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Efeito da incorporação de fibras curtas de sílica amorfa em compósitos de polipropileno utilizados pela indústria automotiva nacional.; Effect of the incorporation of short amorphous silica fibers in polypropylene composites used by the national automotive industry.

Pizzitola, Ivani Caetano dos Passos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2011 PT
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A adição de fibras de sílica em compósitos de polipropileno (PP) foi investigada neste trabalho como uma proposta de desenvolvimento de novos materiais utilizados pela indústria automotiva, os quais permitam a redução de peso do veículo e a consequente economia de combustível. As fibras são leves, constituídas de sílica amorfa e tratadas com aminossilano para uma melhor interação com a matriz polimérica. Compósitos de PP homopolímero, bem como de compósitos de PP heterofásico modificados com o copolímero etileno e 1-octeno (POE), foram formulados utilizando-se 20% de fibras de sílica e com PP funcionalizado com anidrido maleico (PP-g-MAH) como compatibilizante. As amostras foram avaliadas quanto às propriedades mecânicas, térmicas, características morfológicas, anisotropia e quanto a requisitos específicos, como emissões de voláteis, odor e resistência a riscos. O compósito de PP homopolímero na presença de 2% de PP-g- MAH apresentou o melhor balanço de propriedades, porém com comprometimento quanto à tenacidade. A análise morfológica desta formulação indicou a presença de fibras descoladas, demonstrando que o tratamento das fibras com o aminossilano, não foi totalmente efetivo para a redução das tensões interfaciais. Os compósitos de PP heterofásico modificados com POE (5% em peso) e com fibras de sílica apresentaram boa dispersão...

Formação de mulita (3Al2O3.2SiO2) "in situ" a partir de diferentes tipos de sílicas amorfas sintéticas (SAS's); "In situ" formation of mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2) from different types of synthetic amorphous silica (SAS's)

Fernandes, Leandro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/07/2014 PT
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Em cerâmicas refratárias, a formação de mulita (3Al2O3.2SiO2) "in situ", a partir da reação entre alumina e sílicas amorfas sintéticas (SAS´s) aumenta a resistência ao choque térmico e à corrosão destes materiais. Essa reação é fortemente afetada pelas características físico-químicas e morfológicas das SAS´s. Este estudo comparou a formação de mulita"in situ" a partir da combinação de alumina calcinada ultrafina (α-Al2O3) com quatro tipos de SAS´s obtidas por diferentes processos de sínteses (precipitação de silicato de sódio, extração da cinza da casca do arroz, extração da casca do arroz e precipitação de vapor de silício elementar) e com características variadas. Inicialmente, esses quatros tipos de SASs foram caracterizados em relação às suas propriedades físico-químicas, microestrutura e morfologia. Em seguida, após mistura com alumina, compactação e sinterização (1100-1500°C) assistida por dilatometria, as amostras foram caracterizadas em relação à sua porosidade, densidade, módulo elástico, resistência à flexão, microestrutura e fases presentes. Verificou-se que as propriedades das estruturas finais foram fortemente afetadas pela mudança de SAS´s. De forma geral e em comparação com as amostras de referência (100% alumina ou 100% mulita pré-formada por eletrofusão)...

Avaliação da utilização de sucata de vidro como adição mineral frente à sílica ativa e como agregado miúdo artificial na produção de materiais à base de cimento

Fávero, Rafael Burin
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
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O vidro é um material 100% reciclável e largamente utilizado no mundo todo. As suas propriedades mecânicas incluem elevados valores de resistência à compressão, à tração, à flexão e ao desgaste. Além disso, mais de 70% de sua matéria é constituída por sílica (SiO2), o que pode lhe conferir boas propriedades pozolânicas, caracterizando-o como um potencial material constituinte para o concreto. Por ser um material com elevada massa específica, e consequentemente, com alto custo de transporte à origem para a sua reciclagem, o vidro é descartado incorretamente em depósitos de lixo e aterros sanitários. A viabilização técnica do uso deste resíduo pode ajudar a solucionar o impacto ambiental causado por este material. Dessa forma, este trabalho estudou a viabilidade da utilização da sucata de vidro comum transparente como adição mineral em substituição ao cimento (frente à sílica ativa) e, também, como agregado miúdo artificial (areia) na produção de materiais à base de cimento. Devido à composição do vidro, que é, basicamente, sílica no estado amorfo, existe a possibilidade de ocorrência de reação álcali-agregado (RAA), que é uma reação química que ocorre justamente, entre a sílica amorfa e os hidróxidos alcalinos presentes nos poros do concreto. A RAA causa fissuração no concreto...

