The composition and pH of atrial-specific granules of rat heart were determined by electron probe x-ray microanalysis and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. The high (75 mmol/kg of dry weight) calcium content and higher than cytoplasmic concentration of chloride in atrial-specific granules were visualized in high-resolution x-ray maps. The Cl- content of granules and cytoplasm decreased and a bromide gradient (granule greater than cytoplasm) was established during incubation in low-chloride, NaBr-containing solutions. Scanning confocal fluorescence light microscopy of live atria incubated with acridine orange demonstrated dye accumulation, indicative of low intragranular pH. We conclude that the granules represent a hitherto unrecognized intracellular store of cardiac calcium and can develop and maintain an anion gradient, presumably through cotransport by means of a proton-pumping ATPase.
Limited proteolysis of RNAase-Aa1 (monodeamidated ribonuclease-A) by subtilisin results in the formation of an active RNAase-S type of derivative, namely RNAase-Aa1S. RNAase-Aa1S was chromatographically distinct from RNAase-S, but exhibited very nearly the same enzymic activity, antigenic conformation and susceptibility to trypsin as did RNAase-S. Fractionation of RNAase-Aa1S by trichloroacetic acid yielded RNAase-Aa1S-protein and RNAase-Aa1S-peptide, both of which are inactive by themselves, but regenerate active RNAase-Aa1S′ when mixed together. RNAase-Aa1S-peptide was identical with RNAase-S-peptide, whereas the protein part was distinct from that of RNAase-S-protein. Titration of RNAase-Aa1S-protein with S-peptide exhibited slight but noticeably weaker binding of the peptide to the deamidated S-protein as compared with that of native protein. Unlike the subtilisin digestion of RNAase-A, which gives nearly 100% conversion into RNAase-S, the digestion of RNAase-Aa1 gives only a 50% conversion. The resistance of RNAase-Aa1 to further subtilisin modification after 50% conversion is apparently due to the interaction of RNAase-Aa1 with its subtilisin-modified product. RNAase-S was also found to undergo activity and structural changes in acidic solutions...
In this work an improved methodology for studying interactions of proteins in solution by small-angle scattering is presented. Unlike the most common approach, where the protein-protein correlation functions g(ij)(r) are approximated by their zero-density limit (i.e., the Boltzmann factor), we propose a more accurate representation of g(ij)(r) that takes into account terms up to the first order in the density expansion of the mean-force potential. This improvement is expected to be particularly effective in the case of strong protein-protein interactions at intermediate concentrations. The method is applied to analyze small-angle x-ray scattering data obtained as a function of the ionic strength (from 7 to 507 mM) from acidic solutions of beta-lactoglobulin at the fixed concentration of 10 gl(-1). The results are compared with those obtained using the zero-density approximation and show significant improvement, particularly in the more demanding case of low ionic strength.
Single trimeric channels of the general bacterial porin, OmpF, were reconstituted into planar lipid membranes and their conductance, selectivity, and open-channel noise were studied over a wide range of proton concentrations. From pH 1 to pH 12, channel transport properties displayed three characteristic regimes. First, in acidic solutions, channel conductance is a strong function of pH; it increases by approximately threefold as the proton concentration decreases from pH 1 to pH 5. This rise in conductance is accompanied by a sharp increase in cation transport number and by pronounced open-channel low-frequency current noise with a peak at ∼pH 2.5. Random stepwise transients with amplitudes at ∼1/5 of the monomer conductance are major contributors to this noise. Second, over the middle range (pH 5 ÷ pH 9), channel conductance and selectivity stay virtually constant; open channel noise is at its minimum. Third, over the basic range (pH 9 ÷ pH 12), channel conductance and cation selectivity start to grow again with an onset of a higher frequency open-channel noise. We attribute these effects to the reversible protonation of channel residues whose pH-dependent charge influences transport by direct interactions with ions passing through the channel.
