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## Identifying Data Sharing in Biomedical Literature

Piwowar, Heather A.; Chapman, Wendy W.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Many policies and projects now encourage investigators to share their raw research data with other scientists. Unfortunately, it is difficult to measure the effectiveness of these initiatives because data can be shared in such a variety of mechanisms and locations. We propose a novel approach to find shared datasets: using NLP techniques to identify declarations of dataset sharing within the full text of primary research articles. Using regular expression patterns and machine learning algorithms on open access biomedical literature, our system was able to identify 61% of articles with shared datasets with 80% precision. A simpler version of our classifier achieved higher recall (86%), though lower precision (49%). We believe our results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach and hope to inspire further study of dataset retrieval techniques and policy evaluation.

## Automated Information Extraction of Key Trial Design Elements from Clinical Trial Publications

de Bruijn, Berry; Carini, Simona; Kiritchenko, Svetlana; Martin, Joel; Sim, Ida
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Clinical trials are one of the most valuable sources of scientific evidence for improving the practice of medicine. The Trial Bank project aims to improve structured access to trial findings by including formalized trial information into a knowledge base. Manually extracting trial information from published articles is costly, but automated information extraction techniques can assist. The current study highlights a single architecture to extract a wide array of information elements from full-text publications of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). This architecture combines a text classifier with a weak regular expression matcher. We tested this two-stage architecture on 88 RCT reports from 5 leading medical journals, extracting 23 elements of key trial information such as eligibility rules, sample size, intervention, and outcome names. Results prove this to be a promising avenue to help critical appraisers, systematic reviewers, and curators quickly identify key information elements in published RCT articles.

## El proceso ordinario contencioso administrativo - Aspectos fundamentales y trámites de las audiencias -; Administrative proceedings regular process - Fundamentals and getting audiences -

Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
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## Developing proper mealtime behaviors of the institutionalized retarded1

O'Brien, F.; Azrin, N. H.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The institutionalized mentally retarded display a variety of unsanitary, disruptive, and improper table manners. A program was developed that included (1) acquisition-training of a high standard of proper table manners and (2) maintenance procedures to provide continued motivation to maintain proper mealtime behaviors and decrease improper skills. Twelve retardates received acquisition training, individually, by a combination of verbal instruction, imitation, and manual guidance. The students then ate in their group dining arrangement where the staff supervisor provided continuing approval for proper manners and verbal correction and timeout for improper manners. The results were: (1) the trained retardates showed significant improvement, whereas those untrained did not; (2) the trained retardates ate as well in the institution as non-retarded customers did in a public restaurant; (3) proper eating was maintained in the group dining setting; (4) timeout was rarely needed; (5) the program was easily administered by regular staff in a regular dining setting. The rapidity, feasibility, and effectiveness of the program suggests the program as a solution to improper mealtime behaviors by the institutionalized mentally retarded.

## Sequences of spaced responses: Behavioral units and the role of contiguity

Schneider, Susan M.; Morris, Edward K.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Sequences of temporally spaced responses were reinforced to investigate the effects of delay of reinforcement on the formation of functional behavioral units. In Experiment 1, rats' two- and three-response demarcated sequences of left and right lever presses were reinforced such that different response distributions would occur depending on whether the sequences themselves or individual responses were functional units. The matching law could thus be obeyed either by individual responses or by sequences, but not by both; intermediate results were possible. Both regular (nonretractable) and retractable levers were used; the retractable levers precluded the occurrence of insufficiently spaced responses. At a minimum interresponse time of 5 s for regular levers and 7 s for retractable ones, matching results were intermediate, with greater evidence of sequence conditionability in the two-response sequences than in the three-response sequences. In Experiment 2, the required minimum interresponse spacing for two-response retractable-lever sequences was varied in an attempt to locate the sequence matching threshold. This attempt was unsuccessful, but the sequences (instead of individual responses) more closely obeyed the matching law. In the shortest spaced condition...