SnO2 nanoparticles functionalized in amorphous silica and glass

Carreno, Neftali L. V.; Nunes, Michael R.; Raubach, Cristiane W.; Granada, Rosana L.; Krolow, Matheus Z.; Orlandi, Marcelo O.; Fajardo, Humberto V.; Probst, Luiz F. D.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Sa Publicador: Elsevier B.V. Sa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 91-95
ENG
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Two different routes to obtain SnO2 nanoparticles, undoped and doped with rare earth metals (Eu or Pr), are described herein. The first route was based on the polymeric precursor method that led to the obtainment of SnO2 nanoparticles dispersed in amorphous silica. The second route was simply the impregnation with SnCl4 aqueous solution of SiO2-CaO glass microparticles functionalized with hydroxyl (-OH) groups. The materials were characterized by N-2 physisorption, XRD, EDS and TEM analyses. We also present the results of catalytic experiments involving the nanocrystalline composites in ethanol steam reforming. The catalytic properties of the undoped composites with SnO2 supported on SiO2-CaO glass differ from their doped analogues, however, they were both selective towards ethylene formation, in contrast to the doped composite obtained by the polymeric precursor method. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Efeito do tratamento superficial na devitrificação e dissolução da silica vitrea; Effect of surface treatment on devitrification and dissolution of vitreous silica

Daniela Yuri Ogata
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/07/1997 PT
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Neste trabalho procurou-se investigar a influência do tratamento da superficie (tensão/rugosidade provocado pelo processo de desbaste com pó abrasivo) na devitrificação e na dissolução da sílica vítrea. Para tanto, utilizou-se de métodos de caracterização de materiais, tais como difratometria de raios-X, espectroscopia de infravermelho, microscopia óptica e eletrônica e espalhamento de raios-X a baixo ângulo. Para o estudo da influência do tratamento superficial na devitrificação, os resultados de difração de raios-X e microscopia, mostraram que a devitrificação possui forte correlação com o tratamento superficial da sílica vítrea, onde amostras com maior rugosidade, apresentaram também uma maior devitrificação em comparação à outra com menor rugosidade. A dissolução da sílica vítrea por ácido fluorídrico ("etching") também foi estudado, e os resultados mostraram que a taxa de dissolução é dependente da rugosidade superficial, concentração do ácido e tempo de "etching". Resultados adicionais mostraram a formação de cavidades arredondadas na forma de "larvas" (padrão superficial) após "etching". Após um tempo de "etching" entre 33 e 88 horas, as amostras apresentaramum padrão superficial semelhante a "grãos" e no interior dos "grãos"...

Estudo do transporte de cargas elétricas por sílicas amorfas hidratadas sob campo elétrico de alta intensidade; Study of the electrical charge transport by amorphous silica on high intensity electric field