Vanilloid receptors (VR1) were cloned from human and rat dorsal root ganglion libraries and expressed in Xenopus oocytes or Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells.Both rat and human VR1 formed ligand gated channels that were activated by capsaicin with similar EC50 values. Capsaicin had a lower potency on both channels, when measured electrophysiologically in oocytes compared to CHO cells (oocytes: rat=1.90±0.20 μM; human=1.90±0.30 μM: CHO cells: rat=0.20±0.06 μM; human=0.19±0.08 μM).In CHO cell lines co-expressing either rat or human VR1 and the calcium sensitive, luminescent protein, aequorin, the EC50 values for capsaicin-induced responses were similar in both cell lines (rat=0.35±0.06 μM, human=0.53±0.03 μM).The threshold for activation by acidic solutions was lower for human VR1 channels than that for rat VR1 (EC50 pH 5.49±0.04 and pH 5.78±0.09, respectively).The threshold for heat activation was identical (42°C) for rat and human VR1.PPAHV was an agonist at rat VR1 (EC50 between 3 and 10 μM) but was virtually inactive at the human VR1 (EC50>10 μM).Capsazepine and ruthenium red were both more potent at blocking the capsaicin response of human VR1 than rat VR1.Capsazepine blocked the human but not the rat VR1 response to low pH. Capsazepine was also more effective at inhibiting the noxious heat response of human than of rat VR1.
The effects of (S)- and (R)-lercanidipine on CHO cells stably expressing the cardiac (Cav1.2a) or vascular (Cav1.2b) splice variant of the L-type calcium channel pore subunit were studied, using whole-cell and single-channel patch-clamp measurements.Lercanidipine block of Cav1.2b current was enantioselective. (S)-lercanidipine was 4.1-fold more potent.Experiments using acidic solutions (pH 6.8) revealed a 6.4-fold enhanced inhibitory effect of (S)-lercanidipine compared with physiological conditions (pH 7.4) indicating that the charged form mediates inhibition.At depolarised holding potential (−40 mV), (S)-lercanidipine exhibited a 35-fold greater potency, compared with standard conditions (−80 mV).A comparison of the concentration-dependent inhibition of Cav1.2a with Cav1.2b subunit currents by (S)-lercanidipine revealed only a 1.8-fold difference in IC50, but the slope of the dose–response curve was much steeper (nH=2.3) with Cav1.2a, compared with Cav1.2b (nH=0.8). This indicates overlap between agonistic and antagonistic effects, predominant with the cardiac Cav1.2a subunit. This idea is supported by transient stimulatory effects, and a slight leftward shift of the IV curves. These effects were more prominent for Cav1.2a than for Cav1.2b.Single-channel experiments confirmed typical features of calcium channel agonists such as prolonged channel openings...
Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki, 2 to 10 μM) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. To further mechanistic studies, the PFOR operon of H. pylori was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli, and the multisubunit complex was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Pyruvate-dependent PFOR activity with NTZ, as measured by a decrease in absorbance at 418 nm (spectral shift from 418 to 351 nm), unlike the reduction of viologen dyes, did not result in the accumulation of products (acetyl coenzyme A and CO2) and pyruvate was not consumed in the reaction. NTZ did not displace the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) cofactor of PFOR, and the 351-nm absorbing form of NTZ was inactive. Optical scans and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses determined that the spectral shift (A418 to A351) of NTZ was due to protonation of the anion (NTZ−) of the 2-amino group of the thiazole ring which could be generated with the pure compound under acidic solutions (pKa = 6.18). We propose that NTZ− intercepts PFOR at an early step in the formation of the lactyl-TPP transition intermediate...
Thermally induced aggregates of α-chymotrypsinogen A and bovine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in acidic solutions were characterized by a combination of static and dynamic light scattering, spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and monomer loss kinetics. The resulting soluble, high-molecular weight aggregates (∼103–105 kDa) are linear, semiflexible polymer chains that do not appreciably associate with one another under the conditions at which they were formed, with classic power-law scaling of the radius of gyration and hydrodynamic radius with weight-average molecular weight (Mw). Aggregates in both systems are composed of nonnative monomers with elevated levels of β-sheet secondary structure, and bind thioflavine T. In general, the aggregate size distributions showed low polydispersity by light scattering. Together with the inverse scaling of Mw with protein concentration, the results clearly indicate that aggregation proceeds via nucleated (chain) polymerization. For α-chymotrypsinogen A, the scaling behavior is combined with the kinetics of aggregation to deduce separate values for the characteristic timescales for nucleation (τn) and growth (τg), as well as the stoichiometry of the nucleus (x). The analysis illustrates a general procedure to noninvasively and quantitatively determine τn...