## Sensitivity to the temporal structure of rapid sound sequences — An MEG study

Andreou, Lefkothea-Vasiliki; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Chait, Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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To probe sensitivity to the time structure of ongoing sound sequences, we measured MEG responses, in human listeners, to the offset of long tone-pip sequences containing various forms of temporal regularity. If listeners learn sequence temporal properties and form expectancies about the arrival time of an upcoming tone, sequence offset should be detectable as soon as an expected tone fails to arrive. Therefore, latencies of offset responses are indicative of the extent to which the temporal pattern has been acquired. In Exp1, sequences were isochronous with tone inter-onset-interval (IOI) set to 75, 125 or 225 ms. Exp2 comprised of non-isochronous, temporally regular sequences, comprised of the IOIs above. Exp3 used the same sequences as Exp2 but listeners were required to monitor them for occasional frequency deviants. Analysis of the latency of offset responses revealed that the temporal structure of (even rather simple) regular sequences is not learnt precisely when the sequences are ignored. Pattern coding, supported by a network of temporal, parietal and frontal sources, improved considerably when the signals were made behaviourally pertinent. Thus, contrary to what might be expected in the context of an ‘early warning system’ framework...

## Prescription of eye drops

O'Sullivan, E; Malhotra, R; Migdal, C
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The aim of this study was to assess whether patients have their ocular drops correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. A retrospective review of notes of patients who were admitted to hospital for general medical or surgical care, while on regular eye drops at the time of admission was performed. Twenty two patients were on regular ocular medication when admitted. Only seven out of 22 patients had their eye drops correctly prescribed. Furthermore, six patients had been prescribed topical β-blockers, yet suffered from medical conditions that may have been aggravated by these drops. These findings demonstrate that the majority of patients on drops do not have their medication correctly prescribed during non-ophthalmic admissions to hospital. Also topical β-blockers continue to be inappropriately prescribed.   Keywords: eye drops; non-ophthalmic admissions

## High-risk human papilloma virus infection decreases the frequency of dendritic Langerhans' cells in the human female genital tract

Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Mendez-Cruz, Rene; Ojeda-Ortiz, Jorge; Muñoz-Molina, Rebeca; Balderas-Carrillo, Oscar; de la Luz Diaz-Soberanes, Maria; Lebecque, Serge; Saeland, Sem; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Ullrich, Stephen E; Flores-
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Dendritic cells (DC) are often arranged in planar layers in tissues with high antigenic exposure, such as skin and mucosae. Providing an en face view, this arrangement optimizes in situ analysis regarding morphology (even of individual dendrites), topographic distribution (regular/clustered) and quantification. The few reports on human genital DC usually utilize single markers and conventional sections, restricting immunolabelling only to cell parts sectioned by the cut. To better assess DC in situ, we labelled epithelial sheets, prepared from fresh cervix biopsies, with antibodies to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-CII, CD1a and Langerin, revealing (with each of these markers) a dense DC network in a planar-like, regular distribution. Using the hybrid capture system to detect the high-risk mucotropic human papilloma virus (HPV) group, 16 positive and five negative women were studied and the results were compared between these groups. DC frequency per area was substantially reduced (to ≈ 50% for the three markers) in samples from all HPV-infected patients compared with samples from controls. Unlike HPV– samples, Langerin+ DC in HPV+ cervix exhibited a highly accentuated dendritic appearance. We believe this to be the first study using these three DC-restricted markers (Langerin...

## Evaluating Walking in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Which Assessment Tools Are Useful in Clinical Practice?

Bethoux, Francois; Bennett, Susan
Fonte: The Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers Publicador: The Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Walking limitations are among the most visible manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS). Regular walking assessments should be a component of patient management and require instruments that are appropriate from the clinician's and the patient's perspectives. This article reviews frequently used instruments to assess walking in patients with MS, with emphasis on their validity, reliability, and practicality in the clinical setting. Relevant articles were identified based on PubMed searches using the following terms: “multiple sclerosis AND (walking OR gait OR mobility OR physical activity) AND (disability evaluation)”; references of relevant articles were also searched. Although many clinician- and patient-driven instruments are available, not all have been validated in MS, and some are not sensitive enough to detect small but clinically important changes. Choosing among these depends on what needs to be measured, psychometric properties, the clinical relevance of results, and practicality with respect to space, time, and patient burden. Of the instruments available, the clinician-observed Timed 25-Foot Walk and patient self-report 12-Item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale have properties that make them suitable for routine evaluation of walking performance. The Dynamic Gait Index and the Timed Up and Go test involve other aspects of mobility...

