Sephacryl S-300 has been compared with Sephadex G-200 in the fractionation of sera for the detection of rubella-specific IgM. No difference in sensitivity was found with sera that had low titres of rubella-specific IgM. Sephadex G-200 was apparently more sensitive with some sera which had high titres of rubella-specific IgM due to the contribution of rubella-specific IgA. Sephacryl S-300 offers considerable advantages in ease and speed of preparation, and as it is a more rigid gel higher flow rates can be obtained. Sera may be fractionated in 2.5 hours on Sephacryl S-300 compared with 7-10 hours on Sephadex G-200.
A reverse-phase high performance liquid-chromatography (h.p.l.c.) protocol has been developed, whereby all the major known posterior-pituitary components that are derived from the processing of pro-oxytocin and pro-vasopressin can be separated one from another. Thus, in a single chromatographic step, it has been possible to separate vasopressin (VP), oxytocin (OT), oxytocin-neurophysin (rOT-Np), vasopressin-neurophysin (rVP-Np) and vasopressin-glycopeptide (rVP-GP) from acid extracts of the neurointermediate lobes of rat pituitary glands. All these peptides except rVP-GP were labelled in the neural lobe by 24h after a hypothalamic injection of [35S]cysteine, whereas all except VP were labelled by 24h after a similar injection of [3H]leucine. Three major labelled proteins were isolated from 20 min [35S]cysteine-injected rats when extracts of the supraoptic nucleus were subjected to Sephadex G-75 chromatography, h.p.l.c. and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Immunoprecipitation with antisera raised against rat neurophysins, VP and OT revealed 21000- and 19000-mol.wt. common precursors to VP and rVP-Np and a 15000-mol.wt. common precursor to OT and rOT-Np. Some immunoreactive rVP-Np could occasionally be detected in the Vo of Sephadex G-75 chromatograms of Wistar rat supraoptic-nucleus extracts...
A method is described for the rapid preparation of electrophoretically pure troponin C from rabbit skeletal-muscle myofibrils that avoids the use of urea. The three-step procedure includes extraction od the myofibrils with EDTA-containing buffers, one-step elution from DEAE-Sephadex and Sephadex G-100 chromatography in the presence of EDTA. The procedure gives yields comparable with those of currently used methods that involve dissociation of the troponin complex with urea. Except for the thiol-group reactivity, troponin C produced by our method is physicochemically and functionally indistinguishable from that obtained by the classical procedure. Purified troponin C always contains traces of calmodulin. However, this contamination can be decreased to less than 0.02% by means of a second Sephadex G-100 chromatography step in the presence of EDTA.
In order to gain insight into the phylogeny and physiological significance of organic-anion-binding proteins in the liver, the hepatic glutathione S-transferases of rat and a typical elasmobranch, the thorny-back shark (Platyrhinoides triseriata), were compared with respect to both glutathione S-transferase activites and organic-anion-binding properties. On gel filtration (Sephadex G-75, Superfine grade) of rat cytosol, the elution volumes of enzyme activities with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and p-nitrobenzyl chloride as substrates were identical (rat Y-fractions; Mr 45000). In contrast, two peaks of enzyme activity for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene with elution volumes corresponding to Mr 52000 (PLAT Y1) and Mr 45000 (PLAT Y2) were detected on gel filtration of P. triseriata cytosol. Only fraction PLAT Y2 had enzyme activity with p-nitrobenzyl chloride. Enzyme kinetic studies showed that rat Y-fraction had higher affinities for both 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and glutathione than PLAT Y1- and PLAT Y2-fractions. The two forms of P. triseriata glutathione S-transferases differed greatly in affinity for glutathione. At a glutathione concentration that we found to be physiological in P. triseriata, PLAT Y2 accounted for approx. 70% of the total glutathione S-transferase activity with 1-chloro-2...
Chick serum contains two cholecalciferol-binding proteins, one of which binds mainly cholecalciferol (cholecalciferol-binding protein) and the other binds 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-hydroxycholecalciferol-binding protein). By means of Cohn fractionation, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex and an additional gel-filtration step on Sephadex G-100, these two binding proteins were purified. Both proteins possess β-globulin mobility on analytical polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis, a sedimentation coefficient of 3.5S and approximate molecular weights of 60000 for the cholecalciferol-binding protein and 54000 for the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-binding protein. Sera obtained from rat, pig, human and monkey were shown to contain a single binding protein that is responsible for the transport of both cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. In the toad the lipoproteins are used for the transport of these two steroids.