The thermodynamics of barnase denaturation has been studied calorimetrically over a broad range of temperature and pH. It is shown that in acidic solutions the heat denaturation of barnase is well approximated by a 2-state transition. The heat denaturation of barnase proceeds with a significant increase of heat capacity, which determines the temperature dependencies of the enthalpy and entropy of its denaturation. The partial specific heat capacity of denatured barnase is very close to that expected for the completely unfolded protein. The specific denaturation enthalpy value extrapolated to 130 degrees C is also close to the value expected for the full unfolding. Therefore, the calorimetrically determined thermodynamic characteristics of barnase denaturation can be considered as characteristics of its complete unfolding and can be correlated with structural features--the number of hydrogen bonds, extent of van der Waals contacts, and the surface areas of polar and nonpolar groups. Using this information and thermodynamic information on transfer of protein groups into water, the contribution of various factors to the stabilization of the native structure of barnase has been estimated. The main contributors to the stabilization of the native state of barnase appear to be intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The contributions of van der Waals interactions between nonpolar groups and those of hydration effects of these groups are not as large if considered separately...
Conditions have been defined for promoting growth and differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes obtained in culture starting from chick embryo tibiae. Hypertrophic chondrocytes, grown in suspension culture as described (Castagnola P., G. Moro, F. Descalzi Cancedda, and R. Cancedda. 1986. J. Cell Biol. 102:2310-2317), when they reached the stage of single cells, were transferred to substrate-dependent culture conditions in the presence of ascorbic acid. Cells showed a change in morphology, became more elongated and flattened, expressed alkaline phosphatase, and eventually mineralized. Type II and X collagen synthesis was halted and replaced by type I collagen synthesis. In addition the cells started to produce and to secrete in large amount a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 82 KD in reducing conditions and 63 KD in unreducing conditions. This protein is soluble in acidic solutions, does not contain collagenous domains, and is glycosylated. The Ch21 protein, a marker of hypertrophic chondrocytes and bone cells, was synthesized throughout the culture. We have defined this additional differentiation stage as an osteoblast-like stage. Calcium deposition in the extracellular matrix occurred regardless of the addition of beta glycerophosphate to the culture medium. Comparable results were obtained both when the cells were plated at low density and when they were already at confluence and maintained in culture without passaging up to 50 d. When retinoic acid was added to the hypertrophic chondrocyte culture between day 1 and day 5 the maturation of the cells to the osteoblast-like stage was highly accelerated. The switch in the collagen secretion was already observed after 2 d and the production of the 63-kD protein after 3 d. Mineralization was observed after 15-20 d.
The solution behaviour of the square-planar gold(III) complex [Au(dien)Cl]Cl2
(dien = 1,5- diamino-3-azapentane) was investigated by 13H
NMR spectroscopy. We have found that 1H NMR spectra of [Au(dien)Cl] Cl2
are characterised by exchange behaviour over the whole pH range, and some exchange effects are also seen in 13C
NMR spectra of the deprotonated hydroxo derivative of the complex in alkaline solution. An exchange
rate of > 378 s-1
was determined from 1H
NMR spectra at pH∗2
(coalescence temperature 40C°). In slightly acidic solutions of the complex, 1H
chemical shifts are in accordance with the known deprotonation of the central amine group of the complexed
diethylenetriamine ligand. In 13C
NMR spectra, two separate sets of resonances are observed for the chloro and the hydroxo complex
of gold(III) diethylenetriamine. The hydroxo complex [Au(dien-H)OH+
shows exchange effects in 13C
NMR spectra. Variable temperature studies show the carbon atoms next to the central secondary amine
to be inequivalent and each present in two different environments that are in intermediate to fast exchange on
the NMR time-scale.
