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Genomic Profiling of the Response of Candida albicans to Itraconazole Treatment Using a DNA Microarray

De Backer, Marianne D.; Ilyina, Tatiana; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Vandoninck, Sandy; Luyten, Walter H. M. L.; Vanden Bossche, Hugo
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2001 EN
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The application of genome-wide expression profiling to determine how drugs achieve their therapeutic effect has provided the pharmaceutical industry with an exciting new tool for drug mode-of-action studies. We used DNA chip technology to study cellular responses to perturbations of ergosterol biosynthesis caused by the broad-spectrum antifungal agent itraconazole. Simultaneous examination of over 6,600 Candida albicans gene transcript levels, representing the entire genome, upon treatment of cells with 10 μM itraconazole revealed that 296 genes were responsive. For 116 genes transcript levels were decreased at least 2.5-fold, while for 180 transcript levels were similarly increased. A global upregulation of ERG genes in response to azole treatment was observed. ERG11 and ERG5 were found to be upregulated approximately 12-fold. In addition, a significant upregulation was observed for ERG6, ERG1, ERG3, ERG4, ERG10, ERG9, ERG26, ERG25, ERG2, IDII, HMGS, NCP1, and FEN2, all of which are genes known to be involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. The effects of itraconazole on a wide variety of known metabolic processes are discussed. As over 140 proteins with unknown function were responsive to itraconazole, our analysis might provide—in combination with phenotypic data—first hints of their potential function. The present report is the first to describe the application of DNA chip technology to study the response of a major human fungal pathogen to drug treatment.

Inhibition of Fumarate Reductase in Leishmania major and L. donovani by Chalcones

Chen, Ming; Zhai, Lin; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Theander, Thor G.; Kharazmi, Arsalan
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2001 EN
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883.4596%
Our previous studies have shown that chalcones exhibit potent antileishmanial and antimalarial activities in vitro and in vivo. Preliminary studies showed that these compounds destroyed the ultrastructure of Leishmania parasite mitochondria and inhibited the respiration and the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases of Leishmania parasites. The present study was designed to further investigate the mechanism of action of chalcones, focusing on the parasite respiratory chain. The data show that licochalcone A inhibited the activity of fumarate reductase (FRD) in the permeabilized Leishmania major promastigote and in the parasite mitochondria, and it also inhibited solubilized FRD and a purified FRD from L. donovani. Two other chalcones, 2,4-dimethoxy-4′-allyloxychalcone (24m4ac) and 2,4-dimethoxy-4′-butoxychalcone (24mbc), also exhibited inhibitory effects on the activity of solubilized FRD in L. major promastigotes. Although licochalcone A inhibited the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), NADH dehydrogenase (NDH), and succinate- and NADH-cytochrome c reductases in the parasite mitochondria, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of licochalcone A for these enzymes were at least 20 times higher than that for FRD. The IC50 of licochalcone A for SDH and NDH in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were at least 70 times higher than that for FRD. These findings indicate that FRD...

Ultrastructural and Biochemical Alterations Induced by 22,26-Azasterol, a Δ24(25)-Sterol Methyltransferase Inhibitor, on Promastigote and Amastigote Forms of Leishmania amazonensis

Rodrigues, Juliany C. F.; Attias, Márcia; Rodriguez, Carlos; Urbina, Julio A.; Souza, Wanderley de
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 EN
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We report on the antiproliferative effects and the ultrastructural and biochemical alterations induced in vitro by 22,26-azasterol, a sterol Δ24(25)-methyltransferase (24-SMT) inhibitor, on Leishmania amazonensis. When promastigotes and amastigotes were exposed to 100 nM 22,26-azasterol, complete growth arrest and cell lysis ensued after 72 (promastigotes) or 120 (amastigotes) h. Exposure of parasites to this azasterol led to the complete depletion of parasite endogenous sterols (episterol and 5-dehydroepisterol) and their replacement by 24-desalkyl sterols (zymosterol, cholesta-5,7,24-trien-3β-ol, and cholesta-7,24-dien-3β-ol), while 14-methyl-zymosterol and 4,14-dimethyl-zymosterol accumulated as a result of simultaneous incubation of the parasites with 22,26-azasterol and ketoconazole, a known inhibitor of the parasite’s sterol C14-demethylase. These results confirmed that 24-SMT is the primary site of action of the azasterol. Profound changes were also observed in the phospholipid compositions of treated cells, in which a twofold reduction in the content of phosphatidylserine was observed; this was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the content of phosphatidylinositol. Transmission electron microscopy showed that 22...