1. Purified stem bromelain (EC 22.214.171.124) was eluted from Sephadex G-100 as a single peak. The specific activity across the elution peak was approximately constant towards p-nitrophenyl hippurate but increased with elution volume with N2-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester as substrate. 2. The apparent molecular weight, determined by elution analysis on Sephadex G-100, is 22500±1500, an anomalously low value. 3. Purified stem bromelain was eluted from CM-cellulose CM-32 as a single peak and behaved as a single species during column electrophoresis on Sephadex G-100. 4. Purified stem bromelain migrates as a single band during polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under a wide variety of conditions. 5. The molecular weight determined by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate is 28500±1000. 6. Sedimentation-velocity and equilibrium-ultracentrifugation experiments, under a variety of conditions, indicate that bromelain is an apparently homogeneous single peptide chain of mol.wt. 28400±1400. 7. The N-terminal amino acid composition is 0.64±0.04mol of valine and 0.36±0.04mol of alanine per mol of enzyme of mol.wt. 28500. (The amino acid recovery of the cyanate N-terminal amino acid analysis was standardized by inclusion of carbamoyl-norleucine at the cyclization stage.) 8. The pH-dependence of the Michaelis parameters of the bromelain-catalysed hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-serine methyl ester was determined. 9. The magnitude and pH-dependence of the Michaelis parameters have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of the enzyme. 10. The enzyme is able to bind N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-serine methyl ester relatively strongly but seems unable to make use of the binding energy to promote catalysis.
Bovine spleen cathepsin B1 and collagenolytic cathepsin were separated by chromatography on Amberlite IRC-50 and collagenolytic cathepsin was partially purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex (A-50). 2. Collagenolytic cathepsin degraded insoluble tendon collagen maximally at pH 3.5 and 28 degrees C; mainly alpha-chain components were released into solution. At 28 degrees C the telopeptides in soluble skin collagen were also cleaved to yield alpha-chain components. Collagenolytic cathepsin was thus similar to cathepsin B1 in its action against native collagen, but mixtures of these two enzymes exhibited a synergistic effect. 3. The addition of thiol-blocking compounds produced similar inhibition of collagenolytic cathepsin and cathepsin B1. The enzyme responded similarly to all other compounds tested except to 6-aminohexanoic acid, when collagenolytic cathepsin was slightly activated and cathepsin B1 was almost unaffected. 4. Leupeptin, which is a structural analogue of arginine-containing synthetic substrates, inhibited collagenolytic cathepsin as effectively as cathepsin B1. Collagenolytic cathepsin was shown to retain a low residual activity against alpha-N-benzoyl-DL-arginine p-nitroanilide during purification which was equivalent to 0.2% of the activity of cathepsin B1. 5. Cathepsin B1 and collagenolytic cathepsin could not be separated by affinity chromatography on organomercurial-Sepharose 4B. The two enzymes could be resolved on DEAE-Sephadex (A-50) and by isoelectric focusing in an Ampholine pH gradient. The pI of the major cathepsin B1 isoenzyme was 4.9 and the pI of collagenolytic cathepsin was 6.4. 6. From chromatography on Sephadex G-75 (superfine grade) the molecular weights were calculated to be 26000 for cathepsin B1 and 20000 for collagenolytic cathepsin. The difference in molecular weight was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis.
Alkaline phosphatase from human liver was purified to homogeneity. The purification procedure included solubilization with butanol, fractionation with acetone, and chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose, DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-Sephadex. Purity was established by standard and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the protein was determined to be 4.0. Sephadex-gel filtration gave a mol.wt. of 146000, although a higher value was obtained in the presence of 100mM-NaC1. The subunit mol.wt. 76700, was determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Neuraminidase treatment resulted in two enzyme-activity bands on isoelectric-focused gels with isoelectric points of 6.6 and 6.8. The desialylated enzyme gave only one protein band on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with a subunit molecular weight indistinguishable from that of the non-neuraminidase-treated protein. The desialylated enzyme was more readily denatured by sodium dodecyl sulphate in the presence of mercaptoethanol than was the native enzyme.
