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Surface active ionic liquids: Study of the micellar properties of 1-(1-alkyl)-3-methylimidazolium chlorides and comparison with structurally related surfactants

GALGANO, Paula D.; SEOUD, Omar A. El
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The impetus for the increasing interest in studying surface active ionic liquids (SAILs; ionic liquids with long-chain ""tails"") is the enormous potential for their applications, e.g., in nanotechnology and biomedicine. The progress in these fields rests on understanding the relationship between surfactant structure and solution properties, hence applications. This need has prompted us to extend our previous study on 1-(1-hexadecyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride to 1-(1-alkyl)-3-methylimidazolium chlorides, with alkyl chains containing 10, 12, and 14 carbons. In addition to investigating relevant micellar properties, we have compared the solution properties of the imidazolium-based surfactants with: 1-(1-alkyl)pyridinium chlorides, and benzyl (2-acylaminoethyl)dimethylammonium chlorides. The former series carries a heterocyclic ring head-group, but does not possess a hydrogen that is as acidic as H2 of the imidazolium ring. The latter series carries an aromatic ring, a quaternary nitrogen and (a hydrogen-bond forming) amide group. The properties of the imidazolium and pyridinium surfactants were determined in the temperature range from 15 to 75 degrees C. The techniques employed were conductivity, isothermal titration calorimetry, and static light scattering. The results showed the important effects of the interactions in the interfacial region on the micellar properties over the temperature range studied. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP (State of Sao Paulo Research Foundation); CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Research); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

Redução de oxigênio molecular em soluções aquosas através da metodologia de modificação de eletrodos; Reduction of molecular oxygen in aqueous solutions through modifying electrodes' methodology

Zacarias, Nara Alexiou
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/09/2007 PT
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Este trabalho consistiu de estudos da viabilidade da geração e identificação de radicais livres envolvidos em processos oxidativos avançados por via eletroquímica. Para a geração e identificação de radicais livres em eletrodos modificados com organotióis via eletroquímica, escolheu-se uma técnica pouco aplicada para este fim; a espectroscopia de impedância eletroquímica, e o ajuste dos dados experimentais pela proposta de modelos de circuitos equivalentes. O eletrodo de trabalho utilizado (Au) foi caracterizado em meio ácido e básico e diversas monocamadas auto-organizadas conhecidas foram adsorvidas sobre o mesmo e também caracterizadas por esta técnica. Parâmetros importantes como constante dielétrica, capacitância de uma monocamada livre de defeitos e grau de recobrimento foram determinados com êxito. Também foram empregadas moléculas menos utilizadas como modificadoras de eletrodos (fenotiazinas e derivados). As mesmas foram caracterizadas no sistema Au/adsorvente/NaOH, pois, o pH alto garante a formação do radical superóxido e do ânion hidroperóxido. Os mesmos modelos de circuitos equivalentes puderam ser empregados na obtenção dos parâmetros físicos relativos a essas moléculas no sistema eletroquímico utilizado. Em uma etapa subsequente obteve-se a valiosa informação...

Avaliação dos efeitos do betabloqueador nebivolol sobre o peritônio em modelo experimental murino de diálise peritoneal; Assessment of the effects of beta-blocker nebivolol on the peritoneum in an experimental murine model of peritoneal dialysis

Mazo, Anna Rita Moraes de Souza Aguirre
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/10/2011 PT
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A falência de ultrafiltração (UFF) é uma causa importante de interrupção da diálise peritoneal (DP) enquanto terapia renal substitutiva. Além da inflamação crônica e aguda causadas à membrana peritoneal (MP) pelos produtos de degradação da glicose, produtos avançados da glicosilação, pH ácido das soluções e infecções, -bloqueadores (BB) também foram implicados na gênese da UFF. A vasoconstrição arteriolar esplâncnica é considerada a causa provável da UFF por BB. O nebivolol (NV), um bloqueador 1-adrenérgico altamente seletivo que, diferente de outros BB, possui efeito vasodilatador por aumento de óxido nítrico (NO) por ativar a via L-arginina-NO, foi testado em pacientes idosos com ICC e levou à redução na mortalidade. O objetivo desse estudo é analisar os efeitos do NV sobre a ultrafiltração (UF), MP e características do efluente em um modelo animal de DP, através do estudo de fenômenos envolvidos na degeneração da MP e UFF, como transição epitélio mesenquimal (EMT) e fibrose, além de parâmetros humorais e celulares de inflamação. 21 camundongos C57BL/6 fêmeas, não urêmicos, com 12 a 14 semanas, foram submetidos à colocação de cateter peritoneal. Após uma semana, foram divididos em 3 grupos de 7 animais: grupo controle (observação 30 dias)...

