Página 7 dos resultados de 487827 itens digitais encontrados em 0.133 segundos

Tópícos de Astrofísica e Cosmologia: uma aplicação de Física Moderna e Contemporânea no Ensino Médio; Topics for astrophysics and cosmology: a application of modern and contemporary physics in high school

Aguiar, Ricardo Rechi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/11/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
O mundo é moldado pela tecnologia: computadores, celulares, internet e vários outros equipamentos são responsáveis por mudanças nos hábitos de milhões de pessoas. Além disso, o conhecimento científico atual nos apresenta um Universo gigantesco e rico em figuras quase mitológicas, como aglomerados estelares e galácticos, expansão do espaço-tempo e um surgimento universal cataclísmico. E, no núcleo de todas estas inovações e informações, se encontra o conhecimento que chamamos de Física Moderna e Contemporânea. Seria de se esperar que o ensino de Física na escola média estivesse recheado de assuntos desta natureza, auxiliando os educandos a explorar e interpretar o mundo em que vivem e entender a ciência envolvida por trás destes equipamentos e descobertas. Porém, tais conteúdos ainda são a minoria dos tópicos abordados nesta disciplina. Este trabalho se insere neste contexto, procurando colaborar com a incorporação de conteúdos de Física Moderna e Contemporânea no ensino médio, através da apresentação do processo de construção de uma proposta curricular de Física diferenciada, aplicada a partir do ano de 2006 em uma escola particular paulistana. Nele explora-se o desenvolvimento e a aplicação da proposta que introduziu alguns tópicos de Astrofísica e Cosmologia no segundo semestre do curso da 1ª série do ensino médio da escola no ano de 2008. Observou-se...

O ensino da física moderna nos livros didáticos do início do século XX; The modern physics teaching in the textbooks of the early twentieth century dissertation

Martins, Valeria Rosa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/11/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
O livro didático, mesmo com todos os recursos digitais disponíveis, possui papel de destaque na educação básica brasileira, seja em razão de seu amplo acesso a alunos e professores, seja por causa de sua presença na história da nossa educação. Como fonte de pesquisa, esse material tem atraído cada vez mais interesse dos pesquisadores que o analisam sob diversos aspectos. Neste trabalho analisamos o livro didático como fonte documental histórica e tivemos como objetivo estudar a inserção de conteúdos de física moderna em livros didáticos de Física do começo do século XX. Analisamos cinco livros didáticos de Física: Traité elémentaire de Physique (1918), de Albert Ganot; Curso elementar de Physica (1920), de Antônio de Pádua Dias; Tratado de Physica (1928), de Raul Romano; Tratado de Física elementar (1925), de Francisco Ribeiro Nobre; e Curso de Physica (1936), de Aníbal Freitas. Na perspectiva de caracterizar o ensino de física moderna no período, com base na leitura exaustiva do material e dos referencias utilizados, foi possível construir quatro grandes categorias de análise: histórica, matemática, experimental e aplicativa tecnológica. Na categoria histórica, por exemplo, estão inseridos os elementos relacionados a descobertas e biografias dos cientistas. Foi possível notar que a ênfase nessa categoria é caracterizada pela priorização de fatos e uma história descritiva. A categoria matemática aparece marcada pelo uso de relações de grandeza e proporções...

Development of habits through apprenticeship in a community: DHAC theoretical framework of physics teacher preparation

Etkina, Eugenia; Gregorcic, Bor; Vokos, Stamatis
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/07/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
The DHAC framework builds on the contemporary understanding of teacher preparation and strives to provide a better understanding of the process of learning to teach physics. Extant literature on teacher preparation suggests that pre-service teachers learn best when they are immersed in a community that allows them to develop dispositions, knowledge and practical skills and share with the community a strong vision of what good teaching means. However, despite having developed the requisite dispositions, knowledge and skills in pursuing the shared vision of good teaching, the professional demands on a teacher's time are so great out of and so complex during class time that if every decision requires multiple considerations and deliberations with oneself, the productive decisions might not materialize. We therefore argue that the missing link between intentional decision-making and actual teaching practice are the teacher's habits (spontaneous responses to situational cues). Teachers unavoidably develop habits with practical experience and under the influence of knowledge and belief structures that in many ways condition the responses of teachers in their practical work. To avoid new teachers developing unproductive habits, directed towards teacher "survival" instead of student learning...