Carlos Eduardo Perles
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/08/2010 PT
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A idéia do trabalho desenvolvido surgiu da observação causal de um fenômeno, no qual partículas de sílicas amorfas eram arrastadas paralelamente às linhas de um campo elétrico DC ao qual esse material foi submetido. É um estudo inédito, não havendo nenhum relato na literatura, de forma que todo o instrumental foi exclusivamente projetado e montado em laboratório para possibilitar o desenvolvimento do trabalho proposto. Realizou-se um estudo científico completo do fenômeno observado, com a seguinte seqüência: observação do fenômeno proposição de modelo exploração do potencial de aplicação. As primeiras observações permitiram concluir que o arraste das partículas de sílica gel ao longo do campo elétrico só ocorria quando as partículas estavam hidratadas e que cargas elétricas eram ¿armazenadas¿ sobre essas partículas até atingirem um valor crítico no qual a força eletrostática agindo sobre elas superava as forças opostas (gravitacional e capilar). O fluxo de partículas entre os dois eletrodos gerava uma corrente elétrica através do sistema. Observações posteriores indicaram que, embora o filme de água superficial fosse essencial para a ocorrência do fenômeno, a taxa de transporte de cargas aumentava até determinado ponto com a diminuição da camada de hidratação. Resultados indicaram que não havia evidências de processos faradaícos ocorrendo...

Production and characterisation of amorphous silica from rice husk waste

Madrid, Rosario; Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 10/09/2012 ENG
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Rice covers about 1% of the earth’s surface. Rice husk is the major by-product of the riceprocessing industries which must be appropriately managed. On average 20% of the rice paddy is husk. The major constituents of rice husk are cellulose, lignin and silica. During growth, rice plants absorb silica and other minerals from the soil and accumulate it into their structures. Its composition varies with the diversity, climate and geographic location of growth. The high grade of silica in the husk opens a possibility for its valorisation. Through thermal treatment by calcination, with or without energy recovery, the ash obtained is constituted by amorphous silica with high porosity having potential application as ligand in construction materials, catalyst support, metals adsorbent, insulation or ceramics, among others. In the research developed, the rice husk was processed by washing, acid leaching and calcination in order to produce an ash, which was characterized aiming at assessing possible valorising solutions. The chemical treatment involved water washing for partial purification of the husk, and leaching with diluted sulphuric acid solution, allowing obtaining high metals removal efficiency, decreasing at least 90% of the initial content of contaminants (K...

Some studies on the wear resistance of artificial teeth in presence of amorphous SiO2 and TiO2 fillers

Muhammad,N.; Maitra,S.; Ul Haq,I.; Farooq,M.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Cerâmica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Cerâmica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
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A set of composite materials were developed by blending polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with different amounts of micro-fine amorphous silica and titanium dioxide for application as artificial teeth. Wear resistances of these composites were measured with the help of a modified pin-on-disc tribometer and compared with commercial artificial teeth sample in the presence of artificial saliva. It has been observed that under the similar biological condition the powder fillers improved the wear resistances of the artificial teeth as compared to the commercial one under identical condition.

Silica Derived from Burned Rice Hulls

Souza,M.F. de; Magalhães,W.L.E.; Persegil,M.C.
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2002 EN
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Three new processes to obtain silica having high specific surface area from burned pre-treated rice hulls are presented and discussed. These procedures allow for the simultaneous recovery of biomass energy and the production of high quality silica at thermoelectric plants, without the risk of using corrosive substances in the burning process. The first method involves treatment of the hull with hot organic acid solutions before burning, the second with boiling water, both using an autoclave at temperatures close to150 °C, while the third method renders the hull fragile by treating it at 250 °C and reducing it to a fine powder before burning. The first two methods result in white amorphous silica that can show 500 m²/g of specific surface area. The third method, which does not remove the alkaline elements from the hull, produces an amorphous gray carbon-free powder whose specific surface area can be as high as 250 m²/g. An investigation of the specific surface area of the prepared silica indicates the alkaline elements are not mixed with silica in the hulls or combined as insoluble compounds. A comparison is made of these processes and the dissolution of silica by sodium hydroxide solutions is discussed.

Surface and bulk infrared modes of crystalline and amorphous silica particles: a study of the relation of surface structure to cytotoxicity of respirable silica.