Effect of Auristatin PHE on Microtubule Integrity and Nuclear Localization in Cryptococcus neoformans

Woyke, Tanja; Roberson, Robert W.; Pettit, George R.; Winkelmann, Günther; Pettit, Robin K.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2002 EN
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The mechanism of action of the fungicidal peptide auristatin PHE was investigated in Cryptococcus neoformans. Since auristatin PHE causes budding arrest in C. neoformans (T. Woyke, G. R. Pettit, G. Winkelmann, and R. K. Pettit, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:3580-3584, 2001), microtubule integrity and nuclear localization in auristatin PHE-treated cells were examined. Iterative deconvolution in conjunction with an optimized C. neoformans microtubule immunolabeling procedure enabled detailed visualization of the microtubule cytoskeleton in auristatin PHE-treated C. neoformans. The effect of auristatin PHE on C. neoformans microtubule organization was compared with that of the tubulin-binding agent nocodazole. Both drugs produced complete disruption first of cytoplasmic and then of spindle microtubules in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Sub-MICs of auristatin PHE caused complete microtubule disruption within 4.5 h, while 1.5 times the nocodazole MIC was required for the same effect. For both drugs, disruption of microtubules was accompanied by blockage of nuclear migration and of nuclear and cellular division, resulting in cells arrested in a uninucleate, large-budded stage. Nocodazole and the linear peptide auristatin PHE are remarkably different in structure and spectrum of activity...

Mechanism of Action of a Novel Series of Naphthyridine-Type Ribosome Inhibitors: Enhancement of tRNA Footprinting at the Decoding Site of 16S rRNA

Shen, Linus L.; Black-Schaefer, Candace; Cai, Yingna; Dandliker, Peter J.; Beutel, Bruce A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2005 EN
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The novel ribosome inhibitors (NRIs) are a broad-spectrum naphthyridine class that selectively inhibits bacterial protein synthesis (P. J. Dandliker et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:3831-3839, 2003). Footprinting experiments, using a range of NRIs and chemical modification agents on Escherichia coli ribosomes, revealed no evidence for direct protection of rRNA. In the presence of tRNA, however, we found that NRIs enhanced the known ribosomal footprinting pattern of tRNA in a dose-dependent manner. The most prominent increase in protection, at A1492/3 and A1413 in helix-44 of 16S RNA, strictly required the presence of tRNA and poly(U), and the effect was correlated with the potency of the inhibitor. Radioligand binding studies with inhibitor [3H]A-424902 showed that the compound binds to tRNA, either in its charged or uncharged form. The dissociation constant for [3H]A-424902 binding to Phe-tRNAPhe was determined to be 1.8 μM, near its translation inhibition potency of 1.6 μM in a cell-free S. pneumoniae extract assay. The compound did not change the binding of radiolabeled tRNA to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Taken together, these results imply that the NRIs exert their effects on protein synthesis by structurally perturbing the tRNA/30S complex at the decoding site.