A short insight about Thought experiment in Modern Physics

Cucic, Dragoljub A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/12/2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
Thought experiment is an apparition in a modern Science, which is in last 100 Years took sweep. Work is based at the aspect of Physics, because and the writer is from Physics. Manners to study thought experiments are multiple, and this work is only one aspect in that complex of feasibility. About real character of thought experiment will be made conclusion when analyze, like this attempt, in other Sciences.; Comment: 22 pages, 4 figures, 1 table

Institute for Molecular Physics at the University of Maryland

Sengers, Jan V.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
The Institute for Physical Science and Technology at the University of Maryland was founded in 1976 from a merger of the Institute for Fluid Dynamics and Applied Mathematics (IFDAM) and the Institute for Molecular Physics (IMP), which were established at the College Park Campus after World War II to enhance the expertise of the University of Maryland in some areas of science and technology of interest to the US Department of Defense. Here I try to reconstruct the history of the Institute for Molecular Physics at the University of Maryland.; Comment: 20 pages, 11 figures

An inquiry into the reproduction of physics-phobic children by physics-phobic teachers

Azuma, Takehiro; Nagao, Keiichi
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
Recently in the authors' country Japan, the unpopularity of natural science among children has been a serious problem. Especially, physics is unpopular because physics requires mathematics. One of the reasons of this problem is that teachers themselves do not like physics. We focus our attention on the ``teachers in embryo'', namely the undergraduate students in a course for school teachers. We conducted a questionnaire and a quiz on the undergraduate students in the first grade of the Department of Science Education, Ibaraki University. We report the result of the questionnaire and the quiz, and also make suggestions to improve the present situation.; Comment: Latex 13 pages; English translation of the original version written in Japanese, Bulletin of Faculty of Education, Ibaraki University 56 (2007) 91-102, which can be downloaded from the website of ROSE (Repository of Open access Scholarly E-collections, Ibaraki University): http://ir.lib.ibaraki.ac.jp/handle/10109/38 (v2) layout modified

Paradigms in Physics Education Research

Robertson, Amy D.; Scherr, Rachel E.; McKagan, Sarah B.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
In this paper, we describe two paradigms in physics education research (PER): recurrence- oriented and case-oriented PER. We connect theory on research methodologies in the social sciences to interviews with physics education researchers and examples of published PER to articulate the specific assumptions of recurrence- and case-oriented PER. We show that the different assumptions made in these two paradigms bear out in specific aims and research designs taken up by physics education researchers. In particular, recurrence-oriented research seeks reproducible, representative patterns and relationships; human behavior is modeled as governed by lawful (albeit probabilistic) relationships. Case-oriented research, in contrast, seeks to refine and develop theory by linking that theory to cases; human action is seen as shaped by the meanings that participants make of their local environments. We describe a third approach - question-oriented research - in which researchers take up both the recurrence- and case-oriented research paradigms.; Comment: submitted to Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research

Unpacking Symbolic Equations in Introductory Physics

Torigoe, Eugene T.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/08/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
Symbolic equations are one of the many representations used in the discipline of physics. Understanding these representations is important for students because they are how students access knowledge in physics. In this paper I build off of the work by Redish and Kuo, which described the cultural differences between how math is used in math class and physics class, and the work by Fredlund et al, which described the importance of unpacking representations for physics student. I will describe how differences in the goals of numeric and symbolic problem solving lead to different set of affordances. In particular, the inability to distinguish variables, knowns, and unknowns in symbolic problem solving is a benefit when describing a generalized physical system. I also present evidence that observed errors when trying to solve symbolic problems are due to students acting on inappropriate cues associated with numeric problem solving.; Comment: arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1112.3229