## Gap junctions. Structural changes after uncoupling procedures

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The freeze-fracture appearance of rat stomach and liver gap junctions changes after uncoupling procedures such as inhibition of the metabolism of perfusion with hypertonic sucrose. In control stomach, either fixed immediately or kept for 1 h in a well-oxygenated Tyrode's solution at 37 degrees C, most gap junctions between mucous cells contain particles irregularly packed at an average center-to-center spacing of 10.3-10.5 nm. After 1-h treatment with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), at the same temperature and oxygenation, most particles aggregate hexagonally at an average spacing of approximately 8.5 nm. Similar changes are seen in hypoxic specimens. In control liver, fixed by perfusion, most junctional particles are irregularly packed at an average center-to-center spacing of approximately 10 mm. Small areas of fairly regular hexagonal packing are occasionally seen, where the average particle spacing is 9.2-9.5 nm. In hypoxic liver, the junctional particles form regular hexagonal packings in which the average center-to-center particle spacing is approximately 8.5 nm. In liver perfused with hypertonic sucrose-calcium solutions, following EDTA solutions, most junctions are pulled apart. The separated junctional membranes, expected to be highly impermeable...

## Freeze-fracturing in normal vacuum reveals ringlike yeast plasmalemma structures

Sleytr, UB; Messner, P
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The fine structure of the regular arrays of subunits seen on both plasmalemma fracture faces in resting and starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) has been compared using different freeze-fracture replication methods. Freeze-cleaving was carried out at 173 degrees, 133 degrees, and 108 degrees K under a vacuum of 2 X 10(-7) torr (2.6 X 10(- 7)mbar) or under liquid nitrogen at atmosphereic pressure. Independent of the preparation conditions (fracturing temperature, and whether cleaved under vacuum or liquid nitrogen), resting and starved yeast show a significant difference in the morphology of the subunits forming the regular arrays. The regularly arranged particles of the P face of the plasmalemma of starved yeast have a clear craterlike structure which has previously been reported to be demonstrated only by freeze-etching at very low temperatures in ultrahigh vacuum. A complementary structure is seen on the plasmalemma E face. Prolonged exposures of fracture faces under the protection of liquid nitrogen-cooled shrouds have shown that, because of the consequent drastic reduction of condensable gases in the specimen area, no detectable condensation contamination of exposed fracture faces occurs within 15 min at a specimen temperature of 108 degrees K. This shows that a complicated ultrahigh vacuum technology is not required for high resolution freeze- etching.

## Anionic sites in the glomerular basement membrane. In vivo and in vitro localization to the laminae rarae by cationic probes

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cationized ferritin (CF) of narrow pI range (7.3-7.5) and the basic dye ruthenium red (RR) have been used as cationic probes to partially characterize anionic sites previously demonstrated in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). When CF was given i.v. to normal rats and the left kidney was fixed by perfusion 15 min thereafter, clusters of CF molecules were found throughout the lamina rara interna (LRI), lamina rara externa (LRE), and mesangial matrix distributed at regular (approximately 60 nm) intervals. When kidneys were perfused with aldehyde fixative containing RR, small (20 nm) RR-stained particles were seen in the same locations distributed with the same 60 nm repeating pattern, forming a quasiregular, lattice-like arrangement. Fine (approximately 3 nm) filaments connected the sites and extended between them and the membranes of adjoining endothelial and epithelial cells. When CF was given i.v. followed by perfusion with RR in situ, both probes localized to the same sites. CF remained firmly bound after prolonged perfusion with 0.1-0.2 M KCl or NaCl. It was displaced by perfusion with buffers of high ionic strength (0.4-0.5 M KCl) or pH (less than 3.0 or greater than 10.0). CF also bound (clustered at approximately 60 nm intervals) to isolated GBM's...