Antifungal Protein PAF Severely Affects the Integrity of the Plasma Membrane of Aspergillus nidulans and Induces an Apoptosis-Like Phenotype

Leiter, Éva; Szappanos, Henrietta; Oberparleiter, Christoph; Kaiserer, Lydia; Csernoch, László; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Emri, Tamás; Pócsi, István; Salvenmoser, Willibald; Marx, Florentine
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2005 EN
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883.5163%
The small, basic, and cysteine-rich antifungal protein PAF is abundantly secreted into the supernatant by the β-lactam producer Penicillium chrysogenum. PAF inhibits the growth of various important plant and zoopathogenic filamentous fungi. Previous studies revealed the active internalization of the antifungal protein and the induction of multifactorial detrimental effects, which finally resulted in morphological changes and growth inhibition in target fungi. In the present study, we offer detailed insights into the mechanism of action of PAF and give evidence for the induction of a programmed cell death-like phenotype. We proved the hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane in PAF-treated Aspergillus nidulans hyphae by using the aminonaphtylethenylpyridinium dye di-8-ANEPPS. The exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of A. nidulans protoplasts by Annexin V staining and the detection of DNA strand breaks by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) gave evidence for a PAF-induced apoptotic-like mechanism in A. nidulans. The localization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and the abnormal cellular ultrastructure analyzed by transmission electron microscopy suggested that ROS-elicited membrane damage and the disintegration of mitochondria played a major role in the cytotoxicity of PAF. Finally...

Biochemical Characterization of the Interactions of the Novel Pleuromutilin Derivative Retapamulin with Bacterial Ribosomes▿

Yan, Kang ; Madden, Lenore; Choudhry, Anthony E.; Voigt, Christine S.; Copeland, Robert A.; Gontarek, Richard R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Retapamulin is a semisynthetic pleuromutilin derivative being developed as a topical antibiotic for treating bacterial infections of the skin. It is potent in vitro against susceptible and multidrug-resistant organisms commonly associated with bacterial skin infections. We report detailed mode of action studies demonstrating that retapamulin binds to the bacterial ribosome with high affinity, inhibits ribosomal peptidyl transferase activity, and partially inhibits the binding of the initiator tRNA substrate to the ribosomal P-site. Taken together, these data distinguish the mode of action of retapamulin from that of other classes of antibiotics. This unique mode of action may explain the lack of clinically relevant, target-specific cross-resistance of retapamulin with antibacterials in current use.

Artemisinin-Resistant Mutants of Toxoplasma gondii Have Altered Calcium Homeostasis▿

Nagamune, Kisaburo; Moreno, Silvia N. J.; Sibley, L. David
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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884.319%
Artemisinin is a plant sesquiterpene lactone that has become an important drug for combating malaria, especially in regions where resistance to other drugs is widespread. While the mechanism of action is debated, artemisinin has been reported to inhibit the sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) in the malaria parasite. Artemisinin is also effective against Toxoplasma in vitro and in vivo, although it is less potent and, hence, is generally not used therapeutically to treat toxoplasmosis. To explore the mechanism of action, we generated chemically derived mutants of Toxoplasma gondii that were resistant to growth inhibition by this compound in vitro. Three artemisinin-resistant (ARTr) mutant clones that differed in their sensitivities in vitro by three- to fivefold compared with that of the wild-type parasites were obtained. ARTr mutants were cross-resistant to other derivatives of artemisinin, the most potent of which was artemisone. Resistance was not due to molecular alterations or differences in the expression of SERCA or other putative targets, such as proteins that code for multidrug resistance or translationally controlled tumor protein. ARTr mutants were resistant to the induction of protein secretion from micronemes...

Bactericidal Action of Daptomycin against Stationary-Phase and Nondividing Staphylococcus aureus Cells▿