Education and Research in the SEENET-MTP Regional Framework for Higher Education in Physics

Constantinescu, R.; Djordjevic, G. S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/12/2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
Southeastern European countries undergo significant changes in the demand/supply ratio on the labour market and in the structure of professional competences that are necessary for undertaking a professional activity. In addition, brain-drain process and decrease of interest for a career in basic sciences put many challenges for our community. Consequently, based on the activity of the Southeastern European Network in Mathematical and Theoretical Physics (SEENET MTP Network) in connecting groups and persons working in mathematics and theoretical physics, we investigate specific qualifications recognized in these fields in all the countries from the region, and the related competences necessary for practicing the respective occupations. A list of new possible occupations will be promoted for inclusion in the National Qualifications Register for Higher Education. Finally, we analyze the vision existing in this region on the higher education qualifications against the European vision and experience, in particular in training of Master students, PhD students, and senior teaching and research staff through the Network, i.e. multilateral and bilateral programs.; Comment: 6 pages, Talk given at 7th International Conference of the Balkan Physical Union...

Information and Entanglement Measures in Quantum Systems With Applications to Atomic Physics

Manzano, Daniel
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
This thesis is a multidisciplinary contribution to the information theory of single-particle Coulomb systems in their relativistic and not relativistic description, to the theory of special functions of mathematical physics with the proposal and analysis of a new set of measures of spreading for orthogonal polynomials, to quantum computation and learning devices and to the analysis of entanglement in systems of identical fermions, in this field we propose a separability criteria for pure states of N identical fermions and the entanglement of two-electron atoms is studied, a new separability criteria for continuous variable systems is also analyzed. The notions of information, complexity and entanglement play a central role.; Comment: Phd Thesis of Daniel Manzano, directed by Jes\'us S\'anchez-Dehesa and \'Angel Ricardo Plastino. All it is in English except the legal texts, acknowledgments and the introduction that are in Spanish. Defended at the University of Granada, April 12, 2010

A Case Study of Gender Bias at the Postdoctoral Level in Physics, and its Resulting Impact on the Academic Career Advancement of Females

Towers, S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
This case study of a typical U.S. particle physics experiment explores the issues of gender bias and how it affects the academic career advancement prospects of women in the field of physics beyond the postdoctoral level; we use public databases to study the career paths of the full cohort of 57 former postdoctoral researchers on the Run II Dzero experiment to examine if males and females were treated in a gender-blind fashion on the experiment. The study finds that the female researchers were on average significantly more productive compared to their male peers, yet were allocated only 1/3 the amount of conference presentations based on their productivity. The study also finds that the dramatic gender bias in allocation of conference presentations appeared to have significant negative impact on the academic career advancement of the females. The author has a PhD in particle physics and worked for six years as a postdoctoral research scientist, five of which were spent collaborating at Fermilab. She is currently completing a graduate degree in statistics.; Comment: Replacement adds one person to list of Acknowledgements, and clarifies that the author collaborated at Fermilab. An added paragraph clarifies the justification of the use of internal publications as a measure of productivity. It also adds a brief description of the analysis results if measures of productivity are not included in the analysis

Beyond the Physics of Logic: Aspects of Transcendental Materialism or URAM in a Modern View

Zimmermann, Rainer E.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/05/2001
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
It has been shown at other occasions that recent results of modern physics can be used to shed some more light onto the foundations of the world, provided the actual task of philosophy is being re-interpreted in terms of a theory which is following up the results of science rather than laying the grounds for the latter, contrary to what the original intention of Aristotelian "prima philo- sophia" would imply. As it turns out, the interpretation of the main results of present research dealing with aspects of quantum information theory and quantum gravity, respectively, as well as with self-organized criticality, suffices to re-construct a large class of phenomena not only within the field of physics proper, but also within chemistry, biology, and even the social sciences. We show that questions of ultimate reality and meaning can only be answered within a framework of speculative philosophy which is rooted though in what sceptic philosophy is able to derive from scientific results.; Comment: Invited Contribution to URAM 11, August 15-18, 2001, University of Toronto

Subatomic Physics-100 Not Out and Still Going Strong!

