In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, the electrophoretic variation in housekeeping enzymes from natural populations is assumed to have arisen by the accumulation of stochastic predominantly neutral mutations. In the naturally transformable bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, we show that variation in the electrophoretic mobility of adenylate kinase is due to inter- and intraspecies recombination rather than mutation. The nucleotide sequences of the adenylate kinase gene (adk) from isolates that express the predominant slow electrophoretic variant were rather uniform, differing in sequence at an average of 1.1% of nucleotide sites. The adk sequences of rare isolates expressing the fast migrating variant were identical to each other but had a striking mosaic structure when compared to the adk genes from strains expressing the predominant variant. Thus the sequence from the fast variants was identical to those of typical slow variants in the first 158 bp of the gene but differed by 8.4% in the rest of the gene (nt 159-636). The fast electrophoretic variant appears to have arisen by the replacement of most of the meningococcal gene with the corresponding region from the adk gene of a closely related Neisseria species. The adk genes expressing the electrophoretic variant with intermediate mobility were perfect...
The shift in mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis that is characteristic of the adenovirus E1A proteins is the result of posttranslational modification. In the present study, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of bacterially produced E1A in higher cell extracts occurs on serine and is responsible for the mobility shift. E1A protein expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae also undergoes the mobility shift due to serine phosphorylation. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify the serine residue responsible for the mobility shift. Six serine residues were altered to glycine within E1A. Substitution at serine residue 89 was shown to selectively prevent the mobility shift of both the 289R and 243R E1A proteins. We conclude that phosphorylation at serine 89 is the specific modification responsible for the mobility shift of E1A. Moreover, we demonstrate that the Ser-89-to-Gly mutation has no effect on trans activation or complementation of an E1A-deficient adenovirus. In contrast, the mutant protein does significantly reduce both the repression and transformation efficiency of E1A. The five other Ser-to-Gly mutation were also examined for functional effects. None affected trans activation, whereas repression and transformation functions were affected. One mutant affected transformation without affecting repression...
Thorne, H. V. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis). Electrophoretic study of the interaction of radioactive poliovirus with components of cultured cells. J. Bacteriol. 85:1247–1255. 1963.—The interaction of P32-labeled poliovirus with the postnuclear fraction of HeLa cell homogenates was first examined using radioactivity to quantitate the reaction. The effects of virus and debris concentration, suspending medium, temperature, and time on the reaction were determined. Binding was independent of salt concentration up to 1.0 m and unaffected by calcium and magnesium ions at 10−3m. The postnuclear particulate components of homogenates of mammalian cells in culture were examined by sucrose gradient zone electrophoresis at pH 7.2 with a simple apparatus which permitted several simultaneous analyses. The distributions of components for different cell types were distinct and appeared to be influenced by conditions of culture. Addition of radioactive poliovirus to the homogenate before analysis was used to identify components with virus-binding activity. Activity of HeLa and human esophageal epithelium cell homogenates was found mainly in membranous fractions of relatively low electrophoretic mobility. Components with a broader spread of mobility were moderately active in cultured human amnion...
The effect of DNA concentration on pulsed field gel electrophoretic mobility was studied for human genomic DNA prepared in agarose inserts at 8-800 micrograms/ml and digested to completion with Not I. An eighth of each 100 microliter insert was used to produce DNA loads of 0.1 to 10 micrograms per lane. The mobility of single copy restriction fragments, as detected by hybridization, was largely concentration independent when DNA concentrations were 80 micrograms/ml or less. However, at DNA concentrations of 200 micrograms/ml and greater, dramatic effects of DNA concentration are evident. In the worst case, at 800 micrograms/ml, the apparent size of a DNA fragment is almost 2.5 times its true size. At constant DNA concentrations, increasing the DNA mass loads by loading larger insert slices had no further effect on DNA electrophoretic mobility, although the bands were broader for bigger insert slices. Thus, for precise and accurate sizing in pulsed field gel electrophoresis the DNA concentration in agarose inserts should not be greater than 80 micrograms/ml (10(7) diploid human cells/ml agarose insert).
We have compared the electrophoretic mobility of a series of polynucleotides differing solely by the presence or absence of a terminal phosphate. As expected, the effect of removal of a single terminal phosphoryl residue on electrophoretic mobility is dependent on the size of the polynucleotide and therefore is not constant. Removal of a phosphoryl residue from polynucleotides shorter than 30 nucleotides reduces the mobility the equivalent of one nucleotide. Between 30 and 50 nucleotides the reduction in mobility is approximately one-half a nucleotide, while above 50 nucleotides in size the effect of phosphate removal approaches zero.