Pandurangi, R S; Seehra, M S; Razzaboni, B L; Bolsaitis, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1990 EN
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Surface IR (infrared) modes of crystalline and fumed (amorphous) silica particles, calcined at temperatures up to 1095 degrees C, have been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ability of these same particles to lyse cells has been measured by a hemolysis protocol. The untreated crystalline and amorphous materials differ by a factor of 40 in specific surface area, and the intensity per unit mass of the sharp surface silanol band near 3745 cm-1 in the amorphous material is an order of magnitude larger than in the crystalline material. A similar difference is observed in the lysing potential of the two materials. The intensity of the silanol band increases after calcination for both materials, reaching peak values near 500 degrees C, followed by a dramatic drop at higher calcination temperatures, and reaching negligible values for materials calcined near 1100 degrees C. The lysing potential data follow essentially the same pattern for both crystalline and fumed silica. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the surface silanol groups are involved in cell lysis. Further experiments are suggested to evaluate the relationship between the surface structure of silica particles and their potential cytotoxicity.

Kinetics of amorphous silica dissolution and the paradox of the silica polymorphs

Dove, Patricia M.; Han, Nizhou; Wallace, Adam F.; De Yoreo, James J.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The mechanisms by which amorphous silica dissolves have proven elusive because noncrystalline materials lack the structural order that allows them to be studied by the classical terrace, ledge, kink-based models applied to crystals. This would seem to imply amorphous phases have surfaces that are disordered at an atomic scale so that the transfer of SiO4 tetrahedra to solution always leaves the surface free energy of the solid unchanged. As a consequence, dissolution rates of amorphous phases should simply scale linearly with increasing driving force (undersaturation) through the higher probability of detaching silica tetrahedra. By examining rate measurements for two amorphous SiO2 glasses we find, instead, a paradox. In electrolyte solutions, these silicas show the same exponential dependence on driving force as their crystalline counterpart, quartz. We analyze this enigma by considering that amorphous silicas present two predominant types of surface-coordinated silica tetrahedra to solution. Electrolytes overcome the energy barrier to nucleated detachment of higher coordinated species to create a periphery of reactive, lesser coordinated groups that increase surface energy. The result is a plausible mechanism-based model that is formally identical with the classical polynuclear theory developed for crystal growth. The model also accounts for reported demineralization rates of natural biogenic and synthetic colloidal silicas. In principle...

Processing pathway dependence of amorphous silica nanoparticle toxicity - colloidal versus pyrolytic

Zhang, Haiyuan; Dunphy, Darren R.; Jiang, Xingmao; Meng, Huan; Sun, Bingbing; Tarn, Derrick; Xue, Min; Wang, Xiang; Lin, Sijie; Ji, Zhaoxia; Li, Ruibin; Garcia, Fred L.; Yang, Jing; Kirk, Martin L.; Xia, Tian; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, Andre; Brinker, C. Jeff
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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We have developed structure/toxicity relationships for amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized through low temperature, colloidal (e.g. Stöber silica) or high temperature pyrolysis (e.g. fumed silica) routes. Through combined spectroscopic and physical analyses, we have determined the state of aggregation, hydroxyl concentration, relative proportion of strained and unstrained siloxane rings, and potential to generate hydroxyl radicals for Stöber and fumed silica NPs with comparable primary particle sizes (16-nm in diameter). Based on erythrocyte hemolytic assays and assessment of the viability and ATP levels in epithelial and macrophage cells, we discovered for fumed silica an important toxicity relationship to post-synthesis thermal annealing or environmental exposure, whereas colloidal silicas were essentially non-toxic under identical treatment conditions. Specifically, we find for fumed silica a positive correlation of toxicity with hydroxyl concentration and its potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause red blood cell hemolysis. We propose fumed silica toxicity stems from its intrinsic population of strained three-membered rings (3MRs) along with its chain-like aggregation and hydroxyl content. Hydrogen-bonding and electrostatic interactions of the silanol surfaces of fumed silica aggregates with the extracellular plasma membrane cause membrane perturbations sensed by the Nalp3 inflammasome...