Khare, Avinash
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/09/1997
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
On the occasion of the birth centenary of the discovery of electron, I discuss its role in the area of Elementary Particle Physics. I emphasize that the discovery of electron marks the end of the speculation era lasting more than 2500 years. The key developments leading to the discovery of electron by J.J. Thomson are mentioned. The standard model is briefly described. It is emphasized that this model is unsatisfactory in several respects, however no further progress beyond standard model is possible unless there is a dramatic advance in instrumentation.; Comment: 11 pages, To appear in Resonance--Journal of Science Education

Integrated approaches in physics education: A graduate level course in physics, pedagogy, and education research

Wittmann, Michael C.; Thompson, John R.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/08/2006
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
We describe a course designed to help future educators build an integrated understanding of the different elements of physics education research (PER), including: research into student learning, content knowledge from the perspective of how it is learned, and reform-based curricula together with evidence of their effectiveness. Course elements include equal parts of studying physics through proven curricula and discussion of research results in the context of the PER literature. We provide examples of the course content and structure as well as representative examples of student learning in the class.; Comment: 13 pages, 2 tables, 3 figures. Submitted to the American Journal of Physics on August 24, 2006

Physics at the CLIC e+e- Linear Collider -- Input to the Snowmass process 2013

Abramowicz, Halina; Abusleme, Angel; Afanaciev, Konstatin; Alexander, Gideon; Tehrani, Niloufar Alipour; Alonso, Oscar; Andersen, Kristoffer K.; Arfaoui, Samir; Balazs, Csaba; Barklow, Tim; Battaglia, Marco; Benoit, Mathieu; Bilki, Burak; Blaising, Jean-J
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
This paper summarizes the physics potential of the CLIC high-energy e+e- linear collider. It provides input to the Snowmass 2013 process for the energy-frontier working groups on The Higgs Boson (HE1), Precision Study of Electroweak Interactions (HE2), Fully Understanding the Top Quark (HE3), as well as The Path Beyond the Standard Model -- New Particles, Forces, and Dimensions (HE4). It is accompanied by a paper describing the CLIC accelerator study, submitted to the Frontier Capabilities group of the Snowmass process.; Comment: Updated the author list, updated Higgs results and small changes in the text of the Higgs section, updated results on composite Higgs bosons, added and updated references. Final submission for the Snowmass proceedings

Student Variability in Learning Advanced Physics

Sampson, T.; Hilke, M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/07/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.81414%
Learning of advanced physics, requires a combination of empirical, conceptual and theoretical understanding. Students use a combination of these approaches to learn new material. Each student has different prior knowledge and will master new material at a different pace. However, conventional classroom teaching usually does not accommodate the different learning paces of students. To both, study and address this issue, we developed an iterative Online Learning Machine (iOLM), which provides new learning content to each student based on their individual learning pace and tracks their progress individually. The iOLM learning module was implemented using server side web software (php) to supplement the undergraduate course in electromagnetic waves for majors in physics in their second year. This approach follows the hybrid online learning model. Students had to complete a section of the course using iOLM, which was only presented online. The data obtained for this class showed a wide spread of learning paces, ranging from 0.1 to 0.5, where 1 is the maximum pace allowed by iOLM and 0 the lowest. The mean was mu=0.25, with a standard deviation of sigma=0.12. While the pretest showed a positive correlation between the student's pace and performance...