Wilson, W D; Zuo, E T; Jones, R L; Zon, G L; Baumstark, B R
Fonte: PubMedPublicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/01/1987EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
The electrophoretic mobilities and thermal melting properties of self complementary A-T containing dodecamer oligodeoxyribonucleotides have been investigated as a function of solution conditions. The oligomers contained tracts of nonalternating A-T base pairs of 2 (d(A2T2)3), 3 (d(A3T3)2), and 6 (d(A6T6] as well as the fully alternating (d(A-T)6) sequence. The melting temperature increased with the length of the nonalternating sequence and was approximately 12 degrees C higher in the d(A6T6) sequence than in the alternating oligomer. Under denaturing conditions all oligomers had the same electrophoretic mobility on acrylamide gels. Under conditions which favor duplex formation, the oligomers exhibited significant sequence dependent mobility differences. The mobilities of two oligomers, d(A-T)6 and d(A6-T6), were approximately equal and were less than those of the other oligonucleotides. The greatest mobility was observed for d(A2T2)3. These results are best explained by a model which requires bending at a junction of two or more continuous A or T bases with another sequence.
Detailed structural studies were undertaken on five isolates of bovine rotavirus which showed variability in the migration patterns of their genome segments on electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. The individual genome segments of each isolate were characterized by partial digestion of terminally radiolabeled RNA with a base-specific nuclease. This analysis showed that whereas mobility variations were always associated with detectable changes in nucleotide sequence, sequence changes at least as great as those found in segments showing electrophoretic mobility variations were also detected in segments showing no mobility variation. Evidence for the occurrence of genome segment reassortment between viruses in the field was obtained from analyzing the species 11 RNAs from these five isolates. The overall conclusion from these results is that great care is required in the interpretation of simple genome profile analysis of different isolates for epidemiological purposes and that classification of these viruses solely on the basis of genome electropherotype could be misleading.
AIM--To identify a physico-chemical criterion, or set of criteria, explaining and possibly predicting the nephrotoxic behaviour of Bence-Jones proteins (BJP). METHODS--The electrophoretic mobility and isoelectric point (pI) of 92 BJP isolates were determined using various electrophoresis procedures on polyacrylamide gel. The proportions of monomers and dimers were determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) in 58 cases. PAGE data for 10 BJP isolates were used to construct Ferguson plots and titration curves. RESULTS--The distribution of electrophoretic mobility and pI values was bimodal and showed a positive correlation when the pI was above 6. The values of these two parameters in 22 patients with renal impairment were not significantly different from those in the patients without renal impairment, and the statistical analysis showed no predictive value for the onset of renal impairment. However, patients excreting the lambda light chain isotype had a 2.8-fold higher risk of developing renal impairment compared with the other patients. Studies of the charge variation of the protein with pH indicated three types of behaviour, suggesting that the charge of BJP is highly variable at physiological pH. CONCLUSION--It is important to study not only the positivity or negativity of the BJP charge at a given pH...
Nuclei pulposi were dissected from lumbar discs of radiologically normal human spines of cadavers aged 17, 20 and 21 years. Proteoglycans were extracted with 4 M guanidine hydrochloride (dissociative conditions) with proteinase inhibitors and isolated as A1 fractions by associative density-gradient centrifugation. Aggregating and non-aggregating proteoglycans were separated by Sepharose 2B chromatography. Both aggregating and non-aggregating proteoglycans contained a keratan sulphate-rich region as isolated by chondroitinase/trypsin/chymotrypsin digestion and Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. Agarose/acrylamide-gel electrophoresis of individual fractions of a Bio-Gel A-50m dissociative-column separation of the aggregating proteoglycans revealed two, well-separated bands: S and F, the slower and faster migrating bands respectively. The non-aggregating proteoglycan fractions were eluted under associative conditions (0.5 M-sodium acetate, pH 6.8) and migrated as a single band in the electrophoretic system. The gel-electrophoretic heterogeneity of the aggregating proteoglycans was still evident after hydroxylamine fragmentation and removal of the hyaluronate-binding portion of the molecule. Dissociative density-gradient centrifugation of the aggregating proteoglycans partially separated the Band-S proteoglycans from the Band-F population. Subsequent dissociative chromatography of the high-buoyant-density Band F proteoglycans permitted discrimination of this band into two gel-electrophoresis-distinguishable populations (Bands F-1 and F-2). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with a monoclonal antibody that recognized keratan sulphate demonstrated that the D1 fraction containing the Band F-1 proteoglycans was enriched in keratan sulphate compared with the total aggregating or non-aggregating pool of proteoglycans. The proteoglycans of young adult nucleus pulposus could then be ascribed to one of four structurally and/or electrophoretically distinct populations: (1) the non-aggregating population...