1. Cell-free culture filtrates of the fungus Fusarium solani were examined for homogeneity with respect to β-d-glucosidase and Cx activities. 2. o-Nitrophenyl β-d-glucoside and cellobiose were both used as substrates for β-d-glucosidase activity. 3. No evidence for the non-identity of nitrophenyl β-d-glucosidase and cellobiase activities could be found, either by heat treatment, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 or by isoelectric focusing. 4. The β-d-glucosidase component was also a feeble exo-β-glucanase: it had a molecular weight of approx. 400000. 5. The fall in viscosity of a solution of CM-cellulose, the formation of reducing sugars in a solution of CM-cellulose and the solubilization of phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (Walseth cellulose), were all used for the measurement of Cx activity. 6. The ratio of the two types of CM-cellulase activity was not changed after gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 or after chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex. 7. Three peaks of Cx activity were obtained after electrofocusing, but all three possessed the same ratio of the two types of CM-cellulase activity as well as the same CM-cellulase/Walseth activity ratio, as the unfractionated enzyme; all three isoenzymes (isoelectric points, 4.75, 4.80–4.85 and 5.15) acted in synergism with a mixture of the C1 and the β-d-glucosidase components to the same extent in the solubilization of cotton fibre. 8. The molecular weight of the Cx component was approx. 37000.
1. DNA polymerase from nuclear and supernatant fractions of cultured mouse L929 cells was fractionated on columns of Sephadex G-200, Sepharose 4B and of DEAE-cellulose. Several peaks of activity are found on Sephadex chromatography and the distribution of activity between these depends on: (a) the source of the enzyme, i.e. nuclear or supernatant fraction; (b) the mode of extraction of the enzyme from the nucleus; (c) the amount of enzyme applied to the column. 2. The DNA polymerase activity in the lower-molecular-weight peaks (approximate molecular weights are 35000, 70000 and 140000) is firmly bound within the cell nucleus and shows a preference for native DNA as template, whereas the high-molecular-weight peak (peak I, molecular weight 250000 or greater) is found in supernatant fractions and shows greater activity with a denatured DNA template. 3. During periods of DNA synthesis the high-molecular-weight enzyme becomes more firmly bound within the nucleus. 4. Peak I enzymic activity is relatively unstable and is inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents and deoxycholate, but it is stimulated by univalent cations. 5. Very little endonuclease is present in the polymerase preparations, but a very active exonuclease and nucleoside diphosphokinase are present. On Sephadex chromatography...
1. Supernatant proteins from rat brain were separated into two fractions containing phosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase activity by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50. 2. The first fraction sediments in linear sucrose density gradients in two bands corresponding to molecular weights of 66000 and 36000. There was presumptive evidence that the lighter protein constituted the monomeric form of the enzyme. The second fraction sediments predominantly as a single protein of molecular weight 86000. 3. Treatment of rat brain supernatant with [3H]colchicine abolished the second DEAE-Sephadex peak and removed the lighter protein from the first peak. These proteins emerged in the same position as the protein binding [3H]colchicine at high salt concentration; phospholipase activity was recovered from linear sucrose density gradients in positions corresponding to molecular weights 88000 and 43000, together with an aggregate of molecular weight 140000. Electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulphate–urea–polyacrylamide gels of this fraction revealed only three proteins: the α and β-subunits of microtubular protein, of molecular weights 56000 and 52000 respectively, and a protein of molecular weight 38000. 4. A sample of microtubular protein from mouse...
1. Phenol was effectively removed from aqueous extracts of RNA by chromatography on Sephadex G-50. 2. Elution of tRNA from Sephadex G-50 columns at pH7.6 was shown to remove 91% of the endogenously bound amino acids. 3. tRNA prepared without recourse to ethanolic precipitation was capable of accepting much greater amounts of amino acids than could redissolved samples of precipitated tRNA. 4. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes were partially purified with calcium phosphate gel. Elution of enzymes from the gel at pH6.5 yielded a fraction having phenylalanine- and alanine-charging activity, but no aspartate-, lysine- or proline-charging activity, whereas elution at pH7.6 gave a fraction having aspartate-, lysine- and proline-charging activity but no phenylalanine- or alanine-charging activity. 5. By using partially synthetase enzymes and tRNA eluted from DEAE-Sephadex A-50 columns, 52% of the theoretical maximum of aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis was obtained in vitro.