Práticas de manejo e avaliação de extratores em solos da região tropical úmida; Management practices and evaluation of extractants in soils of the humid tropical region

Nogueirol, Roberta Corrêa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2012 PT
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A área cultivada sob sistemas conservacionistas aumentou no Brasil nos últimos anos. Paralelamente, ocorreu incremento na demanda de conhecimento a respeito da variabilidade dos índices de fertilidade do solo utilizados nas recomendações de adubação e calagem. Esse assunto vem preocupando técnicos e pesquisadores envolvidos nas redes regionais de laboratórios de análises de solo e comissões de fertilidade do solo encarregadas da elaboração das recomendações de adubação. O acúmulo de matéria orgânica (MO) no solo pode afetar a eficiência dos extratores químicos por causar alterações físico-químicas, como reações de troca iônica, reações com minerais do solo, liberação de ânions orgânicos, complexação de cátions metálicos, reações de oxirredução, entre outros. Objetivou-se com essa tese: (i) determinar os teores disponíveis de Ca, Mg e K e a relação Ca:Mg:K no solo, bem como correlação entre extratores e determinação das concentrações desses elementos na planta de soja em solos sob semeadura direta (SSD) que recebeu doses de calcário e de gesso; (ii) avaliar extratores para Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn em solo tratado com lodo de esgoto por treze anos e cultivado com milho; (iii) comparar métodos de abertura de amostra de solo para determinação de Cu...

Evaluation of pH, available chlorine content, and antibacterial activity of endodontic irrigants and their combinations against Enterococcus faecalis

Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane M.; Morgental, Renata D.; Flumignan, Danilo L.; Gasparini, Fabricia; Oliveira, Jose E.; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario
Fonte: Mosby-elsevier Publicador: Mosby-elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 132-135
ENG
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Objectives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate pH, available chlorine content, and antibacterial activity of endodontic irrigants and their combinations.Study design. The pH and chlorine content of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) were analyzed pure and in combination with 10% citric acid (CA) and apple vinegar (AV). The antibacterial effect of the following solutions was measured by direct contact test against Enterococcus faecalis: 2.5% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl + 10% CA (7:3), 2.5% NaOCl + AV (5:5), 10% CA, and AV. Sterile saline was used as control. The colony-forming units were determined by serial decimal dilutions.Results. The combination of 2.5% NaOCl with CA or AV lowered the pH and the chlorine content. NaOCl, alone or in combination was able to eliminate E. faecalis in 30 seconds, and CA, after 10 minutes. AV promoted reduction (32.2%) after 10 minutes.Conclusions. NaOCl with acidic solutions lowered the pH and the chlorine content, but did not alter its antibacterial effect. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011; 112:132-135)

ADSORPTION OF CHROMIUM(VI) BY TITANIUM(IV) OXIDE COATED ON A SILICA-GEL SURFACE

Kubota, L. T.; Gushikem, Y.; Moreira, J. C.
Fonte: Royal Soc Chemistry Publicador: Royal Soc Chemistry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 281-283
ENG
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Titanium(IV) oxide, coated on the surface of silica gel (surface area, 308 m2 g-1; amount of Ti(IV) per gram of modified silica gel, 1.8 x 10(-3) mol), was used to adsorb CrO4(2-) ions from acidic solutions. The exchange capacity increased at lower pH values and was affected to some extent by the acid used. The material was used to preconcentrate Cr(VI) from 0.5 ppm solutions of chromate very efficiently and virtually 100% recovery was achieved in every instance.

Gold nanoelectrode ensembles for direct trace electroanalysis of iodide

Pereira, Francisco C.; Moretto, Ligia M.; De Leo, Manuela; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Ugo, Paolo
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 16-24
ENG
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A procedure for the standardization of ensembles of gold nanodisk electrodes (NEE) of 30 nm diameter is presented, which is based on the analytical comparison between experimental cyclic voltammograms (CV) obtained at the NEEs in diluted solutions of redox probes and CV patterns obtained by digital simulation. Possible origins of defects sometimes found in NEEs are discussed. Selected NEEs are then employed for the study of the electrochemical oxidation of iodide in acidic solutions. CV patterns display typical quasi-reversible behavior which involves associated chemical reactions between adsorbed and solution species. The main CV characteristics at the NEE compare with those observed at millimeter sized gold disk electrodes (Au-macro), apart a slight shift in E1/2 values and slightly higher peak to peak separation at the NEE. The detection limit (DC) at NEEs is 0.3 mu M, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than DL at the Au-macro (4 RM). The mechanism of the electrochemical oxidation of iodide at NEEs is discussed. Finally, NEEs are applied to the direct determination of iodide at micromolar concentration levels in real samples, namely in some ophthalmic drugs and iodized table salt. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Modulation of tomato pericarp firmness through pH and calcium: Implications for the texture of fresh-cut fruit