When concentrated in mildly acidic solutions, bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) forms long-lived oligomers including two types of dimer, two types of trimer, and higher oligomers. In previous crystallographic work, we found that the major dimeric component forms by a swapping of the C-terminal β-strands between the monomers, and that the minor dimeric component forms by swapping the N-terminal α-helices of the monomers. On the basis of these structures, we proposed that a linear RNase A trimer can form from a central molecule that simultaneously swaps its N-terminal helix with a second RNase A molecule and its C-terminal strand with a third molecule. Studies by dissociation are consistent with this model for the major trimeric component: the major trimer dissociates into both the major and the minor dimers, as well as monomers. In contrast, the minor trimer component dissociates into the monomer and the major dimer. This suggests that the minor trimer is cyclic, formed from three monomers that swap their C-terminal β-strands into identical molecules. These conclusions are supported by cross-linking of lysyl residues, showing that the major trimer swaps its N-terminal helix, and the minor trimer does not. We verified by X-ray crystallography the proposed cyclic structure for the minor trimer...
The mechanisms linking deposits of insoluble amyloid fibrils to the debilitating neuronal cell death characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases remain enigmatic. Recent findings implicate transiently formed intermediates of mature amyloid fibrils as the principal toxic agent. Hence, determining which intermediate aggregates represent on-pathway precursors or off-pathway side branches is critical for understanding amyloid self-assembly, and for devising therapeutic approaches targeting relevant toxic species. We examined amyloid fibril self-assembly in acidic solutions, using the model protein hen egg-white lysozyme. Combining in situ dynamic light scattering with calibrated atomic-force microscopy, we monitored the nucleation and growth kinetics of multiple transient aggregate species, and characterized both their morphologies and physical dimensions. Upon incubation at elevated temperatures, uniformly sized oligomers formed at a constant rate. After a lag period of several hours, protofibrils spontaneously nucleated. The nucleation kinetics of protofibrils and the tight match of their widths and heights with those of oligomers imply that protofibrils both nucleated and grew via oligomer fusion. After reaching several hundred nanometers in length...
This paper reports the demonstration of a reactive, self-destructive template for the facile synthesis of branched Au nanostructures. The template is a three-dimensionally porous lattice of uniform, magnetic Fe nanoparticles self-assembled in situ on the surface of a magnetic stir bar. Upon introduction of AuCl, Au atoms are formed in the voids among Fe nanoparticles due to the galvanic replacement reaction between Fe and Au+. The Au atoms then nucleate and grow into branched nanostructures under the confinement of Fe nanoparticles. As the replacement proceeds, Fe is consumed to gradually reduce the sizes and magnetic moments of the Fe nanoparticles. At a certain stage of the reaction, the template starts to fall apart to automatically release the branched Au nanostructures. We can routinely obtain Au multipods as pure samples via selective dissolution of the remaining Fe nanoparticles with sulfuric acid. The as-prepared Au multipods show strong absorption in the near infrared region and exhibit distinctive oxidative etching behaviors in different acidic solutions due to the presence of crystal defects and lattice distortions.
Central chemoreception, the detection of CO2/H+ within the brain and the resultant effect on ventilation, was initially localized at two areas on the ventrolateral medulla, one rostral (rVLM-Mitchell’s) the other caudal (cVLM-Loeschcke’s), by surface application of acidic solutions in anesthetized animals. Focal dialysis of a high CO2/H+ artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) that produced a milder local pH change in unanesthetized rats (like that with a ~6.6 mm Hg increase in arterial PCO2) delineated putative chemoreceptor regions for the rVLM at the retrotrapezoid nucleus and the rostral medullary raphe that function predominantly in wakefulness and sleep, respectively. Here we ask if chemoreception in the cVLM can be detected by mild focal stimulation and if it functions in a state dependent manner. At responsive sites just beneath Loeschcke’s area, ventilation was increased by, on average, 17% (P < 0.01) only in wakefulness. These data support our hypothesis that central chemoreception is a distributed property with some sites functioning in a state-dependent manner.
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are important fluorescent probes due to their high brightness, multiplexing capability, and photostability. However, applications in quantitative and in vivo imaging are hampered by their sensitivity to chemical environments and potential toxicity. Here we report a surprising finding that the combination of silica and amphiphilic polymer can stabilize CdSe/ZnS QDs in a broad range of chemical conditions including strong acidic solutions, which is unavailable for any of the current encapsulation technologies (e.g., mercapto compounds, silica, and amphiphilic polymers) used alone. We further demonstrate the use of these ultrastable QDs as internal references in pH sensing applications. We expect this work will open exciting opportunities for in vivo and quantitative applications, and may help solve the toxicity problem of QDs.
