paper reports the development and validation of a simple, sensitive, accurate and reproducible agar diffusion method for the dosage of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX-D) in an aqueous solution. The assay is based on the inhibitory effect of CHX-D upon the strain of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, which is used as the test microorganism. The design 3x3 parallel-line model was used. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and they were excellent in terms of linearity (r = 0.9999), presenting a significant regression between the zone diameter of growth inhibition and the logarithm of the concentration within the range of 0.5 to 4.5%. The results obtained were precise, having relative standard deviations (RSD) for intra-day and inter-day precision of 2.03% and 2.94%, respectively. The accuracy was 99.03%. The method proved to be very useful and appropriate for the microbiological dosage of CHX-D in pharmaceutical formulations; it might also be used for routine drug analysis during quality control in pharmaceutical industries.

Antiseptic and antibiotic resistance plasmid in Staphylococcus aureus that possesses ability to confer chlorhexidine and acrinol resistance.

Yamamoto, T; Tamura, Y; Yokota, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1988 EN
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Plasmid pSAJ1 from a methicillin- and gentamicin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus had am molecular size of 50 kilobases and conferred resistance not only to kanamycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, benzalkonium chloride, acriflavin, and ethidium bromide but also to chlorhexidine. In addition, the cloned antiseptic resistance gene(s) manifested acrinol resistance in Escherichia coli.

Analysis of three variables in sampling solutions used to assay bacteria of hands: type of solution, use of antiseptic neutralizers, and solution temperature.

Larson, E L; Strom, M S; Evans, C A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1980 EN
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Tests were performed using the sterile bag technique to determine the effects of type of sampling solution, use of antiseptic neutralizers, and solution temperature on the detection and quantitation of bacteria on hands. Using paired hand cultures, three sampling solutions were compared: quarter-strength Ringer solution, a phosphate buffer containing Triton X-100, and the same buffer containing antiseptic neutralizers. The phosphate buffer containing Triton X-100 was significantly better than quarter-strength Ringer solution in mean bacterial yield; the neutralizer-containing sampling solution was slightly better than Triton X-100-containing solution, although differences were not significant at the P = 0.05 level. Temperature (6 or 23 degrees C) of the sampling solution showed no consistent effect on bacterial yield from hands tested with the fluid containing neutralizers.

Antiseptic Cream for Use on the Hands in Food Establishments

Wedderburn, Doreen L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1960 EN
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An antiseptic cream containing benzalkonium chloride as germicide has been developed for use on the hands. It inhibits growth on agar of staphylococci, E. coli, and S. typhimurium; it persists on the fingers, kills organisms applied to the skin, and reduces the normal bacterial population of skin. It is convenient to apply and has been found acceptable by workers in several food factories.

Handwashing and antiseptic-containing soaps in hospital

Jarvis, J. D.; Wynne, C. D.; Enwright, L.; Williams, J. D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1979 EN
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Two aspects of handwashing in hospital were considered. A study was carried out to examine the contamination of bar soap and containers, and the use of antiseptic soaps in reducing the resident flora of the skin. Swabs were collected from soap dishes on six wards and from a bacteriology laboratory on four consecutive days. The unmedicated bar soap was replaced by bar soap containing 2·5% povidone-iodine, and further swabs were collected over a period of seven days. Ninety-two isolates from 48 samples were obtained when unmedicated bar soap was used, and nine isolates from 42 samples when povidone-iodine (Betadine) soap was substituted. The number of organisms recovered when povidone-iodine soap was used was much reduced, and Pseudomonas spp were recovered in low numbers on only one occasion.

Antiseptic and antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection.

Stickler, D J; Thomas, B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1980 EN
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A collection of 802 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections was made from general practice, antenatal clinics, and local hospitals. The organisms were tested for their sensitivity to chlorhexidine, cetrimide, glutaraldehyde, phenyl mercuric nitrate, a phenolic formulation, and a proprietary antiseptic containing a mixture of picloxydine, octyl phenoxy polyethoxyethanol, and benzalkonium chloride. Escherichia coli, the major species isolated, proved to be uniformly sensitive to these agents. Approximately 10% of the total number of isolates, however, exhibited a degree of resistance to the cationic agents. These resistant organisms were members of the genera Proteus, Providencia, and Pseudomonas; they were also generally resistant to five, six, or seven antibiotics. It is proposed therefore that an antiseptic policy which involves the intensive use of cationic antiseptics might lead to the selection of a flora of notoriously drug-resistant species.