Pinheiro, Susana C. F.; Almeida, Domingos P .F.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 ENG
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The effect of pH and calcium on pericarp firmness and pectin solubility was investigated in tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ‘Tavira’). Pericarp disks were vacuum-infiltrated with 50mM CaCI₂ or with distilled water and incubated for 4 h in buffer solutions at pH 4.5 and 7.0, and subsequently stored at 2 ◦C for 5 days. CaCl2 treatment had a significant effect on firmness retention in disks from turning and ripe fruit. Pericarp disks from mature-green fruit infiltrated with CaCl2 were firmer than untreated tissue after a 4 h incubation period, but the effect of calcium did not persist during storage at 2 ◦C. pH had a significant effect on the firmness of pericarp disks excised from turning and ripe fruit, but not on mature-green tissue. Treatments at pH 7.0 caused a reduction of the softening rate in disks from turning and ripe fruit, but had no significant effect at the mature-green stage. Water-soluble pectins decreased significantly in mature-green and ripe pericarp tissue following treatment with CaCl2 at pH 7.0, suggesting that pH affects pectin dissolution. Firmness changes induced by pH and calcium after a 4 h incubation treatment were highly correlated with pectin dissolution. The results indicate that...

Physical and chemical processing of printed circuit boards waste

Oliveira, Paula C.; Taborda, F. Charters; Margarido, F.; Nogueira, C. A.
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 10/11/2009 ENG
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A recycling process for PCB’s is being studied, based on physical processing and hydrometallurgical treatment. PCB’s waste was shredded in a lab cutting mill, resulting a grinded material with 90% (weight) with particle size less than 2.1 mm and an average particle diameter of 1.2 mm. Chemical analysis of granulometric fractions showed that the base metals like Cu, Zn, Pb and Sn concentrated mainly in intermediate size fractions (0.4-1.7 mm) being fines very rich in epoxy resin composite. About 80-90% of the principal metals were recovered in that size range. The first step of chemical treatment was the acid leaching of metals. The use of nitric acid solutions at appropriate conditions allowed the efficient solubilization of base metals like Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Ag. More than 90% recovery of Cu, Zn and Ni were achieved at 90ºC using 1 M HNO3. Dissolution of silver required higher concentrations (only 70% yield using 2 M HNO3). Tin leaching was inefficient in nitric media, being always lower than 20%. The leaching conditions here reported were adequate to the base metals solubilization, allowing further processing of leachates for separation and recovery using hydrometallurgical operations. Precious metals recovery would be attained in a subsequent leaching step using highly concentrated acidic solutions.

Extraction of cadmium from aqueous solutions by emulsion liquid membranes using a stirred transfer cell contactor

Basualto,Carlos; Poblete,Maritza; Marchese,José; Ochoa,Ariel; Acosta,Adolfo; Sapag,Jaime; Valenzuela,Fernando
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2006 EN
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It is studied the extraction of cadmium(II) ions from acidic aqueous solutions using a stirred transfer cell-type emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) prepared by dissolving in kerosene, with D2EHPA (an alkylphosphoric acid) as mobile carrier and Span-80 as surfactant. The ELM allowed efficient metal transport from the feed solution to the stripping liquor in experiments carried out at 25 ºC. The significant variables on cadmium transport through the membrane were extractant concentration and metal content in the feed metal-donor solution. Concentration of HCl as stripping agent affected only the initial metal extraction rate but not the extraction extent. The surfactant content used in this study stabilized the membrane adequately, but the use of a higher content produced a smaller initial extraction rate due to higher interfacial resistance. The experimental results suggest the possibility of recovering or removing valuable or toxic metals from dilute aqueous solution in an extractor based on emulsified liquid membranes.