To achieve one-step separation of heavy metal ions from contaminated water, we have developed a novel bioremediation technology based on self-immobilization of the Caulobacter crescentus recombinant strain JS4022/p723-6H, which overexpresses hexahistidine peptide on the surface of the bacterial cells and serves as a whole-cell adsorbent for dissolved heavy metals. Biofilms formed by JS4022/p723-6H are effective at retaining cadmium from bacterial growth media or environmental water samples. Here we provide additional experiment data discussing the application potential of this new technology. Supplementation of calcium to the growth media produced robust JS4022/p723-6H cells by alleviating their sensitivity to chelators. After growth in the presence of 0.3% CaCl2·2H2O, double the amount of JS4022/p723-6H cells survived the treatment with 2 mM EDTA. Free cells of JS4022/p723-6H effectively sequestered 51% of the total cadmium from a Lake Erie water sample at pH 5.4, compared to 37% retrieved by the control strain. Similar levels of adsorption were observed at pH 4.2 as well. Cells of JS4022/p723-6H were tolerant of acid treatment for 90 min at pH ≥1.1 or 120 min at pH ≥2.5, which provides an avenue for the convenient regeneration of the bacterial cells metal-binding capacity with acidic solutions. Designs of possible bioreactors and an operation system are also presented.
Given the challenges to life at low pH, an analysis of inorganic sulfur compound (ISC) oxidation was initiated in the chemolithoautotrophic extremophile Acidithiobacillus caldus. A. caldus is able to metabolize elemental sulfur and a broad range of ISCs. It has been implicated in the production of environmentally damaging acidic solutions as well as participating in industrial bioleaching operations where it forms part of microbial consortia used for the recovery of metal ions. Based upon the recently published A. caldus type strain genome sequence, a bioinformatic reconstruction of elemental sulfur and ISC metabolism predicted genes included: sulfide–quinone reductase (sqr), tetrathionate hydrolase (tth), two sox gene clusters potentially involved in thiosulfate oxidation (soxABXYZ), sulfur oxygenase reductase (sor), and various electron transport components. RNA transcript profiles by semi quantitative reverse transcription PCR suggested up-regulation of sox genes in the presence of tetrathionate. Extensive gel based proteomic comparisons of total soluble and membrane enriched protein fractions during growth on elemental sulfur and tetrathionate identified differential protein levels from the two Sox clusters as well as several chaperone and stress proteins up-regulated in the presence of elemental sulfur. Proteomics results also suggested the involvement of heterodisulfide reductase (HdrABC) in A. caldus ISC metabolism. A putative new function of Hdr in acidophiles is discussed. Additional proteomic analysis evaluated protein expression differences between cells grown attached to solid...
An investigation is presented of nickel electrodeposition from acidic solutions in a cylindrical spouted electrochemical reactor. The effects of solution pH, temperature, and applied current on nickel removal/recovery rate, current efficiency, and corrosion rate of deposited nickel on the cathodic particles were explored under galvanostatic operation. Nitrogen sparging was used to decrease the dissolved oxygen concentration in the electrolyte in order to reduce the nickel corrosion rate, thereby increasing the nickel electrowinning rate and current efficiency. A numerical model of electrodeposition, including corrosion and mass transfer in the particulate cathode moving bed, is presented that describes the behavior of the experimental net nickel electrodeposition data quite well.
The chemiluminescence (CL) of oxidation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by Ce(IV) ions, was recorded in the presence and absence europium(III) ions, in solution of pH ~ 4 of solution. Kinetic curves and CL emission spectra of the all studied systems were discussed. CL of measurable intensity was observed in the Ce(IV)–NP–Eu(III) reaction system only in acidic solutions. The CL spectrum rcegistered for this system shows emission bands, typical of Eu(III) ions, with maximum at λ ~ 600 nm. The chemiluminescent method, based on Eu(III) emission in reaction system of NP-Ce(IV)–Eu(III) in acid solution was therefore used for the determination of naproxen in mixture of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.