## Subgroups of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in layers 2/3 of the visual cortex

Helm, Jessica; Akgul, Gulcan; Wollmuth, Lonnie P.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The input, processing, and output characteristics of inhibitory interneurons help shape information flow through layers 2/3 of the visual cortex. Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons modulate and synchronize the gain and dynamic responsiveness of pyramidal neurons. To define the diversity of PV interneurons in layers 2/3 of the developing visual cortex, we characterized their passive and active membrane properties. Using Ward's and k-means multidimensional clustering, we identified four PV interneuron subgroups. The most notable difference between the subgroups was their firing patterns in response to moderate stimuli just above rheobase. Two subgroups showed regular and continuous firing at all stimulus intensities above rheobase. The difference between these two continuously firing subgroups was that one fired at much higher frequencies and transitioned into this high-frequency firing rate at or near rheobase. The two other subgroups showed irregular, stuttering firing patterns just above rheobase. Both of these subgroups typically transitioned to regular and continuous firing at intense stimulations, but one of these subgroups, the strongly stuttering subgroup, showed irregular firing across a wider range of stimulus intensities and firing frequencies. The four subgroups also differed in excitatory synaptic input...

## Homosexual men's HIV related sexual risk behaviour in Scotland

Hart, G. J.; Flowers, P.; Der G., J.; Frankis, J. S.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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OBJECTIVE: To date, the epidemic of HIV infection in Scotland has been primarily associated with injecting drug use. However, the epidemiology of HIV in Scotland changed in the late 1980s, with homosexual men becoming the largest group at risk of HIV infection and AIDS. Our aim was to describe homosexual men's sexual risk behaviours for HIV infection in a sample of men in Scotland's two largest cities. DESIGN/SETTING: Trained sessional research staff administered a short self completed questionnaire, to homosexual men present in all of Glasgow's and Edinburgh's "gay bars," during a 1 month period. SUBJECTS: A total of 2276 homosexual men participated, with a response rate of 78.5%. Of these, 1245 were contacted in Glasgow and 1031 in Edinburgh. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic data, recent (past year) sexual behaviour, information on last occasion of anal intercourse with and without condoms, and sexual health service use. RESULTS: Anal intercourse is a common behaviour; 75% of men have had anal intercourse in the past year. A third of our sample report anal intercourse with one partner in the past year, but 42% have had anal intercourse with multiple partners. Over two thirds of the total population have not had any unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the past year and a quarter of the sample have had UAI with one partner only. 8% report UAI with two or more partners. More men in Edinburgh (17% v 10%) reported unprotected sex with casual partners only...

## Barriers and facilitators to paediatric adherence to antiretroviral therapy in rural South Africa: a multi-stakeholder perspective

Coetzee, Bronwyne; Kagee, Ashraf; Bland, Ruth
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) contributes to the development of drug resistance. HIV-infected children, especially those 5 years and under, are dependent on a caregiver to adhere to ART. However, characteristics of the caregiver, child, regimen, clinic and social context affect clinic attendance and medication-taking, both of which constitute adherent behaviour. We conducted nine interviews and three focus groups to determine how doctors, nurses, counsellors, traditional healers and caregivers understood the barriers and facilitators to ART adherence among children residing in rural South Africa. The data were transcribed, translated into English from isiZulu where necessary, and coded using Atlas.ti version 7. Results were interpreted through the lens of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory. We found that at the micro-level, palatability of medication and large volumes of medication were problematic for young children. Characteristics of the caregiver including absent mothers, grandmothers as caregivers and denial of HIV amongst fathers were themes related to the micro-system. Language barriers and inconsistent attendance of caregivers to monthly clinic visits were factors affecting adherence in the meso-system. Adherence counselling and training were the most problematic features in the exo-system. In the macro-system...