The influence of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and silica on vanadium precipitation in acidic sulfate solutions

Martins,A. H.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2000 EN
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The experimental research work was carried out in accordance with the Factorial Design Statistical Method to evaluate and analyze the influence of calcium, magnesium, silica and phosphorus on the precipitation of vanadates. Precipitation was performed by neutralization with H2SO4 of alkaline aqueous solutions containing vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) at 60± 2ºC. The experimental responses measured were percent of vanadium recovery and vanadium pentoxide content in the precipitate. These impurities are considered representative of those present in a leach liquor from the ore obtained at Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Brazil). The operational variables in this work were used under optimum conditions as determined by the statistical approach. Among the impurities under study, phosphorus exhibited the highest negative influence on the experimental responses. Phosphorus diminished the percent of vanadium recovered from 98.9 to 34.5 and the vanadium oxide content in the precipitate from 91.2 % to 39.3 %.

Adsorption of a textile dye from aqueous solutions by carbon nanotubes

Machado,Fernando M.; Bergmann,Carlos P.; Lima,Eder C.; Adebayo,Matthew A.; Fagan,Solange B.
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
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Multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes were used as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Blue 4 textile dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterised using Raman spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of pH, agitation time and temperature on adsorption capacity were studied. In the acidic pH region, the adsorption of the dye was favourable using both adsorbents. The contact time to obtain equilibrium isotherms at 298-323 K was fixed at 4 hours for both adsorbents. For Reactive Blue 4 dye, Liu isotherm model gave the best fit for the equilibrium data. The maximum sorption capacity for adsorption of the dye occurred at 323 K, attaining values of 502.5 and 567.7 mg g-1 for MWCNT and SWCNT, respectively.

Mycobactericidal activity of glutaraldehyde solutions.

Collins, F M; Montalbine, V
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1976 EN
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Aqueous solutions of alkaline glutaraldehyde (buffered at pH 8.5) inactivated a standard suspension of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv faster than the corresponding acid (pH 3.7 preparation. Quantitative differences in the rate of inactivation of eight other species of Mycobacterium were determined using a 1% solution of alkaline glutaraldehyde and inactivation of residual glutaraldehyde with 1% sodium bisulfite solution. Variations in the rate of kill were observed between the various mycobacterial species tested, but such differences were probably not sufficiently large to be of practical importance. A 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde solution inactivated 10(5) viable M. tuberculosis cells present on the surface of porcelain penicylinders within 5 min at 18 degrees C. This rate of inactivation was faster than in the acidic solution.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: 13C Spectra of Some Common Nucleotides*

Dorman, Douglas E.; Roberts, John D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1970 EN
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Natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of ten common nucleotides in neutral, aqueous solutions have been determined and interpreted. The spectra of two of these substances were also determined in acidic solutions, and several of the carbon chemical shifts were found to depend markedly on pH. Within the limited range of concentrations employed, there were observed no carbon chemical-shift changes which could be ascribed to base-stacking or base-pairing phenomena.

beta-Endorphin: formation of alpha-helix in lipid solutions.

Wu, C S; Lee, N M; Loh, H H; Yang, J T; Li, C H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1979 EN
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Human beta-endorphin adopts a partial helical conformation in aqueous solutions of cerebroside sulfate, ganglioside GM1, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidic acid, but not of cerebroside and phosphatidylcholine, as evidenced by circular dichroic spectra. Addition of Ca2+ to the peptide in cerebroside sulfate solution can break up the helix; at 10 mM Ca2+ the peptide (12 microM) essentially exists in an unordered form. For comparison, sheep beta-lipotropin in acidic cerebroside sulfate solution (pH less than 4) also has a partial helical conformation of the complex between human beta-endorphin and lipids may be related to the opiatelike function of this peptide hormone.

Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers

Abel, Kay M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1984 EN
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Photosynthetic carbon uptake of the tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers was studied by several methods. Photosynthesis in buffered seawater in media in the range of pH 6 to pH 9 showed an exponentially increasing rate with decreasing pH, thus indicating that free CO2 was a photosynthetic substrate. However, these experiments were unable to determine whether photosynthesis at alkaline pH also contained some component due to HCO3− uptake. This aspect was further investigated by studying photosynthetic rates in a number of media of varying pH (7.8-8.61) and total inorganic carbon (0.75-13.17 millimolar). In these media, photosynthetic rate was correlated with free CO2 concentration and was independent of the HCO3− concentration in the medium. Short time-course experiments were conducted during equilibration of free CO2 and HCO3− after injection of 14C labeled solution at acid or alkaline pH. High initial photosynthetic rates were observed when acidic solutions (largely free CO2) were used but not with alkaline solutions. The concentration of free CO2 was found to be a limiting factor for photosynthesis in this plant.