Effect of cleansing the birth canal with antiseptic solution on maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality in Malawi: clinical trial.

Taha, T. E.; Biggar, R. J.; Broadhead, R. L.; Mtimavalye, L. A.; Justesen, A. B.; Liomba, G. N.; Chiphangwi, J. D.; Miotti, P. G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/07/1997 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To determine if cleansing the birth canal with an antiseptic at delivery reduces infections in mothers and babies postnatally. DESIGN: Clinical trial; two months of no intervention were followed by three months of intervention and a final month of no intervention. SETTING: Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (tertiary care urban hospital), Blantyre, Malawi. SUBJECTS: A total of 6965 women giving birth in a six month period and their 7160 babies. INTERVENTION: Manual wipe of the maternal birth canal with a 0.25% chlorhexidine solution at every vaginal examination before delivery. Babies born during the intervention were also wiped with chlorhexidine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effects of the intervention on neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: 3635 women giving birth to 3743 babies were enrolled in the intervention phase and 3330 women giving birth to 3417 babies were enrolled in the non-intervention phase. There were no adverse reactions related to the intervention among the mothers or their children. Among infants born in the intervention phase, overall neonatal admissions were reduced (634/3743 (16.9%) v 661/3417 (19.3%), P < 0.01), as were admissions for neonatal sepsis (7.8 v 17.9 per 1000 live births, P < 0.0002)...

Partitioning, Persistence, and Accumulation in Digested Sludge of the Topical Antiseptic Triclocarban During Wastewater Treatment

Heidler, Jochen; Sapkota, Amir; Halden, Rolf U.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2006 EN
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The topical antiseptic agent triclocarban (TCC) is a common additive in many antimicrobial household consumables, including soaps and other personal care products. Long-term usage of the mass-produced compound and a lack of understanding of its fate during sewage treatment motivated the present mass balance analysis conducted at a typical U.S. activated sludge wastewater treatment plant featuring a design capacity of 680 million liters per day. Using automated samplers and grab sampling, the mass of TCC contained in influent, effluent and digested sludge was monitored by isotope dilution liquid chromatography (tandem) mass spectrometry. The average mass of TCC (mean ± standard deviation) entering and exiting the plant in influent (6.1 ± 2.0 μg/L) and effluent (0.17 ± 0.03 μg/L) was 3,737 ± 694 and 127 ± 6 g/d, respectively, indicating an aqueous-phase removal efficiency of 97 ± 1%. Tertiary treatment by chlorination and sand filtration provided no detectable benefit to the overall removal. Due to strong sorption of TCC to wastewater particulate matter (78 ± 11% sorbed), the majority of the TCC mass was sequestered into sludge in the primary and secondary clarifiers of the plant. Anaerobic digestion for 19 days did not promote TCC transformation...

Novel Antiseptic Urinary Catheters for Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections: Correlation of In Vivo and In Vitro Test Results▿

Hachem, Ray; Reitzel, Ruth; Borne, Agatha; Jiang, Ying; Tinkey, Peggy; Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Chandra, Jyotsna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Raad, Issam
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Urinary catheters are widely used for hospitalized patients and are often associated with high rates of urinary tract infection. We evaluated in vitro the antiadherence activity of a novel antiseptic Gendine-coated urinary catheter against several multidrug-resistant bacteria. Gendine-coated urinary catheters were compared to silver hydrogel-coated Foley catheters and uncoated catheters. Bacterial biofilm formation was assessed by quantitative culture and scanning electron microscopy. These data were further correlated to an in vivo rabbit model. We challenged 31 rabbits daily for 4 days by inoculating the urethral meatus with 1.0 × 109 CFU streptomycin-resistant Escherichia coli per day. In vitro, Gendine-coated urinary catheters reduced the CFU of all organisms tested for biofilm adherence compared with uncoated and silver hydrogel-coated catheters (P < 0.004). Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that a thick biofilm overlaid the control catheter and the silver hydrogel-coated catheters but not the Gendine-coated urinary catheter. Similar results were found with the rabbit model. Bacteriuria was present in 60% of rabbits with uncoated catheters and 71% of those with silver hydrogel-coated catheters (P < 0.01) but not in those with Gendine-coated urinary catheters. No rabbits with Gendine-coated urinary catheters had invasive bladder infections. Histopathologic assessment revealed no differences in toxicity or staining. Gendine-coated urinary catheters were more efficacious in preventing catheter-associated colonization and urinary tract infections than were silver hydrogel-coated Foley catheters and uncoated catheters.