Mascio, Carmela T. M.; Alder, Jeff D.; Silverman, Jared A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Most antibiotics with bactericidal activity require that the bacteria be actively dividing to produce rapid killing. However, in many infections, such as endocarditis, prosthetic joint infections, and infected embedded catheters, the bacteria divide slowly or not at all. Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with a distinct mechanism of action that targets the cytoplasmic membrane of gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus. Daptomycin is rapidly bactericidal against exponentially growing bacteria (a 3-log reduction in 60 min). The objectives of this study were to determine if daptomycin is bactericidal against nondividing S. aureus and to quantify the extent of the bactericidal activity. In high-inoculum methicillin-sensitive S. aureus cultures in stationary phase (1010 CFU/ml), daptomycin displayed concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, requiring 32 μg/ml to achieve a 3-log reduction. In a study comparing several antibiotics at 100 μg/ml, daptomycin demonstrated faster bactericidal activity than nafcillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and vancomycin. In experiments where bacterial cell growth was halted by the metabolic inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone or erythromycin, daptomycin (10 μg/ml) achieved the bactericidal end point (a 3-log reduction) within 2 h. In contrast...

Subinhibitory Concentrations of Azithromycin Decrease Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Biofilm Formation and Diminish Established Biofilms▿

Starner, Timothy D.; Shrout, Joshua D.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.; Kim, GunHee
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) commonly causes otitis media, chronic bronchitis in emphysema, and early airway infections in cystic fibrosis. Long-term, low-dose azithromycin has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in chronic lung diseases, although the mechanism of action remains unclear. The inhibition of bacterial biofilms by azithromycin has been postulated to be one mechanism mediating these effects. We hypothesized that subinhibitory concentrations of azithromycin would affect NTHi biofilm formation. Laboratory strains of NTHi expressing green fluorescent protein and azithromycin-resistant clinical isolates were grown in flow-cell and static-culture biofilm models. Using a range of concentrations of azithromycin and gentamicin, we measured the degree to which these antibiotics inhibited biofilm formation and persistence. Large biofilms formed over 2 to 4 days in a flow cell, displaying complex structures, including towers and channels. Subinhibitory concentrations of azithromycin significantly decreased biomass and maximal thickness in both forming and established NTHi biofilms. In contrast, subinhibitory concentrations of gentamicin had no effect on biofilm formation. Furthermore, established NTHi biofilms became resistant to gentamicin at concentrations far above the MIC. Biofilm formation of highly resistant clinical NTHi isolates (azithromycin MIC of >64 μg/ml) was similarly decreased at subinhibitory azithromycin concentrations. Clinically obtainable azithromycin concentrations inhibited biofilms in all but the most highly resistant isolates. These data show that subinhibitory concentrations of azithromycin have antibiofilm properties...

Mefloquine-Induced Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis in Mammalian Cells Is Similar to That Induced by Ionomycin▿

Caridha, D.; Yourick, D.; Cabezas, M.; Wolf, L.; Hudson, T. H.; Dow, G. S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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883.4996%
In previous studies, we have shown that mefloquine disrupts calcium homeostasis in neurons by depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores, followed by an influx of external calcium across the plasma membrane. In this study, we explore two hypotheses concerning the mechanism(s) of action of mefloquine. First, we investigated the possibility that mefloquine activates non-N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors and the inositol phosphate 3 (IP3) signaling cascade leading to ER calcium release. Second, we compared the disruptive effects of mefloquine on calcium homeostasis to those of ionomycin in neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Ionomycin is known to discharge the ER calcium store (through an undefined mechanism), which induces capacitative calcium entry (CCE). In radioligand binding assays, mefloquine showed no affinity for the known binding sites of several glutamate receptor subtypes. The pattern of neuroprotection induced by a panel of glutamate receptor antagonists was dissimilar to that of mefloquine. Both mefloquine and ionomycin exhibited dose-related and qualitatively similar disruptions of calcium homeostasis in both neurons and macrophages. The influx of external calcium was blocked by the inhibitors of CCE in a dose-related fashion. Both mefloquine and ionomycin upregulated the IP3 pathway in a manner that we interpret to be secondary to CCE. Collectively...