Influence of acids in the Ppy/V2O5 hybrid synthesis and performance as a cathode material

Boyano, I.; Bengoechea, M.; Meatza, I. de; Miguel, O.; Cantero, I.; Ochoteco, E.; Grande, H.; Lira-Cantú, Monica; Gómez-Romero, P.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 579917 bytes; image/jpeg
ENG
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Vanadium oxide (V2O5) is a candidate as cathodic material for lithium ion batteries. With the aim of improving the electrode performance, Polypyrrole (Ppy) has been proposed as binder and conducting element in the oxide structure. The hybrid synthesis has been carried out in the literature by chemical polymerization of Pyrrole in the host inorganic matrix, in some cases using the V2O5 dispersed in an acidic solution as an oxidizing agent. The hybrid material can be prepared using different acidic solutions that can influence the polymerization process affecting the electrochemical properties of the final hybrid material. The reasons and consequences for this influence are discussed and analyzed using different experimental techniques.; We thank the Spanish Ministry for Science and Technology (MAT2002-04529-C03-02) for financial support.; Peer reviewed

Nanostructured Nickel Phosphide as an Electrocatalyst for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

Popczun, Eric J.; McKone, James R.; Read, Carlos G.; Biacchi, Adam J.; Wiltrout, Alex M.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Schaak, Raymond E.
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/06/2013
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Nanoparticles of nickel phosphide (Ni_2P) have been investigated for electrocatalytic activity and stability for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic solutions, under which proton exchange membrane-based electrolysis is operational. The catalytically active Ni_2P nanoparticles were hollow and faceted to expose a high density of the Ni_2P(001) surface, which has previously been predicted based on theory to be an active HER catalyst. The Ni2P nanoparticles had among the highest HER activity of any non-noble metal electrocatalyst reported to date, producing H_2(g) with nearly quantitative faradaic yield, while also affording stability in aqueous acidic media.

The growth of self-assembled titania-based films at the air-water interface

Henderson, Mark; King, David; White, John
Fonte: CSIRO Publishing Publicador: CSIRO Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The surfactant-assisted assembly of new titania-based films at the air-water interface has been monitored by time-resolved energy-dispersive reflectometry using X-rays and neutrons. Two films are described. The first, prepared from an aqueous alkaline solution containing Ti(OBun)4 and the cationic surfactant tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C14TAC), shows short-range ordering. In moderately alkaline solution (pH ∼ 10). triethanolamine (TEA) was required to complex the titanium alkoxide precursor to prevent immediate heterogeneous precipitation of titania. Reflectometry shows that the assembly is partly structured and comprises only a few layers. The film forms within 30 min of mixing the reagents. No further significant structural changes were detected until, after several hours, severe compression buckling prevented further reflectivity measurement. The second film, obtained from aqueous acidic solution containing Ti(OBun)4 and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), contains material that is highly ordered. Strongly acidic conditions (pH < 1) enabled immediate heterogeneous precipitation of titania to be avoided prior to reaction with the dilute aqueous SDS solution. The film prepared by this route displayed a Bragg peak corresponding to a d-spacing of 35 Å. The formation of these films is reconciled in terms of the attraction between the surfactant headgroup and titania above and below the pH of the formal isoelectric point of titania.

Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Production in Acidic Medium Using a Tubular Photo-reactor: Application in Advanced Oxidation Processes

Peralta-Hernández,Juan M.; Godínez,Luis A.
Fonte: Sociedad Química de México A.C. Publicador: Sociedad Química de México A.C.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
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This paper describes the results obtained in the design and characterization of a tubular electrochemical reactor. The set-up was employed for on-site hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in an acidic medium (pH 3) to promote three electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOP): electro-Fenton (EF), photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and photocatalysis treatment (PT). These processes were evaluated by their abilities to degrade a commercial dye, Orange-II (OG-II), in solution using total organic carbon (TOC) removal and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To have free solutions of iron in the EF and PEF systems, a Nafion™ membrane with dispersed iron was prepared. For use in photocatalysis, electrodes with a large superficial area were prepared by coating carbon cloth fiber supports with titanium dioxide (TiO2) using the electrophoretic (EP) method. In this work, wastewater samples with a large number of microorganisms (coliform bacteria) were treated with this new reactor design.