The Classic: On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery

Lister, Baron Joseph
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Baron Joseph Lister, On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery. An accompanying biographical sketch of Baron Joseph Lister is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1319-3. The Classic Article is ©1867 and is reprinted with courtesy from Lister J. On the antiseptic principle in the practice of surgery. Br Med J. 1867;ii:246.

Carbohydrate Derived Fulvic Acid: An in vitro Investigation of a Novel Membrane Active Antiseptic Agent Against Candida albicans Biofilms

Sherry, Leighann; Jose, Anto; Murray, Colin; Williams, Craig; Jones, Brian; Millington, Owain; Bagg, Jeremy; Ramage, Gordon
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/03/2012 EN
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Carbohydrate derived fulvic acid (CHD-FA) is a heat stable low molecular weight, water soluble, cationic, colloidal material with proposed therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of CHD-FA against Candida albicans, and to characterize its mode of action. A panel of C. albicans isolates (n = 50) derived from a range of clinical specimens were grown planktonically and as biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations determined. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to examine ultrastructural changes and different cell membrane assays were used to determine its mode of action. In addition, the role of C. albicans biofilm resistance mechanisms were investigated to determine their effects on CHD-FA activity. CHD-FA was active against planktonic and sessile C. albicans at concentrations 0.125 and 0.25% respectively, and was shown to be fungicidal, acting through disruption of the cell membrane activity. Resistance mechanisms, including matrix, efflux, and stress, had a limited role upon CHD-FA activity. Overall, based on the promising in vitro spectrum of activity and minimal biofilm resistance of the natural and cheap antiseptic CHD-FA, further studies are required to determine its applicability for clinical use.

Human Coronaviruses: Insights into Environmental Resistance and Its Influence on the Development of New Antiseptic Strategies

Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/11/2012 EN
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The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002–2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity)...

Enrichment, Development, and Assessment of Indian Basil Oil Based Antiseptic Cream Formulation Utilizing Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance Approach

Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Meher, Jaya Gopal; Pandey, Neelam; Luqman, Suaib; Yadav, Kuldeep Singh; Chanda, Debabrata
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The present work was aimed to develop an antiseptic cream formulation of Indian basil oil utilizing hydrophilic-lipophilic balance approach. In order to determine the required-hydrophilic lipophilic balance (rHLB) of basil oil, emulsions of basil oil were prepared by phase inversion temperature technique using water, Tween 80, and Span 80. Formulated emulsions were assessed for creaming (BE9; 9.8, BE10; 10.2), droplet size (BE18; 3.22 ± 0.09 μm), and turbidity (BE18; 86.12 ± 2.1%). To ensure correctness of the applied methodology, rHLB of light liquid paraffin was also determined. After rHLB determination, basil oil creams were prepared with two different combinations of surfactants, namely, GMS : Tween 80 (1 : 3.45) and SLS : GMS (1 : 3.68), and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity, skin irritation test, viscosity and consistency. The rHLB of basil oil and light liquid paraffin were found to be 13.36 ± 0.36 and 11.5 ± 0.35, respectively. Viscosity, and consistency parameters of cream was found to be consistent over 90 days. Cream formulations showed net zone of growth inhibition in the range of 5.0–11.3 mm against bacteria and 4.3–7.6 mm against fungi. Primary irritation index was found to be between 0.38 and1.05. Conclusively stable...

Clinical study to know the efficacy of Amlexanox 5% with other topical Antiseptic, Analgesic and Anesthetic agents in treating minor RAS

Darshan, D D; Kumar, C N Vijay; Kumar, A D Manoj; Manikantan, N S; Balakrishnan, Dhanya; Uthkal, M P
Fonte: International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry Publicador: International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Background: To evaluate the efficacy of topical antiinflammatory agent (amlexanox 5%), along with topical antiseptic, analgesic, and anesthetic agent (benzalkonium chloride 0.01%, choline salicylate 8.7% and lidocaine hydrochloride 2%), in promoting ulcer healing, decreasing ulcer size, erythema, pain and recurrence in minor RAS.