Resource Letter TTSM-1: Teaching thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in introductory physics, chemistry, and biology

Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Geller, Benjamin D.; Meltzer, David E.; Sawtelle, Vashti
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/07/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
424.2579%
This Resource Letter draws on discipline-based education research from physics, chemistry, and biology to collect literature on the teaching of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in the three disciplines. While the overlap among the disciplinary literatures is limited at present, we hope this Resource Letter will spark more interdisciplinary interaction.; Comment: The first two authors contributed equally to this work

Identity statuses in upper-division physics students

Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/05/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
424.2579%
We use the theories of identity statuses and communities of practice to describe three different case studies of students finding their paths through undergraduate physics and developing a physics subject-specific identity. Each case study demonstrates a unique path that reinforces the link between the theories of communities of practice and identity statuses. The case studies also illustrate how students progress and regress in their commitment to their subject-specific identities and their professional identities. The progression/regression is dependent on their willingness to explore different aspects of a physics professional identity and their availability to carry out such exploration. Identity status and future identity crises can manifest in students' behavior in the classroom. Allowing students to engage in more legitimate practices of the physics community, especially in the form of undergraduate research, helps students to explore their opportunities and inform the level of commitment they wish to make to physics.; Comment: 50 pages. Accepted at Cultural Studies of Science Education

Correspondence principle and evolution of physics

Bogdanov, Yu. I.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/10/2005 RU
Relevância na Pesquisa
424.2579%
Based on the Bohr's correspondence principle it is shown that relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics may be considered as generalizations of classical mechanics. A comparative description of relativistic and classical mechanics is given using three main principles: the definition of momentum, the main law of dynamics (Newton's second law) and the law of conservation of energy. The difference of relativistic mechanics from classical mechanics is due to the new definition of momentum that is proportional to energy and velocity. It is shown that new relativistic laws of dynamics make it necessary to change kinematical relations of classical mechanics such as the law of velocity composition, coordinate transformation etc. It is demonstrated that quantum mechanics may be considered as a rational statistical generalization of classical mechanics. Statistical conformities in quantum mechanics are fundamental and are not due to the incomplete information about the system. From all possible multi-parametric statistical models the root model is most remarkable. Constructing of a root multi-parametric statistical model leads to obtaining such frequencies and base functions in Fourier decomposition so that classical laws of motion are fulfilled in average. Root model leads to a consistent condition that connects eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a mechanical system that is described by a matrix equation of Heisenberg. Matrix equation of Heisenberg leads to an operator equation. The solution of the operator equation may be considered as the construction of Hamiltonian of the system and a move to the Schrodinger representation. The considered approach naturally leads to the notion of momentum operator...

Survey of trends and approaches of work related to the Information and Communication Technologies presented in the XIX National Symposium on Physics Teaching; Levantamento das abordagens e tendências dos trabalhos sobre as Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação apresentados no XIX Simpósio Nacional de Ensino de Física

Macêdo, Josué Antunes de; Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Norte de Minas Gerais Januária - MG; Pedroso, Luciano Soares; Fundação de Ensino Superior de Passos (FESP) São Sebastião do Paraíso – MG; Voelzke, Marcos Rinco
Fonte: Imprensa Universitária - UFSC Publicador: Imprensa Universitária - UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/11/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
424.2579%
In this study, an investigation of 231 articles of the oral communication sections presented at the National Symposium on Physics Teaching (NSPT) was conducted, trying to identify those related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT), its form of organization, the involved thematic areas and the degree of teaching, allowing to compare the different perspectives and trends in this field. The conducted state of the art-study had a bibliographical character and qualitative contours involving content analysis. It was realized that the thematic area “Information technology, technology diffusion and Physics teaching”, where most of the research related to ICT is concentrated, represent 11.7% of the total number of papers at the XIX NSPT, confirming a trend of research in this area. It was found, among other things, the predominance of studies where learning objects are used in Physics Education, especially in High School and University Education; the use of ICT in multidisciplinary work and that some features need to be further explored, such as thermodynamics. It was also noted an expressive amount of studies involving the use of ICT in teacher training proposals, which can contribute to the enlargement of the methodological options of teachers and meet their training needs.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2014v31n1p167Neste trabalho...