Genetic Analysis of Factors Affecting Susceptibility of Bacillus subtilis to Daptomycin▿ †

Hachmann, Anna-Barbara; Angert, Esther R.; Helmann, John D.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Daptomycin is the first of a new class of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics used against multidrug-resistant, gram-positive pathogens. The proposed mechanism of action involves disruption of the functional integrity of the bacterial membrane in a Ca2+-dependent manner. We have used transcriptional profiling to demonstrate that treatment of Bacillus subtilis with daptomycin strongly induces the lia operon including the autoregulatory LiaRS two-component system (homologous to Staphylococcus aureus VraSR). The lia operon protects against daptomycin, and deletion of liaH, encoding a phage-shock protein A (PspA)-like protein, leads to threefold increased susceptibility. Since daptomycin interacts with the membrane, we tested mutants with altered membrane composition for effects on susceptibility. Deletion mutations of mprF (lacking lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol) or des (lipid desaturase) increased daptomycin susceptibility, whereas overexpression of MprF decreased susceptibility. Conversely, depletion of the cell for the anionic lipid phosphatidylglycerol led to increased resistance. Fluorescently labeled daptomycin localized to the septa and in a helical pattern around the cell envelope and was delocalized upon the depletion of phosphatidylglycerol. Together...

In Vitro and In Vivo Profiles of ACH-702, an Isothiazoloquinolone, against Bacterial Pathogens▿

Pucci, Michael J.; Podos, Steven D.; Thanassi, Jane A.; Leggio, Melissa J.; Bradbury, Barton J.; Deshpande, Milind
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2011 EN
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ACH-702, a novel isothiazoloquinolone (ITQ), was assessed for antibacterial activity against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical isolates and found to possess broad-spectrum activity, especially against antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive strains, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). For Gram-negative bacteria, ACH-702 showed exceptional potency against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and a Neisseria sp. but was less active against members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Good antibacterial activity was also evident against several anaerobes as well as Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Excellent bactericidal activity was observed for ACH-702 against several bacterial pathogens in time-kill assays, and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of >1 h were evident with both laboratory and clinical strains of staphylococci at 10× MIC and similar in most cases to those observed for moxifloxacin at the same MIC multiple. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated against S. aureus with murine sepsis and thigh infection models, with decreases in the number of CFU/thigh equal to or greater than those observed after vancomycin treatment. Macromolecular synthesis assays showed specific dose-dependent inhibition of DNA replication in staphylococci...

SQ109 Targets MmpL3, a Membrane Transporter of Trehalose Monomycolate Involved in Mycolic Acid Donation to the Cell Wall Core of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Tahlan, Kapil; Wilson, Regina; Kastrinsky, David B.; Arora, Kriti; Nair, Vinod; Fischer, Elizabeth; Barnes, S. Whitney; Walker, John R.; Alland, David; Barry, Clifton E.; Boshoff, Helena I.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 EN
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883.5313%
SQ109, a 1,2-diamine related to ethambutol, is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of tuberculosis, but its mode of action remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SQ109 disrupts cell wall assembly, as evidenced by macromolecular incorporation assays and ultrastructural analyses. SQ109 interferes with the assembly of mycolic acids into the cell wall core of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as bacilli exposed to SQ109 show immediate inhibition of trehalose dimycolate (TDM) production and fail to attach mycolates to the cell wall arabinogalactan. These effects were not due to inhibition of mycolate synthesis, since total mycolate levels were unaffected, but instead resulted in the accumulation of trehalose monomycolate (TMM), the precursor of TDM and cell wall mycolates. In vitro assays using purified enzymes showed that this was not due to inhibition of the secreted Ag85 mycolyltransferases. We were unable to achieve spontaneous generation of SQ109-resistant mutants; however, analogs of this compound that resulted in similar shutdown of TDM synthesis with concomitant TMM accumulation were used to spontaneously generate resistant mutants that were also cross-resistant to SQ109. Whole-genome sequencing of these mutants showed that these all had mutations in the essential mmpL3 gene...