1. Culture filtrates from Fusarium solani were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex, followed by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-100, into a C1 component, a Cx component (CM-cellulase) and a β-glucosidase (cellobiase) component. 2. The individual components showed little capacity for the solubilization of cotton fibre (cellulase activity), but when recombined in their original proportions 81% of the original cellulase activity was recovered. 3. The C1 components of F. solani and Trichoderma koningii were similar in their pH optima, heat stabilities over the pH range 5–8 and elution volumes on Sephadex G-100. 4. The C1 component of F. solani synergized with the Cx component of T. koningii and conversely. 5. The C1 and the β-glucosidase components of F. solani were devoid of the swelling-factor (S-factor) activity associated with the Cx component.
Retinoic acid-binding protein, which is considered to mediate the biological function of retinoic acid in epithelial differentiation and in the possible control of tumorigenesis, was reproducibly purified from chick-embryo skin by using DEAE-Sephadex and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography and isoelectric focusing. About 1mg of protein was isolated from 60g of skin. The purified protein-ligand complex was found to be homogeneous by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels. The binding protein has mol.wt. 17800 and pI 4.5. The binding of [3H]retinoic acid to the protein was completely inhibited by mercury compounds. The inhibition is reversible on treatment without dithithreitol; about 50% of the retinoic acid-binding capacity of the mercury-compound-treated protein is restored by chromatography on Sephadex G-25. iodoacetamide treatment of the protein irreversibly inhibits about 50% of retinoic acid binding.
Proteoglycans were extracted from bovine cornea with 4M-guanidinium chloride and purified by CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation. Under associative conditions two fractions were found: one capable of forming assemblies of high molecular weight and another lacking this property. The heavier fraction (density 1.59 g/ml) was eluted as a single retarded peak from Sepharose 2B, but on DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, gave two peaks: the first (eluted with 0.75 M-NaCl) contained mainly proteochondroitin sulphate and the second (eluted with 1.25 M-NaCl) mainly proteokeratan sulphate. Each of these proteoglycans was more retarded on Sepharose 2B than was the original sample from density-gradient centrifugation. Re-aggregation was obtained by recombination of the two fractions. The lighter fraction (density 1.44 g/ml), containing predominantly keratan sulphate chains, was eluted from DEAE-Sephadex as a single peak with 1.25 M-NaCl and was retarded on Sepharose 2B: this fraction was not able to form aggregates with proteochondroitin sulphate. Chemical analyses of the carbohydrate and protein moieties of the proteoglycans from DEAE-Sephadex confirmed that, in the cornea, different subunits are present with characteristic aggregation properties and hydrodynamic volumes.
Two arylamidases (I and II) were purified from human erythrocytes by a procedure that comprised removal of haemoglobin from disrupted cells with CM-Sephadex D-50, followed by treatment of the haemoglobin-free preparation subsequently with DEAE-cellulose, gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-200, gradient solubilization on Celite, isoelectric focusing in a pH gradient from 4 to 6, gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-100 (superfine), and finally affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B covalently coupled to L-arginine. In preparative-scale purifications, enzymes I and II were separated at the second gel-permeation chromatography. Enzyme II was obtained as a homogeneous protein, as shown by several criteria. Enzyme I hydrolysed, with decreasing rates, the L-amino acid 2-naphtylamides of lysine, arginine, alanine, methionine, phenylalanine and leucine, and the reactions were slightly inhibited by 0.2 M-NaCl. Enzyme II hydrolysed most rapidly the corresponding derivatives of arginine, leucine, valine, methionine, proline and alanine, in that order, and the hydrolyses were strongly dependent on Cl-. The hydrolysis of these substrates proceeded rapidly at physiological Cl- concentration (0.15 M). The molecular weights (by gel filtration) of enzymes I and II were 85 000 and 52 500 respectively. The pH optimum was approx. 7.2 for both enzymes. The isoelectric point of enzyme II was approx. 4.8. Enzyme I was activated by Co2+...