1. The electrophoretic mobility values for mitochondria prepared from rat kidney and liver measured in 0·125m-potassium chloride–0·02m-tris, pH7·4, are: −0·78(s.e.m.±0·02)μ/sec./v/cm. (29 experiments) and −1·06(s.e.m.±0·01) μ/sec./v/cm. (21 experiments) respectively. 2. These mobility values are unaffected by washing and spontaneous swelling at 25°, indicating a stable electrokinetic surface. 3. The mobility of rat-kidney mitochondria is unaffected by thyroxine-induced swelling, or by the state of hydration of the rat. 4. pH–mobility curves show similar surface ionogenic groups for kidney and liver mitochondria; their isoelectric points are pH3·9 and pH4·4 respectively.
Two species of crickets, Gryllus veletis and G. pennsylvanicus, share six electrophoretic mobility classes for the enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), despite evidence from other genetic markers that the two species are not closely related within eastern North American field crickets. Moreover, the frequencies of the two most common PGI electrophoretic classes (PGI-100 and PGI-65) covary in sympatric populations of these species in the eastern United States, suggesting that PGI may be subject to trans-specific balancing selection. To determine the molecular basis of the electrophoretic variation, we characterized the DNA sequence of the Pgi gene from 29 crickets (15 G. veletis and 14 G. pennsylvanicus). Amino acid substitutions that distinguish the electrophoretic classes are not the same in the two species, and there is no evidence that specific replacement substitutions represent trans-specific polymorphism. In particular, the amino acids that diagnose the PGI-65 allele relative to the PGI-100 allele differ both between G. veletis and G. pennsylvanicus and within G. pennsylvanicus. The heterogeneity among electrophoretic classes that covary in sympatric populations coupled with analysis of patterns of nucleotide variation suggest that Pgi is not evolving neutrally. Instead...
The population of medullary thymocytes without peanut agglutinin (PNA) receptor consisted of two groups: Lyt-1+ .2- cells with a high mobility of 1.0 micrometer/sec/V/cm, and Lyt-1+ .2+ cells with a low mobility of 0.7 micrometer/sec/V/cm. Also used were cortical thymocytes with PNA receptor: these were Lyt-1+ .2+ cells, having low mobility. In C3H/He mice bearing plasmacytoma X5563, a low mobility peak appeared in the histograms of peripheral lymphocytes. In contrast, a high mobility peak appeared in the histograms of thymocytes. Using full automated analytical instrumentation, it was determined that the appearance of high mobility cells during tumour growth strongly correlated with the decreased proportion of low mobility cells in thymus.
1. Sera of animals immunized against Japanese B encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and Western equine encephalomyelitis viruses were fractionated by electrophoresis. 2. Electrophoretic patterns of rabbit sera before and after immunization against Japanese B virus showed no consistent change traceable to antibody formation. 3. To determine the antibody content, the electrophoretic fractions of the respective sera were mixed in varying dilutions with infected mouse brain suspensions, and the neutralizing titers of the fractions were compared. 4. In all instances serum fractions containing γ-globulin were protective, whereas in no case did serum albumin show any virus-neutralizing activity. The Japanese B encephalitis antibody appeared to be associated entirely with the γ-globulin. The Venezuelan and Western equine encephalomyelitis antibodies were associated with the β- and γ-globulins and probably possessed an average electrophoretic mobility between that of β- and γ-globulins. 5. Normal rabbit serum similarly separated electrophoretically showed no neutralizing properties. 6. Chickens, whose electrophoretic serum pattern is markedly different from that of rabbits, were also immunized against the Japanese B encephalitis virus. Their antisera were electrophoretically fractionated and similarly subjected to neutralization tests. The specific neutralizing capacity of chicken serum was considerably lower than that of rabbit serum and no neutralizing activity was found in the fractions containing the faster moving components. The antibody appeared to be associated with component 4 which had a mobility of approximately 2.3 x 10–5 cm.2/volt/sec.
An electrophoretic study of crystalline preparations of a streptococcal proteinase and its precursor established their isoelectric points at pH values of 8.42 and 7.35 respectively (ionic strength 0.10). Preparations of the proteinase appeared to be electrophoretically homogeneous over a pH range of 5 to 8.5. Precursor preparations contained a relatively low concentration of the active enzyme visible as a separate peak in electrophoretic patterns of sufficiently concentrated solutions. Autocatalytic conversion of precursor to active enzyme was complete and resulted in a corresponding change in the electrophoretic pattern. Treatment of precursor preparations with trypsin produced incomplete conversion to the active enzyme and resulted in the formation of a modified precursor protein. This differed from the parent substance in electrophoretic mobility and in susceptibility to trypsin, but resembled it in immunological specificity and, as previously shown, in susceptibility to conversion to active enzyme by autocatalysis. Serological reactions of precursor and active enzyme components withdrawn from the cell after electrophoresis are described. It appears that the precursor protein may have two antigenic groups, one specific, the other shared by the active enzyme which behaves as a single antigen.