Two Hits Are Better than One: Membrane-Active and DNA Binding-Related Double-Action Mechanism of NK-18, a Novel Antimicrobial Peptide Derived from Mammalian NK-Lysin

Yan, Jiexi; Wang, Kairong; Dang, Wen; Chen, Ru; Xie, Junqiu; Zhang, Bangzhi; Song, Jingjing; Wang, Rui
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
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The extensive use and misuse of antibiotics in medicine result in the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, creating an urgent need for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. Nowadays, antimicrobial peptides are widely recognized as a class of promising candidates with activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria. NK-18 is a truncated peptide derived from NK-Lysin, an effector of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. In this study, we studied the antibacterial mechanism of action of NK-18. The results revealed that NK-18 has potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. According to our findings, NK-18 is membrane active and its target of action is not only the bacterial membrane but also the DNA in the cytoplasm. The double targets of NK-18 make it difficult for bacteria to generate resistance, which may present a new strategy to defend against multidrug-resistant bacteria and provide a new lead in the design of potent antimicrobial peptides with therapeutic application in the presence of increasing resistance to conventional antibiotics.

Antimicrobial Properties of 8-Hydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic Acid for Treatment of Implant-Associated Infections

Nowakowska, Justyna; Griesser, Hans J.; Textor, Marcus; Landmann, Regine; Khanna, Nina
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
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883.4996%
Treatment options are limited for implant-associated infections (IAI) that are mainly caused by biofilm-forming staphylococci. We report here on the activity of the serrulatane compound 8-hydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (EN4), a diterpene isolated from the Australian plant Eremophila neglecta. EN4 elicited antimicrobial activity toward various Gram-positive bacteria but not to Gram-negative bacteria. It showed a similar bactericidal effect against logarithmic-phase, stationary-phase, and adherent Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as against methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with MICs of 25 to 50 μg/ml and MBCs of 50 to 100 μg/ml. The bactericidal activity of EN4 was similar against S. epidermidis and its Δica mutant, which is unable to produce polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-mediated biofilm. In time-kill studies, EN4 exhibited a rapid and concentration-dependent killing of staphylococci, reducing bacterial counts by >3 log10 CFU/ml within 5 min at concentrations of >50 μg/ml. Investigation of the mode of action of EN4 revealed membranolytic properties and a general inhibition of macromolecular biosynthesis, suggesting a multitarget activity. In vitro-tested cytotoxicity on eukaryotic cells was time and concentration dependent in the range of the MBCs. EN4 was then tested in a mouse tissue cage model...

Chemical Genomic Screening of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genomewide Mutant Collection Reveals Genes Required for Defense against Four Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from Proteins Found in Human Saliva

Lis, Maciej; Bhatt, Sanjay; Schoenly, Nathan E.; Lee, Anna Y.; Nislow, Corey; Bobek, Libuse A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2013 EN
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883.54484%
To compare the effects of four antimicrobial peptides (MUC7 12-mer, histatin 12-mer, cathelicidin KR20, and a peptide containing lactoferricin amino acids 1 to 11) on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we employed a genomewide fitness screen of combined collections of mutants with homozygous deletions of nonessential genes and heterozygous deletions of essential genes. When an arbitrary fitness score cutoffs of 1 (indicating a fitness defect, or hypersensitivity) and −1 (indicating a fitness gain, or resistance) was used, 425 of the 5,902 mutants tested exhibited altered fitness when treated with at least one peptide. Functional analysis of the 425 strains revealed enrichment among the identified deletions in gene groups associated with the Gene Ontology (GO) terms “ribosomal subunit,” “ribosome biogenesis,” “protein glycosylation,” “vacuolar transport,” “Golgi vesicle transport,” “negative regulation of transcription,” and others. Fitness profiles of all four tested peptides were highly similar, particularly among mutant strains exhibiting the greatest fitness defects. The latter group included deletions in several genes involved in induction of the RIM101 signaling pathway, including several components of the ESCRT sorting machinery. The RIM101 signaling regulates response of yeasts to alkaline and neutral pH and high salts...