Intestinal absorption and biological effects of orally administered amorphous silica particles

Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Takahashi, Hideki; Misato, Kazuki; Mori, Takahide; Hirai, Toshiro; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Tsutsumi, Y
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/09/2014 EN
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Although amorphous silica nanoparticles are widely used in the production of food products (e.g., as anticaking agents), there is little information available about their absorption and biological effects after oral exposure. Here, we examined the in vitro intestinal absorption and in vivo biological effects in mice of orally administered amorphous silica particles with diameters of 70, 300, and 1,000 nm (nSP70, mSP300, and mSP1000, respectively) and of nSP70 that had been surface-modified with carboxyl or amine groups (nSP70-C and nSP70-N, respectively). Analysis of intestinal absorption by means of the everted gut sac method combined with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer showed that the intestinal absorption of nSP70-C was significantly greater than that of nSP70. The absorption of nSP70-N tended to be greater than that of nSP70; however, the results were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that silica nanoparticles can be absorbed through the intestine and that particle diameter and surface properties are major determinants of the degree of absorption. We also examined the biological effects of the silica particles after 28-day oral exposure in mice. Hematological, histopathological, and biochemical analyses showed no significant differences between control mice and mice treated with the silica particles...

Effects of water on chemomechanical instabilities in amorphous silica : nanoscale experiments and molecular simulation

Silva, Emílio César Cavalcante Melo da
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 114 leaves
ENG
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We elucidate the tensile failure mechanism of amorphous silica and the effects of water on the process, combining: (a) atomic force microscope (AFM) bending tests, (b) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and (c) molecular orbital (MO) simulation. Bending tests of silica nanowires provide validation for the predictions of the simulations, in which we study the failure of dry silica using MD and define a representative system to be studied with the more chemically accurate MO method. We used the AFM to perform bending tests on silica nanowires of diameter D < 1 [mu]m, which have very high surface-to-volume ratio and no microscopic flaws. No size effects on elastic modulus were observed down to 130 nm. For 500 nm wires, water reduces the strength from 10.5 GPa in air to 6.5 GPa in water, results comparable to those reported for micrometer-scale fibers. By probing the strength of silica at this scale, we bring experiments to the length scales accessible to atomistic simulation. Using classical MD, we found that crystalline silica fails globally by crack nucleation, but amorphous silica displays plastic deformation due to the formation of local defects, which cascade into larger compound defects. We extend to amorphous systems the instability criterion for material failure and use the Lanczos iteration method to isolate unstable modes. Failure of these modes create local defects...

Desenvolvimento e caracterização de um composito hibrido de polipropileno homopolimero e micro fibra de silica amorfa e fibra de madeira, utilizando agente de acoplagem; Development and characterization of a hybrid composites polypropylene homopolymer and micro fiber amorphous silica and powder´s wood using coupling agents

Alex Kazuo Sato
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/12/2008 PT
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Um dos grandes desafios que enfrentamos neste novo século de avanços tecnológicos é o desenvolvimento de novos materiais que atendam as necessidades pré-requeridas no que diz respeito às propriedades mecânicas e térmicas das peças e seu custo, reunindo assim uma excelente relação de custo beneficio. Este trabalho visou o estudo de um compósito híbrido termoplástico, usando polipropileno como matriz polimérica associado a uma micro fibra de sílica amorfa (MFSA) e uma fibra natural originada da madeira, para se testar a viabilidade de sua utilização na área dos materiais de engenharia. Foram testadas várias formulações com diferentes proporções de MFSA e de fibra de madeira, bem como compósitos com e sem agentes de acoplamento, funcionalizados com anidrido maleico. A eficiência desses agentes e as propriedades térmicas, mecânicas e morfológicas das diferentes formulações foram avaliadas por meio de testes de resistência à tração, impacto Izod, dureza Shore D, HDT, Vicat e por calorimetria e microscopia eletrônica de varredura dos compósitos obtidos. Os resultados mostraram que o compósito híbrido de homo polipropileno carregado como micro fibra de sílica amorfa e fibra de madeira, auxiliada com o agente de acoplagem estudado...

