The report discusses the Multilateral
Investment Guarantee Agency's (MIGA) activities for the
fiscal year ended June 30, 2000. Highlights discussed in
this report include: 1) country membership; 2) guarantee
operations; 3) MIGA's financial statements; and, 4)
technical assistance services, i.e., privatization, business
opportunities, and information technology.
Uruguay suffered a severe banking and
currency crisis in 2002 from the spillover of
Argentina's crisis. The crisis highlighted important
underlying weaknesses of the Uruguayan financial sector,
many of which were already well known. This Financial Sector
Assessment summarizes the findings of a joint International
Monetary Fund/World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program
(FSAP) team that visited Montevideo in October 2005 and
January-February 2006. The purpose of the assessment was to
help the authorities identify financial system strengths and
weaknesses with a view to implementing an action plan to
increase the system's contribution to economic
development. The FSAP assessment is based on information
provided by the authorities at the time of the missions.
This paper explores how the ongoing
crisis, the policy responses to it, and the post-crisis
global economy will impact China's medium-term
prospects for growth, poverty reduction, and development.
The paper reviews China's pre-crisis growth experience,
including its relationship to global economic developments.
It discusses the pace, composition, sources, and financing
of growth during 1995-2007, and the impact of key external
and domestic influences. The paper also analyzes the
immediate impact of the global crisis on China's
economic performance in 2009 and its likely impact in the
short run. It then discusses the government's policy
response, with a particular focus on the fiscal and monetary
stimulus measures. Finally, the paper explores China's
medium-term growth prospects in light of the crisis and the
key policies for moving to a robust and sustainable growth
The nearly 750 million people who live
in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are among the world's
poorest. To foster the economic growth required to create
jobs, raise living standards, and hasten development, SSA
nations need to attract more foreign capital, which, by
enhancing imported technology and the transfer of know-how,
has proved instrumental in raising productivity in many countries.
Recent literature has emphasized the
importance of transport costs and infrastructure in
explaining trade, access to markets, and increases in per
capita income. For most Latin American countries transport
costs are a greater barrier to U.S. markets than import
tariffs. The authors investigate the determinants of the
costs of shipping to the United States using a large
database (more than 300,000 observations a year) on
shipments of products at the six-digit level of the
Harmonized System of classification from different ports
around the world. They find that distance and
containerization matter. They find that the efficiency of
ports is also important. Improving the efficiency of a port
from the 25th to the 75th percentile reduces shipping costs
by 12 percent. (On average, having bad ports is equivalent
to being 60 percent farther away from markets.) Inefficient
ports also increase handling costs, which are part of
shipping costs. Finally, the authors try to explain
variations in port efficiency. They find that the variations
are linked to excessive regulation...
Fish products have become the most traded food commodities worldwide but wild fish stocks face ever-increasing pressure from rising demand (Smith et al., 2010). Over 75% of the world’s fisheries are currently either fully or over exploited (FAO, 2014). Developing sustainable fisheries is critical if seafood is to remain available for future generations. Global Value Chain (GVC) analysis frames these challenges holistically by linking global and local scales in order to elucidate operations and relationships throughout the international supply chain. In this study we employ the GVC framework to analyze the production of mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) from Ecuador and Peru that is exported to the United States. Information was collected from stakeholder interviews and analyzed in conjunction with trade and production data. This information was then used to construct product flow patterns, characterize governance structures, and provide insights for potential economic and environmental improvements.
The importance of mahi mahi as an export commodity to small-scale fishers in developing countries combined with its highly migratory life history typify many of the challenges facing modern global fisheries. Peru and Ecuador together produce the highest volumes of mahi mahi globally. Nearly 60% of all mahi mahi imported into the United States comes from these two countries. In this analysis...