Hydrogenosome Metabolism Is the Key Target for Antiparasitic Activity of Resveratrol against Trichomonas vaginalis

Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús; Leiro, José M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 EN
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883.5163%
Metronidazole (MDZ) and related 5-nitroimidazoles are the recommended drugs for treatment of trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. However, novel treatment options are needed, as recent reports have claimed resistance to these drugs in T. vaginalis isolates. In this study, we analyzed for the first time the in vitro effects of the natural polyphenol resveratrol (RESV) on T. vaginalis. At concentrations of between 25 and 100 μM, RESV inhibited the in vitro growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites; doses of 25 μM exerted a cytostatic effect, and higher doses exerted a cytotoxic effect. At these concentrations, RESV caused inhibition of the specific activity of a 120-kDa [Fe]-hydrogenase (Tvhyd). RESV did not affect Tvhyd gene expression and upregulated pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (a hydrogenosomal enzyme) gene expression only at a high dose (100 μM). At doses of 50 to 100 μM, RESV also caused overexpression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a protective protein found in the hydrogenosome of T. vaginalis. The results demonstrate the potential of RESV as an antiparasitic treatment for trichomoniasis and suggest that the mechanism of action involves induction of hydrogenosomal dysfunction. In view of the results...

Identification and Mechanism of Action of the Plant Defensin NaD1 as a New Member of the Antifungal Drug Arsenal against Candida albicans

Hayes, Brigitte M. E.; Bleackley, Mark R.; Wiltshire, Jennifer L.; Anderson, Marilyn A.; Traven, Ana; van der Weerden, Nicole L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2013 EN
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883.4353%
In recent decades, pathogenic fungi have become a serious threat to human health, leading to major efforts aimed at characterizing new agents for improved treatments. Promising in this context are antimicrobial peptides produced by animals and plants as part of innate immune systems. Here, we describe an antifungal defensin, NaD1, with activity against the major human pathogen Candida albicans, characterize the mechanism of killing, and identify protection strategies used by the fungus to survive defensin treatment. The mechanism involves interaction between NaD1 and the fungal cell surface followed by membrane permeabilization, entry into the cytoplasm, hyperproduction of reactive oxygen species, and killing induced by oxidative damage. By screening C. albicans mutant libraries, we identified that the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway has a unique role in protection against NaD1, while several other stress-responsive pathways are dispensable. The involvement of the HOG pathway is consistent with induction of oxidative stress by NaD1. The HOG pathway has been reported to have a major role in protection of fungi against osmotic stress, but our data indicate that osmotic stress does not contribute significantly to the adverse effects of NaD1 on C. albicans. Our data...

Antimicrobial Properties and Mode of Action of the Pyrrothine Holomycin

Oliva, Brunello; O'Neill, Alexander; Wilson, Jenny M.; O'Hanlon, Peter J.; Chopra, Ian
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2001 EN
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Holomycin, a member of the pyrrothine class of antibiotics, displayed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, inhibiting a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, with the exception of Enterobacter cloacae, Morganella morganii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibiotic lacked activity against the eukaryotic microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida kefyr. Holomycin exhibited a bacteriostatic response against Escherichia coli that was associated with rapid inhibition of RNA synthesis in whole cells. Inhibition of RNA synthesis could have been a secondary consequence of inhibiting tRNA aminoacylation, thereby inducing the stringent response. However, the levels of inhibition of RNA synthesis by holomycin were similar in a stringent and relaxed pair of E. coli strains that were isogenic except for the deletion of the relA gene. This suggests that inhibition of RNA synthesis by holomycin could reflect direct inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Examination of the effects of holomycin on the kinetics of the appearance of β-galactosidase in induced E. coli cells was also consistent with inhibition of RNA polymerase at the level of RNA chain elongation. However, holomycin only weakly inhibited E. coli RNA polymerase in assays using synthetic poly(dA-dT) and plasmid templates. Furthermore...