Surface complexation model for strontium sorption to amorphous silica and goethite

Carroll, Susan A; Roberts, Sarah K; Criscenti, Louise J; O'Day, Peggy A
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/01/2008 EN
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Strontium sorption to amorphous silica and goethite was measured as a function of pH and dissolved strontium and carbonate concentrations at 25°C. Strontium sorption gradually increases from 0 to 100% from pH 6 to 10 for both phases and requires multiple outer-sphere surface complexes to fit the data. All data are modeled using the triple layer model and the site-occupancy standard state; unless stated otherwise all strontium complexes are mononuclear. Strontium sorption to amorphous silica in the presence and absence of dissolved carbonate can be fit with tetradentate Sr2+ and SrOH+ complexes on the β-plane and a monodentate Sr2+complex on the diffuse plane to account for strontium sorption at low ionic strength. Strontium sorption to goethite in the absence of dissolved carbonate can be fit with monodentate and tetradentate SrOH+ complexes and a tetradentate binuclear Sr2+ species on the β-plane. The binuclear complex is needed to account for enhanced sorption at hgh strontium surface loadings. In the presence of dissolved carbonate additional monodentate Sr2+ and SrOH+ carbonate surface complexes on the β-plane are needed to fit strontium sorption to goethite. Modeling strontium sorption as outer-sphere complexes is consistent with quantitative analysis of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) on selected sorption samples that show a single first shell of oxygen atoms around strontium indicating hydrated surface complexes at the amorphous silica and goethite surfaces.

Amorphous silica biomineralizations in Schoenoplectus californicus (Cyperaceae): their relation with maturation stage and silica availability

Fernández Honaine, Mariana; Borrelli, Natalia Lorena; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; del Río, Laura Sombra
Fonte: Sociedad Argentina de Botánica Publicador: Sociedad Argentina de Botánica
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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The factors involved on the silicification process in Cyperaceae are scarcely known. In this study we analyse the effect of maturation stage and silica availability on the production of amorphous silica biomineralizations in culms of Schoenoplectus californicus. Young and senescent culms were collected from ponds with different silica availability. Two complementary methodologies (calcination and staining techniques), light and scanning electron microscopy and EDS were applied for amorphous silica analyses in plants. Quantitative data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis and a two-way ANOVA tests. There were no significant differences between silica content of culms collected in ponds with different silica availability. Instead, silica content in senescent culms was higher than in young culms (F=91.43, P<0.01). Young culms only produce cone-shaped amorphous silica bodies, located in epidermal cells overlying sclerenchyma. Senescent culms produce a higher diversity of silicified cells, such as epidermal, stellate (aerenchyma) and parenchymatic cells. Silicification process in S. californicus is clearly affected by age and may act as a mechanism of structural resistance improvement. Some cells became silicified very early in the development and others may be silicified at a later stage depending on wall characteristics or rate of transpiration.; Biomineralizaciones de sílice amorfo en Schoenoplectus californicus (Cyperaceae): su relación con el estado de maduración y la disponibilidad de sílice. Los factores involucrados en el proceso de silicificación en Cyperaceae son poco conocidos. En este estudio se analiza el efecto del estado de maduración y la disponibilidad de sílice en la producción de biomineralizaciones de sílice amorfo en tallos de Schoenoplectus californicus. Tallos jóvenes y senescentes fueron recolectados de lagunas con diferente disponibilidad de sílice. Dos técnicas complementarias (calcinación y tinción)...