Effect of the Hand Antiseptic Agents Benzalkonium Chloride, Povidone-Iodine, Ethanol, and Chlorhexidine Gluconate on Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice

Sadakane, Kaori; Ichinose, Takamichi
Fonte: Ivyspring International Publisher Publicador: Ivyspring International Publisher
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/01/2015 EN
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Antiseptic agents can cause skin irritation and lead to severe problems, especially for individuals with atopic diatheses. We investigated the effect of 4 different antiseptic agents using an atopic dermatitis (AD) model mouse. NC/Nga mice were subcutaneously injected with mite allergen (Dp) to induce AD-like skin lesions (ADSLs), and an application of 0.2% (w/v) benzalkonium chloride (BZK), 10% (w/v) povidone-iodine (PVP-I), 80% (v/v) ethanol (Et-OH), or 0.5% (v/v) chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was applied to the ear envelope. BZK induced a significant increase in the severity of the clinical score, infiltration of inflammatory cells, local expression of inflammatory cytokines in subcutaneous tissue, and total serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E. PVP-I increased the clinical score, number of mast cells, and production of inflammatory cytokines, and total serum IgE. Et-OH increased the clinical score and number of inflammatory cells, but showed no effect on serum IgE levels. No differences in any parameters were observed between CHG and the vehicle. Collectively, the results suggest the severity of the ADSL was related in part to the strength of the immunoreaction. These findings suggest that CHG could offer the lowest risk of inducing ADSL in individuals with atopic dermatitis and that medical staff and food handlers with AD could benefit from its use.

Avaliação da segurança e eficácia do extrato de Caryocar brasiliense obtido por CO2 supercrítico e sua aplicação como ativo para formulações antissépticas; Safety and efficacy evaluation of Caryocar brasiliense supercritical extract as active for antiseptic formulation

Lilian Ferreira Barbosa Amaral
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/08/2014 PT
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As indústrias cosméticas e farmacêuticas têm um crescente interesse na substituição dos antimicrobianos sintéticos nos produtos dermatológicos, devido à resistência dos microrganismos aos antimicrobianos convencionais. O pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb) é uma frutífera nativa do Cerrado brasileiro utilizada na medicina popular, na indústria cosmética e na alimentação, com atividades leishmanicida e antimicrobiana descritas na literatura. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar a segurança e a eficácia do extrato de Caryocar brasilense obtido por CO2 supercrítico visando sua aplicação cosmética. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) frente às bactérias Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus foi determinada pelo método clássico de microdiluição em placas. O potencial antioxidante do extrato foi determinado por um método baseado na oxidação do 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS). Para avaliação da citotoxicidade e fototoxicidade in vitro, foram utilizados métodos colorimétricos baseados na conversão do corante tetrazólio (XTT) e o método do vermelho neutro (3T3 NRU), respectivamente. Na avaliação do potencial de irritação ocular empregou-se o teste na membrana corioalantóide do ovo de galinha (HET-CAM). O Perfil fitoquímico do extrato foi analisado quanto à presença de alcalóides...

Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2005 EN
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Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients.

Antiseptic mouthwashes: in vitro antibacterial activity

Watanabe,Evandro; Nascimento,Andresa P; Guerreiro-Tanomaru,Juliane M; Razaboni,Ana M; de Andrade,Denise; Tanomaru-Filho,Mário
Fonte: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana Publicador: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
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Mouthwashes are used as an adjunct to tooth brushing for improving breath and preventing oral diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro Maximum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) of 3 mouthwashes with different active ingredients against mutans streptococci (MS). The products analyzed were PeriogardR, CepacolR and PlaxR Fresh Mint. Their antibacterial activity was assessed in duplicate in 96-well microtiter plates against 36 clinical isolates of MS. Each mouthwash was submitted to a serial two-fold dilution (1/2.5 to 1/5120) using double concentration of Tryptose Soy Broth with 1.0% yeast extract. The final volume in each well was 100 mL plus 5 mL of a bacterial suspension, equivalent to 107 CFU/mL. They were incubated microaerobically at 37oC for 48 hours and the MIDs determined. MID was 1/320 for PeriogardR and CepacolR, and 1/20 for PlaxR. Statistical analysis revealed that the MID of PeriogardR MID did not differ from that of CepacolR (p>0.05), and was higher than that of PlaxR (p<0.05). In conclusion, the antiseptic mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine (PeriogardR) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CepacolR) had higher in vitroantibacterial activity (MID) against MS than the antiseptic mouthwash containing triclosan (PlaxR)...