1. Cell-free culture filtrates from Trichoderma koningii were concentrated by precipitation with ammonium sulphate between the limits of 20% and 80% saturation. 2. Removal of a low-molecular-weight carboxymethylcellulase (CM-cellulase) component by chromatography on Sephadex G-75 had no effect on the ability of the enzyme complex to solubilize cotton. 3. Further chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex separated a component (C1) from the Cx (CM-cellulase) and β-glucosidase activities. Separately these components had little ability to produce soluble sugars from cotton, but when recombined in their original proportions this capacity was almost completely recovered. 4. The Cx component was further fractionated on SE-Sephadex into a fraction containing only CM-cellulase and a fraction showing CM-cellulase and β-glucosidase activities: the latter two components could be separated by heat treatment. 5. The C1 component had no swelling factor (S-factor) activity (Marsh, Merola & Simpson, 1953; Reese & Gilligan, 1954) on its own, but it had a synergistic effect on the S-factor activity associated with the CM-cellulase and β-glucosidase components.
1. A small amount (2mg.) of crustecdysone, a moulting hormone of crustaceans, was isolated from 1 ton of crayfish waste. 2. The purification procedure used was developed with the aid of crustacean and insect bioassays. 3. CM-Sephadex was found to be superior to Sephadex and very effective for the chromatographic separation of crustecdysone from other non-ionic compounds. The higher efficiency of CM-Sephadex is attributed to the greater number of carboxyl groups available for hydrogen-bonding. 4. Reversed-phase chromatography, with butan-1-ol–cyclohexane mixtures as the stationary phase and water as the flowing phase, proved superior to countercurrent distribution with these solvents for the fractionation of purified extracts. 5. A second moulting hormone, deoxycrustecdysone, and the red-concentrating hormone were obtained in a partially purified form.
1. Alkaline phosphatase of human placenta was purified by a procedure involving homogenization with tris buffer, pH8·6, extraction with butanol, ammonium sulphate fractionation, exposure to heat, ethanol fractionation, gel filtration, triethylaminoethylcellulose anion-exchange chromatography, continuous curtain electrophoresis on paper and equilibrium dialysis. Methods for both laboratory-scale and large-scale preparation were devised. 2. Two major molecular-weight variants designated A and B were separated by molecular sieving with Sephadex G-200 and variant A was purified 4000-fold. 3. Variant B, which comes off the Sephadex G-200 column before variant A, is the electrophoretically slower-moving species on starch gel and is quite heterogeneous. 4. Purified variant A was fairly homogeneous on the basis of electrophoretic studies on starch gel and Sephadex gel, ultracentrifugation and immunodiffusion. 5. The respective molecular weights for variants A and B were 70000 and over 200000 on the basis of sucrose-density-gradient ultracentrifugation. Variant A exhibited a sedimentation coefficient of 4·2s. 6. Crystalline variant B could be converted into fast-moving variant A and vice versa. 7. Kinetic studies indicated no difference between the two variants. These include linear rates of hydrolysis...
1. The isolation of two proteins from the seeds of kidney bean is described. 2. The individual steps in the purification procedure included: extraction of the seeds at pH9·0, dialysis, first against pH9·0 and then against pH5·0 buffers, high-voltage electrophoresis of the proteins soluble at pH5·0 and chromatography on Sephadex G-200, Sephadex G-75 and DEAE-Sephadex columns. 3. Of the two proteins isolated, the first and larger component was a glycoprotein and its carbohydrate part was mainly composed of d-mannose and d-glucosamine together with smaller amounts of arabinose, xylose and fucose. 4. The second protein component isolated was a trypsin inhibitor and was almost entirely devoid of sugars but contained a firmly bound pinkish-blue pigment. 5. The amino acid composition of the two proteins was determined. 6. The glycoprotein contained very little if any cyst(e)ine but was relatively rich in aromatic amino acids, whereas the trypsin inhibitor had an unusually high cystine content (nearly 15%) but was relatively poor in valine and in aromatic amino acids.