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Characterization and Quantitation of a Novel β-Lactamase Gene Found in a Wastewater Treatment Facility and the Surrounding Coastal Ecosystem▿

Uyaguari, Miguel I.; Fichot, Erin B.; Scott, Geoffrey I.; Norman, R. Sean
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 EN
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Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are engineered structures that collect, concentrate, and treat human waste, ultimately releasing treated wastewater into local environments. While WWTPs efficiently remove most biosolids, it has been shown that many antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can survive the treatment process. To determine how WWTPs influence the concentration and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant genes into the environment, a functional metagenomic approach was used to identify a novel antibiotic resistance gene within a WWTP, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to determine gene copy numbers within the facility and the local coastal ecosystem. From the WWTP metagenomic library, the fosmid insert contained in one highly resistant clone (MIC, ∼416 μg ml−1 ampicillin) was sequenced and annotated, revealing 33 putative genes, including a 927-bp gene that is 42% identical to a functionally characterized β-lactamase from Staphylococcus aureus PC1. Isolation and subcloning of this gene, referred to as blaM-1, conferred ampicillin resistance to its Escherichia coli host. When normalized to volume, qPCR showed increased concentrations of blaM-1 during initial treatment stages but 2-fold-decreased concentrations during the final treatment stage. The concentration ng−1 DNA increased throughout the WWTP process from influent to effluent...

Impact of Fertilizing with Raw or Anaerobically Digested Sewage Sludge on the Abundance of Antibiotic-Resistant Coliforms, Antibiotic Resistance Genes, and Pathogenic Bacteria in Soil and on Vegetables at Harvest

Rahube, Teddie O.; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R.; Topp, Edward
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2014 EN
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The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application...

Shotgun metagenomics reveals a wide array of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements in a polluted lake in India

Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Boulund, Fredrik; Fick, Jerker; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D. G. Joakim
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/12/2014 EN
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There is increasing evidence for an environmental origin of many antibiotic resistance genes. Consequently, it is important to identify environments of particular risk for selecting and maintaining such resistance factors. In this study, we described the diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in an Indian lake subjected to industrial pollution with fluoroquinolone antibiotics. We also assessed the genetic context of the identified resistance genes, to try to predict their genetic transferability. The lake harbored a wide range of resistance genes (81 identified gene types) against essentially every major class of antibiotics, as well as genes responsible for mobilization of genetic material. Resistance genes were estimated to be 7000 times more abundant than in a Swedish lake included for comparison, where only eight resistance genes were found. The sul2 and qnrD genes were the most common resistance genes in the Indian lake. Twenty-six known and 21 putative novel plasmids were recovered in the Indian lake metagenome, which, together with the genes found, indicate a large potential for horizontal gene transfer through conjugation. Interestingly, the microbial community of the lake still included a wide range of taxa, suggesting that...

Use of an activated carbon from antibiotic waste for the removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution

Budinova, Temenuzhka; Petrov, Nartzislav; Parra Soto, José Bernardo; Baloutzov, Venelin
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 22195 bytes; application/pdf
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8 pages, 6 figures, 4 tables.-- PMID: 17428604 [PubMed].-- Available online Apr 10, 2007.; Porous carbon has been prepared from waste antibiotic material by a chemical activation method using K2CO3 as an activating reagent. Carbon was studied systematically by the adsorption of nitrogen and iodine. It was found that the process parameters such as activation temperature and activation time are crucial for preparing high-quality activated carbon. The proper choice of the preparation conditions allows to produce microporous activated carbon with a micropore volume up to 0.492 cm3/g and a BET surface area of 1260 m2/g. Adsorption of mercury(II) from an aqueous solution on antibiotic carbon was investigated under the varying conditions of agitation time, metal ion concentration and pH. The adsorption capacity of the carbon is 129 mg/g.; Financial support from The Ministry of Education and Science (project CC-1401) is gratefully acknowledged.; Peer reviewed

Prevalencia de Enterococos resistentes a antibióticos en aguas servidas en el norte de Chile

Silva A,Juan; Loyola S,Patricio; Galleguillos O,Juan; Rodríguez G,Yara; Colque-Navarro,Patricia; Möllby,Roland; Kühn,Inger
Fonte: Sociedad Médica de Santiago Publicador: Sociedad Médica de Santiago
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2005 ES
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There is little information available in Chile on the distribution of Enterococcus spp in waste water and its implications in transmission of antibiotic resistance through the water cycle. Enterococcus spp are common in nosocomial infections and may spread antibiotic resistance through the food chain. Aim: To determine the presence of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp in the sewage of Antofagasta, Chile. Material and Methods: Samples of sewage from two sewage treatment plants and from the Public Hospital of Antofagasta collector were obtained. Enterococcus spp were isolated on m-Enterococcus agar containing ampicillin, vancomycin and streptomycin. The isolates were identified and subjected to biochemical typing (PhPlate). Minimal inhibitory concentration determination was performed by agar dilution technique. Results: High counts of resistant Enterococcus spp were found on the streptomycin plates, lower on ampicillin and very low on vancomycin plates. A total of 63 Enterococcus spp strains were typed and the identification showed 5 different species; E faecalis (65%), E faecium (14%), E hirae (13%), E durans (6%) and E gallinarum (2%). The typing revealed a high diversity among the isolates. Two biochemical phenotypes were predominant...