1. The electrophoretic mobility of unhemolyzed human red cells has been determined as a function of ionic strength at approximately constant pH in isotonic mixtures of glucose solution and saline-phosphate buffer solution. 2. Above an ionic strength of about 0.02 the cells behave as particles with a smooth surface of large radius of curvature. Below an ionic strength of about 0.02, changes of the surface occur, probably involving a decrease of charge density and perhaps connected with injury of the surface. 3. The mobility as a function of pH at an ionic strength of 0.172 has been determined for human red cells, for the lipid extract of the cells, and for the stroma protein of the cells. The isoelectric points of cells, lipid, and protein have been found to be about 1.7, 2.6, and 4.7 respectively. 4. The pH-mobility data lead to the conclusion that a red cell surface is composed largely of lipid and dominated by strong acid groups, possibly the phosphoric acid groups of cephalin molecules.
While electrophoresis in lipid bilayers has been performed since the 1970’s, the technique has until now been unable to accurately measure the charge on lipids and proteins within the membrane based on drift velocity measurements. Part of the problem is caused by the use of the Einstein-Smoluchowski equation to estimate the electrophoretic mobility of such species. The source of the error arises from the fact that a lipid head group is typically smaller than the Debye length of the adjacent aqueous solution in most electrophoresis experiments. Instead, the Henry equation can more accurately predict the electrophoretic mobility at sufficient ionic strength. This was done for three dye-labeled lipids with different sized head groups and a charge on each lipid of −1. Also, the charge was measured as a function of pH for two titratable lipids that were fluorescently labeled. Finally, it was shown that the Henry equation also has difficulties measuring the correct lipid charge at salt concentrations below 5 mM, where electroosmotic forces are more significant.
DNA restriction fragments, 120-650 base pairs (bp) in length, with 5'-GCGC-3', 5'-GGCC-3' or 3'-GCGC-5' single-stranded overhanging termini, give rise to diffuse bands of unusual electrophoretic mobility in non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels. This shift in electrophoretic mobility can be observed at 4-12 degreesC, not at higher temperatures, but is stabilized by 5-10 mM Mg2+, even at 37 degreesC. The nucleotide sequence in the abutting double-stranded part of the fragment does not affect this phenomenon, which is not caused by dimerization. The altered mobility may be due to the unusual terminal DNA structure, which is dependent on co-operative interactions among more than two neighboring G and C residues. The structure is stabilized by cytidine methylation. The biological role of such fragment structures in DNA repair and recombination is presently unknown.
Continuous free-flow electrophoretic separation has been used to obtain relatively pure preparations of synaptosomes and synaptic vesicles from crude fractions of guinea pig brain homogenates. Measurements of the contents of protein, neuraminic acid, and bound acetylcholine; the activities of succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase, choline acetylase, and 5'-nucleotidase; and the uptake of 14C-labeled choline arid acetylcholine in the presence and absence of hemicholinium, all confirm the electron microscope evidence that the electrophoretic preparations are at least as pure as those obtained by ultracentrifugal methods. The electrophoretic mobility measurements have been used to calculate zeta potentials and surface charge densities for these particles.
The relationship between the electrophoretic mobility at pH2.1 of dansyl-glycopeptides of known composition and their molecular weight is shown to conform with a model equation previously derived for peptides. A dansyl-glycopeptide prepared from hen's-egg ovotransferrin is degraded sequentially with two glycosidases. The molecular weight of each glycopeptide intermediate formed is determined from its electrophoretic mobility. From successive molecular-weight changes, the number and type of sugar residues lost from the parent glycopeptide can be decided and the probable composition of each intermediate determined. The notion that the method has considerable application and would permit analysis of very small quantities of glycopeptides is discussed.
A total of 53 different cell lines originating from a variety of mammalian species were cultured in vitro and analysed for the presence of vimentin, employing polyacrylamide gradient slab gel electrophoresis in urea/acetic acid as buffer system. Irrespective of the cell culture conditions, and the growth potential and morphology of the cells, vimentin was expressed in all cell lines examined, with two exceptions: MPC-11 mouse myeloma and MOPC-31C mouse plasmacytoma cells. Immunoblotting with the monoclonal antibody α-IFA, which is directed against an antigenic determinant shared by all classes of intermediate filaments, did not detect any other of the known intermediate filament proteins in MPC-11 and MOPC-31C cells. Vimentin synthesized by various cell lines was characterized by four different criteria: (1) its extractability with Triton X-100 under various ionic conditions; (2) its behaviour in ((NH_4)_2)SO_4 fractionation of cellular extracts; (3) its electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in urea/acetic acid; and (4) the co-isolation of polypeptides of higher electrophoretic mobility, which, by comparison with degradation products of vimentin obtained with the Ca^(2+)-activated proteinase specific for intermediate filament proteins in vitro...