Estudio por difracción de rayos X de la hidratación de mezclas de CaAl2O4 - Humo de silice; In situ X-ray difraction study of hidration of CaAl2O4 - amorphous silica mixtures

Rivas-Mercury, J. M.; Turrillas, Xavier; Aza Moya, Antonio H. de; Rodríguez Barbero, Miguel Ángel; Peña, P.
Fonte: Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio Publicador: Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 1854340 bytes; application/pdf
SPA
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[ES] Se ha estudiado la influencia del humo de sílice sobre el mecanismo de hidratación del monoaluminato de calcio (CaAl2O4) a temperatura ambiente y con una relación agua/sólidos de 0,5. La evolución de las fases hidratadas, que se forman en los primeros instantes de la reacción, se ha estudiado por difracción de rayos X de laboratorio con una resolución temporal de 36 min. La integración de picos de difracción seleccionados de las fases: Ca2Al2O5·8H2O (Ca2Al2(OH)10·3H2O), CaAl2O4 y Ca4Al2(OH)12(CO3)·5H2O, ha permitido establecer la cinética de la reacción. Así, se ha puesto de manifiesto que el humo de sílice provoca una drástica disminución en el periodo de inducción de la hidratación y acelera la formación de los hidratos cristalinos metaestables Ca2Al2(OH)10·3H2O y Ca4Al2(OH)12(CO3)·5H2O. Estos resultados se han confirmado por Termogravimetría, Análisis Térmico Diferencial y Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido. El mecanismo de hidratación propuesto se apoya en datos previos de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear de Sólidos (RMN) de 29Si de los autores de este articulo.; [EN] The influence of the amorphous silica on the mechanism of hydration of the calcium monoaluminate (CaAl2O4) has been studied at ambient temperature with a water/solids ratio of 0.5. The evolution of the hydrated phases...

Timescales and mechanisms of formation of amorphous silica coatings on fresh basalts at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai’i

Chemtob, Steven M.; Rossman, George R.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/08/2014
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Young basalts from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, frequently feature opaque surface coatings, 1–80 μm thick, composed of amorphous silica and Fe-Ti oxides. These coatings are the product of interaction of the basaltic surface with volcanically-derived acidic fluids. Previous workers have identified these coatings in a variety of contexts on Hawai'i, but the timescales of coating development, coating growth rates, and factors controlling lateral coating heterogeneity were largely unconstrained. We sampled and analyzed young lava flows (of varying ages, from hours to ~ 40 years) along Kilauea's southwest and east rift zones to characterize variation in silica coating properties across the landscape. Coating thickness varies as a function of flow age, flow surface type, and proximity to acid sources like local fissure vents and regional plumes emitted from Kilauea Caldera and Pu'u O'o. Silica coatings that form in immediate proximity to acid sources are more chemically pure than those forming in higher pH environments, which contain significant Al and Fe. Incipient siliceous alteration was observed on basalt surfaces as young as 8 days old, but periods of a year or more are required to develop contiguous coatings with obvious opaque coloration. Inferred coating growth rates vary with environmental conditions but were typically 1-5 μm/year. Coatings form preferentially on flow surfaces with glassy outer layers...

Amorphous silica biomineralizations in Schoenoplectus californicus (Cyperaceae): their relation with maturation stage and silica availability

Fernández Honaine,Mariana; Borrelli,Natalia L; Osterrieth,Margarita; Del Rio,Luis
Fonte: Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica Publicador: Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2013 EN
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The factors involved on the silicifcation process in Cyperaceae are scarcely known. In this study we analyse the effect of maturation stage and silica availability on the production of amorphous silica biomineralizations in culms of Schoenoplectus californicus. Young and senescent culms were collected from ponds with different silica availability. Two complementary methodologies (calcination and staining techniques), light and scanning electron microscopy and EDS were applied for amorphous silica analyses in plants. Quantitative data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis and a two-way ANOVA tests. There were no signifcant differences between silica content of culms collected in ponds with different silica availability. Instead, silica content in senescent culms was higher than in young culms (F=91.43, P<0.01). Young culms only produce cone-shaped amorphous silica bodies, located in epidermal cells overlying sclerenchyma. Senescent culms produce a higher diversity of silicifed cells, such as epidermal, stellate (aerenchyma) and parenchymatic cells. Silicifcation process in S. californicus is clearly affected by age and may act as a mechanism of structural resistance improvement. Some cells became silicifed very early in the development and others may be silicifed at a later stage depending on wall characteristics or rate of transpiration.