## Solvation of the folding-transition state in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin is modulated by metal: Solvation of azurin's folding nucleus

Wilson, Corey J.; Apiyo, David; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The role of water in protein folding, specifically its presence or not in the transition-state structure, is an unsolved question. There are two common classes of folding-transition states: diffuse transition states, in which almost all side chains have similar, rather low phi (ϕ) values, and polarized transition states, which instead display distinct substructures with very high ϕ-values. Apo-and zinc-forms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin both fold in two-state equilibrium and kinetic reactions; while the apo-form exhibits a polarized transition state, the zinc form entails a diffuse, moving transition state. To examine the presence of water in these two types of folding-transition states, we probed the equilibrium and kinetic consequences of replacing core valines with isosteric threonines at six positions in azurin. In contrast to regular hydrophobic-to-alanine ϕ-value analysis, valine-to-threonine mutations do not disrupt the core packing but stabilize the unfolded state and can be used to assess the degree of solvation in the folding-transition state upon combination with regular ϕ-values. We find that the transition state for folding of apo-azurin appears completely dry, while that for zinc-azurin involves partially formed interactions that engage water molecules. This distinct difference between the apo-and holo-folding nuclei can be rationalized in terms of the shape of the free-energy barrier.

## Weak solutions of the cohomological equation on R^2 for regular vector fields

De Leo, Roberto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In a recent article, we studied the global solvability of the so-called cohomological equation L_X f=g in C^\infty(\Rt), where X is a regular vector field on the plane and L_X the corresponding Lie derivative. In a joint article with T. Gramchev and A. Kirilov, we studied the existence of global L^1_{loc} weak solutions of the cohomological equation for vector fields depending only on one coordinate. Here we generalize the results of both articles by providing explicit conditions for the existence of global weak solutions to the cohomological equation when X is intrinsically Hamiltonian or of finite type.; Comment: 22 pages, 6 figures

## Multistep DBT and regular rational extensions of the isotonic oscillator

Grandati, Yves
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In some recent articles we developed a new systematic approach to generate solvable rational extensions of primary translationally shape invariant potentials. In this generalized SUSY QM partnership, the DBT are built on the excited states Riccati-Schr\"odinger (RS) functions regularized via specific discrete symmetries of the considered potential. In the present paper, we prove that this scheme can be extended in a multistep formulation. Applying this scheme to the isotonic oscillator, we obtain new towers of regular rational extensions of this potential which are strictly isospectral to it. We give explicit expressions for their eigenstates which are associated to the recently discovered exceptional Laguerre polynomials and show explicitely that these extensions inherit of the shape invariance properties of the original potential.

## A Symplectically Non-Squeezable Small Set and the Regular Coisotropic Capacity

Swoboda, Jan; Ziltener, Fabian
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We prove that for $n\geq2$ there exists a compact subset $X$ of the closed ball in $R^{2n}$ of radius $\sqrt{2}$, such that $X$ has Hausdorff dimension $n$ and does not symplectically embed into the standard open symplectic cylinder. The second main result is a lower bound on the $d$-th regular coisotropic capacity, which is sharp up to a factor of 3. For an open subset of a geometrically bounded, aspherical symplectic manifold, this capacity is a lower bound on its displacement energy. The proofs of the results involve a certain Lagrangian submanifold of linear space, which was considered by M. Audin and L. Polterovich.; Comment: 15 pages, v2: added references to articles by H. Geiges and K. Zehmisch, v3: added "for $n\geq2$" in the abstract, v4: streamlined the introduction and simplified the proof of two-dimensional squeezing (Proposition 4)

## Inclusão escolar de sujeitos com deficiência visual na rede regular de ensino brasileira: revisão sistemática; Visual impairment and inclusion in Brazil: a systematic review

Carlos Leitão, José; Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro; Terezinha Fernandes, Cleonice; Universidade de Cuiabá
Fonte: Linhas Críticas; Critical Lines Publicador: Linhas Críticas; Critical Lines
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf