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Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution by chelating polymeric hydrogel

CARVALHO, Hudson Wallace Pereira; BATISTA, Ana P. L.; HAMMER, Peter; LUZ, Gustavo H. P.; RAMALHO, Teodorico C.
Fonte: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG Publicador: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Polysaccharide natural seed coat from the tree Magonia pubescens, in the form of hydrogel was used to remove metals in aqueous solution. Swelling tests indicate that seed coat presents hydrogel behavior, with maximum water absorption of 292 g water/g. Adsorption experiments performed using Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+), Ca(2+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) demonstrated that the polysaccharide structure has a high capacity to extract these ions from the aqueous solution. Scanning electron microscopy revealed significant morphological changes of the material before and after water contact. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements indicate a signal shift of the water evaporation temperature in the material with adsorbed zinc. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis combined with theoretical studies by the density functional theory and on Hartree-Fock (HF) level evidence that the metallic ions were adsorbed through coordination with hydroxyl groups of polysaccharide. In the case of Zn(2+) the lowest HF energy was observed for the tetracoordination mode, where Zn(2+) is coordinated by two hydroxyl groups and two water molecules.; State of Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CAPQ-DQI-UFLA; CAPQ-DQI-UFLA

Avaliação da toxicidade e da degradação do fármaco cloridrato de fluoxetina, em solução aquosa e em mistura com esgoto doméstico, empregando irradiação com feixe de elétrons; Toxicity and degradation assessment of the drug fluoxetine hydrochloride, in aqueous solution and mixed with domestic sewage, using electron beam irradiation

Silva, Vanessa Honda Ogihara
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2014 PT
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A ampla utilização de medicamentos, a falta de gerenciamento na produção e no descarte desses produtos, bem como a dificuldade na remoção de resíduos de fármacos das águas residuais durante as fases do tratamento de efluentes tem causado a liberação destes micropoluentes nos recursos hídricos. O cloridrato de fluoxetina, conhecido comercialmente como Prozac®, tem sido muito utilizado em diversos países. Estudos demonstram sua presença no meio ambiente e o potencial de danos que este fármaco pode causar à biota. Desta forma, este trabalho estudou uma tecnologia de tratamento (POA - Processo Oxidativo Avançado) utilizando-se radiação ionizante, proveniente de um acelerador de elétrons, para a degradação do fármaco cloridrato de fluoxetina em solução aquosa e na mistura com esgoto doméstico. Após a irradiação foram feitas análises químicas na solução aquosa do fármaco com Espectrofotometria UV/VIS, Cromatografia Líquida Ultra Rápida (detectores UV/VIS e fluorescência) e quantificação do Carbono Orgânico Total (COT). Também foram empregados ensaios de toxicidade aguda (Daphnia similis e Vibrio fischeri) e crônica (Ceriodaphnia dubia). A eficiência na degradação do fármaco foi superior a 98...

Nanoparticles of octakis [3-(3-amino-1,2,4-triazole)propyl] octasilsesquioxane as ligands for Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Fe(III) in aqueous solution

Filho, Newton Luiz Dias; Costa, Reginaldo Mendonca; Marangoni, Fabiane; Pereira, Denise Souza
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 250-259
ENG
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Nanoparticles of octakis[3-(3-amino-1,2,4-triazole)propyl]octasilsesquioxane (ATZ-SSQ) were tested as ligands, for transition-metal ions in aqueous solution with a special attention to sorption isotherms, ligand-metal interaction, and determination of metal ions in natural waters. The adsorption potential of the material ATZ-SSQ was compared with related [3(3-amino-1,2,4-triazole)propyl]silica gel (ATZ-SG). The adsorption was performed using a batchwise process and both organofunctionalized surfaces showed the ability to adsorb the metal ions from aqueous solution. The Langmuir model was used to simulate the sorption isotherms. The results suggest that the sorption of these metals on ATZ-SSQ and ATZ-SG occurs mainly by surface complexation. The equilibrium condition is reached at time lower than 3 min for ATZ-SSQ, while for ATZ-SG is only reached at time of 25 min. The maximum metal ion uptake values for ATZ-SSQ were higher than the corresponding values achieved with the ATZ-SG. In order to obtain more information on the ligand-metal interaction of the complexes on the surface of the ATZ-SSQ nanomaterial, ESR study with various degrees of copper loadings was carried out. The ATZ-SSQ was tested for the determination (in flow using a column technique) of the metal ions present in natural waters. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution by chelating polymeric hydrogel

Pereira Carvalho, Hudson Wallace; Batista, Ana P. L.; Hammer, Peter; Luz, Gustavo H. P.; Ramalho, Teodorico C.
Fonte: Springer Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Heidelberg
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 343-348
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Polysaccharide natural seed coat from the tree Magonia pubescens, in the form of hydrogel was used to remove metals in aqueous solution. Swelling tests indicate that seed coat presents hydrogel behavior, with maximum water absorption of 292 g water/g. Adsorption experiments performed using Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+), Ca(2+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) demonstrated that the polysaccharide structure has a high capacity to extract these ions from the aqueous solution. Scanning electron microscopy revealed significant morphological changes of the material before and after water contact. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements indicate a signal shift of the water evaporation temperature in the material with adsorbed zinc. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis combined with theoretical studies by the density functional theory and on Hartree-Fock (HF) level evidence that the metallic ions were adsorbed through coordination with hydroxyl groups of polysaccharide. In the case of Zn(2+) the lowest HF energy was observed for the tetracoordination mode, where Zn(2+) is coordinated by two hydroxyl groups and two water molecules.

Aqueous solution behavior of thermosensitive (N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylic acid-ethyl methacrylate) terpolymers

Tiera, M. J.; dos Santos, G. R.; Tiera, VAD; Vieira, NAB; Frolini, E.; da Silva, R. C.; Loh, W.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 662-670
ENG
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A series of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-acrylic acid-ethyl methacrylate terpolymers with varied monomer compositions was prepared by radical polymerization. The solution behavior of these polymers was studied in dilute aqueous solution using spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectroscopy and high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. The results obtained revealed that the lower critical solution temperatures depend strongly on the copolymer composition, solution pH and ionic strength. At a high pH, the ionization of acrylic acid (AA) units leads to an increase in solution cloud points (T-c). Solutions of polymers containing 10% or less of AA display a constant T-c for pH above 5.5, with 15% there is a continuous increase in T-c with pH and, for higher AA contents, no clouding was observed within the studied temperature range. Fluorescence probe studies were conducted by following the I (1)/I (3) ratio of pyrene vibronic bands and the emission of anilinonaphtalene sulfonic acid, sodium salt (ANS), both approaches revealing the existence of hydrophobic domains for polymers with higher ethyl methacrylate content at temperatures lower than T-c, suggesting some extent of aggregation and/or a coil-to-globule transition. Scanning calorimetry measurements showed an endothermic transition at temperatures agreeing with the previously detected cloud points. Moreover...

Complexation of some trivalent lanthanides, scandium(III) and thorium(IV) by benzylidenepyruvates in aqueous solution

Marques, R. N.; Melios, C. B.; Pereira, N. C. S.; Siqueira, O. S.; De Moraes, M.; Molina, M.; Ionashiro, M.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 102-105
ENG
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The protonation constants of 4-methylbenzylidenepyruvate (4Me-BP) and 4-isopropylbenzylidenepyruvate (4IP-BP) as well as the stability constants of their binary 1:1 complexes with Cu(II), La(III), Pr(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Yb(III), Sc(III) and Th(IV) have been determined spectrophotometrically in aqueous solution at 25°C and ionic strength 0.500 M, maintained with sodium perchlorate. For all metal ions considered, the stability changes move in the same direction as the pKa of the ligands. Linear free energy relationships, as applied to oxygen donor substances, suggest the -COCOO- moiety as the metal binding site of the ligands. The results are discussed mainly taking into account that benzylidenepyruvates, besides the α-keto canonical form, may display other forms in aqueous solution with changing pH and the possible occurrence of extra intra-ligand charge polarization, induced by metal ions.

In vitro dentin permeability after application of Gluma® desensitizer as aqueous solution or aqueous fumed silica dispersion

Ishihata,Hiroshi; Finger,Werner J; Kanehira,Masafumi; Shimauchi,Hidetoshi; Komatsu,Masashi
Fonte: Faculdade De Odontologia De Bauru - USP Publicador: Faculdade De Odontologia De Bauru - USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 EN
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OBJECTIVES: To assess and to compare the effects of Gluma® Desensitizer (GDL) with an experimental glutaraldehyde and HEMA containing fumed silica dispersion (GDG) on dentin permeability using a chemiluminous tracer penetration test. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty disc-shaped dentin specimens were dissected from extracted human third molars. The dentin specimens were mounted in a split chamber device for determination of permeability under liquid pressure using a photochemical method. Ten specimens were randomly selected and allocated to the evaluation groups Gluma® Desensitizer as aqueous solution and glutaraldehyde/HEMA as fumed silica dispersion, respectively. Dentin disc permeability was determined at two pressure levels after removal of smear with EDTA, after albumin soaking, and after application of the desensitizing agents. Two desensitizer-treated and rinsed specimens of each group were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface remnants. RESULTS: Comparatively large standard deviations of the mean EDTA reference and albumin soaked samples permeability values refected the differences of the dentin substrates. The mean chemiluminescence values of specimen treated with GDL and GDG, respectively, were signifcantly reduced after topical application of the desensitizing agents on albumin-soaked dentin. The effects of GDL and GDG on permeability were not signifcantly different. Treated specimens showed no surface remnants after rinsing. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental desensitizer gel formulation reduced dentin permeability as effectively as the original Gluma® Desensitizer solution.

Hyaluronan forms specific stable tertiary structures in aqueous solution: A 13C NMR study

Scott, John E.; Heatley, Frank
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/04/1999 EN
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13C NMR spectra of aqueous solutions of hyaluronan (HA) of high molecular mass, before and after digestion with testicular hyaluronidase, and of hyaluronan methyl ester were obtained at 125.8 MHz. Carbonyl peaks were assigned by using selective decoupling techniques. Spectra of digested and undigested HA showed sharp signals, except for that assigned to the acetamido carbonyl carbon in the high polymer, which was much broadened. The decreased mobility of this C⩵O, thus demonstrated, was caused by restricted rotation. As part of the rigid CO—NH unit, rotation of NH was therefore similarly restricted, probably because of an intermolecular H bond from NH to carboxylate groups on neighbouring HA molecules. This bond was confirmed by comparing esterified HA with unmodified HA. Methyl esterification of carboxylates was accompanied by changes in acetamido C⩵O resonances consistent with increased mobility of CO—NH groups. Ester C⩵O resonances were sharp, proving that they did not participate in sterically restricted structures such as the proposed H bonds involving unesterified carboxylate groups. C⩵O resonances report on the environments and on the interrelationships of amide and carboxylate groups. A detailed structure suggested for high-molecular-mass HA in aqueous solution takes account of NMR and x-ray fiber diffraction data. Antiparallel HA chains overlap in meshworks stabilized by specific H bonds and hydrophobic bonds. This highly cooperative structure...

New supramolecular trigonal prisms from zinc(II)– 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen) complexes and trithiocyanurate in aqueous solution

Aoki, Shin; Zulkefeli, Mohd; Shiro, Motoo; Kimura, Eiichi
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/04/2002 EN
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The multiple bonding between multinuclear zinc(II)–1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen, a 12-membered tetraamine) complexes and multidentate ligands is an effective method for constructing supramolecular complexes having well defined and distinct structures in aqueous solution. Herein we present examples of supramolecular D3h prisms formed by self-assembly of linearly dimeric or trimeric zinc(II)–cyclen complexes with a potentially trianionic C3 subunit trithiocyanuric acid (TCA3−), wherein Zn2+—S− or Zn2+—N− coordination bonds and hydrogen bonds are responsible for stability of the multicomponent architectures in aqueous solution at neutral pH.

Photochemical properties of Yt base in aqueous solution.

Paszyc, S; Rafalska, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1979 EN
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Photoreactivity of Yt base [I] has been studied in aqueous solution [pH approximately 6] saturated with oxygen. Two photoproducts (II,III], resulting from irradiation at lambda = 253.7 nm and lambda greater than or equal to 290 nm, were isolated and their structures determined. The quantum yield for Yt base disappearance [zeta dis] is 0.002 [lambda = 313 nm]. It was shown that dye-sensitized photooxidation of Yt base in aqueous solution occurs according to a Type I mechanism, as well as with participation of singlet state oxygen. Quantum yields, fluorescence decay times and phosphorescence of Yt base have been also determined.

An enigmatic peptide ligation reaction: protease-catalyzed oligomerization of a native protein segment in neat aqueous solution.

Kumaran, S.; Datta, D.; Roy, R. P.
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2000 EN
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We report an enigmatic peptide ligation reaction catalyzed by Glu-specific Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease that occurs in neat aqueous solution around neutral pH utilizing a totally unprotected peptide substrate containing free alpha-carboxyl and alpha-amino groups. V8 protease catalyzed a chain of ligation steps between pH 6 and 8 at 4 degrees C, producing a gamut of covalent oligomers (dimer through octamer or higher) of a native protein segment TAAAKFE (S39) derived from ribonuclease A (RNAse A). Size-exclusion chromatography suggested the absence of strong interaction between the reacting peptides. The circular dichroism spectra of monomer through pentamer showed length-dependent enhancement of secondary structure in the oligomers, suggesting that protease-catalyzed ligation of a monomer to an oligomer resulted in a product that was more structured than its precursor. The relative conformational stability of the oligomers was reflected in their ability to resist proteolysis, indicating that the oligomerization reaction was facilitated as a consequence of the "conformational trapping" of the product. The ligation reaction proceeded in two phases-slow formation and accumulation of the dimer followed by a fast phase of oligomerization...

Selective Hg(II) Detection in Aqueous Solution with Thiol Derivatized Fluoresceins

Nolan, Elizabeth M.; Racine, Maryann E.; Lippard, Stephen J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/03/2006 EN
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The syntheses and photophysical properties of MS2 and MS3, two asymmetrically derivatized fluorescein-based dyes designed for Hg(II) detection, are described. These sensors each contain a single pyridyl-amine-thiol metal-binding moiety, form 1:1 complexes with Hg(II), and exhibit selectivity for Hg(II) over other Group 12 metals, alkali and alkaline earth metals, and most divalent first-row transition metals. Both dyes display superior brightness (Φ × ε) and fluorescence enhancement following Hg(II) coordination in aqueous solution. At neutral pH, the fluorescence turn-on derives from greater brightness due to increased molar absorptivity. At higher pH, photoinduced electron transfer (PET) quenching of the free dye is enhanced, and the Hg(II)-induced turn-on also benefits from alleviation of this pathway. MS2 can detect ppb levels of Hg(II) in aqueous solution, demonstrating its ability to identify environmentally relevant concentrations of Hg(II).

Degradation Kinetics of Benzyl Nicotinate in Aqueous Solution

Mbah, C. J.
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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The degradation of benzyl nicotinate in aqueous solution over a pH range of 2.0-10.0 at 50±0.2° was studied. The degradation was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The degradation was observed to follow apparent first-order rate kinetics and the rate constant for the decomposition at 25° was estimated by extrapolation. The reaction was shown to be hydroxide ion catalyzed and the Arrhenius plots showed the temperature dependence of benzyl nicotinate degradation. A significant increase in the stability of benzyl nicotinate was observed when glycerol or polyethylene glycol 400 was incorporated into the aqueous solution.

Is Vanadate Reduced by Thiols under Biological Conditions?: Changing The Redox Potential of V(V)/V(IV) by Complexation in Aqueous solution

Crans, Debbie C.; Zhang, Boyan; Gaidamauskas, Ernestas; Keramidas, Anastasios D.; Willsky, Gail R.; Roberts, Chris R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/05/2010 EN
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Although dogma states that vanadate is readily reduced by glutathione, cysteine and other thiols, there are several examples documenting that vanadium(V)-sulfur complexes can form and be observed. This conundrum has impacted life scientists for more than two decades. Investigation of this problem requires an understanding of both the complexes that form from vanadium(IV) and (V) and a representative thiol in aqueous solution. The reactions of vanadate and hydrated vanadyl cation with 2-mercaptoethanol have been investigated using multinuclear NMR, EPR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Vanadate forms a stable complex of 2:2 stoichiometry with 2-mercaptoethanol at neutral and alkaline pH. In contrast, vanadate can oxidize 2-mercaptoethanol; this process is favored at low pH and high solute concentrations. The complex that forms between aqueous vanadium(IV) and 2-mercaptoethanol has a 1:2 stoichiometry and can be observed at high pH and high 2-mercaptoethanol concentration. The solution structures have been deduced and speciation diagrams prepared. This work demonstrates that both vanadium(IV) and (V)-thiol complexes form and that redox chemistry also takes place. Whether reduction of vanadate takes place is governed by a combination of parameters: pH...

Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Protein Backbone Transitions in Aqueous Solution: combined QM and MM Simulations

Jiang, Jun; Abramavicius, Darius; Bulheller, Benjamin M.; Hirst, Jonathan D.; Mukamel, Shaul
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/06/2010 EN
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A generalized approach combining Quantum Mechanics (QM) and Molecular Mechanics (MM) calculations is developed to simulate the n → π* and π → π* backbone transitions of proteins in aqueous solution. These transitions, which occur in the ultraviolet (UV) at 180–220 nm, provide a sensitive probe for secondary structures. The excitation Hamiltonian is constructed using high level electronic structure calculations of N-methylacetamide (NMA). Its electrostatic fluctuations are modeled using a new algorithm, EHEF, which combines a molecular dynamics (MD) trajectory obtained with a molecular mechanics forcefield, and electronic structures of sampled MD snapshots calculated by QM. The lineshapes and excitation split-tings induced by the electrostatic environment in the experimental UV linear absorption (LA) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of several proteins in aqueous solution are reproduced by our calculations. The distinct CD features of α-helix and β-sheet protein structures are observed in the simulations and can be assigned to different backbone geometries. The fine structure of the UV spectra is accurately characterized and enables us to identify signatures of secondary structures.

A Long-Wavelength Fluorescent Squarylium Cyanine Dye Possessing Boronic Acid for Sensing Monosaccharides and Glycoproteins with High Enhancement in Aqueous Solution

Saito, Shingo; Massie, Tara L.; Maeda, Takeshi; Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Colyer, Christa L.
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/04/2012 EN
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Fluorescence sensing of saccharides and glycoproteins using a boronic acid functionalized squarylium cyanine dye (“SQ-BA”) is characterized in terms of synthetic, fluorometric, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. In our previous work, this newly synthesized dye was successfully applied to the separation and quantification of Gram-positive bacteria by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF); however, the fundamental properties of the dye and its saccharide complexes still required elucidation, as presented in this paper. The dye itself forms nonemissive, soluble aggregates in aqueous solution. With the addition of a monosaccharide, the dye aggregate dissociates to form an emissive monomer accompanied by the formation of a cyclic cis-diol ester with long-wavelength emission (λex = 630 nm, λem = 660 nm). A very large fluorescence enhancement factor of 18× was observed for the sensing dye as a fructose complex at pH 10, yielding a limit of detection of 10 μM fructose. The relative order of fluorescence enhancement of SQ-BA with other monosaccharides was found to be: fructose > ribose > arabinose ≈ galactose > xylose > mannose > rhamnose > fucose ≈ glucose; and apparent affinity constants of 102.80...

Indian Jujuba Seed Powder as an Eco-Friendly and a Low-Cost Biosorbent for Removal of Acid Blue 25 from Aqueous Solution

Krishna, L. Sivarama; Reddy, A. Sreenath; Zuhairi, W. Y. Wan; Taha, M. R.; Reddy, A. Varada
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Indian jujuba seed powder (IJSP) has been investigated as a low-cost and an eco-friendly biosorbent, prepared for the removal of Acid Blue 25 (AB25) from aqueous solution. The prepared biomaterial was characterized by using FTIR and scanning electron microscopic studies. The effect of operation variables, such as IJSP dosage, contact time, concentration, pH, and temperature on the removal of AB25 was investigated, using batch biosorption technique. Removal efficiency increased with increase of IJSP dosage but decreased with increase of temperature. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherm models. The data fitted well with the Langmuir model with a maximum biosorption capacity of 54.95 mg g−1. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was the best for the biosorption of AB25 by IJSP, with good correlation. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy change (ΔG0), standard enthalpy changes (ΔH0), and standard entropy changes (ΔS0) were analyzed. The removal of AB25 from aqueous solution by IJSP was a spontaneous and exothermic adsorption process. The results suggest that IJSP is a potential low-cost and an eco-friendly biosorbent for the AB25 removal from synthetic AB25 wastewater.

Potential Biosorbent Derived from Calligonum polygonoides for Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution

Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R2) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective...

Femtosecond multicolor pump-probe study of ultrafast electron transfer of [(NH₃)₅RuIIINCRuII(CN)₅]⁻ in aqueous solution; Femtosecond multicolor pump-probe study of ultrafast electron transfer of [(NH(3))(5)RuIIINCRuII(CN)(5)](-) in aqueous solution

Son, D.; Kambhampati, P.; Kee, T.; Barbara, P.
Fonte: Amer Chemical Soc Publicador: Amer Chemical Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
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Femtosecond multicolor pump−probe spectroscopy on the prototypical intramolecular electron-transfer compound ([(NH3)5RuNCRu(CN)5]-; RuRu) in aqueous solution is reported for the first time with sufficient time resolution and spectral coverage to monitor the complete spectral dynamics. From the dynamic absorption spectrum, constructed from the pump−probe data obtained over a wide range of probe wavelengths (570−1300 nm), accurate measurement of the electron transfer (ET) time (1/kET) have been obtained by a global analysis of the data. The data have lead to new insights on the role of solvent and solute nuclear motions in the ET process. Additionally, pump−probe experiments with variable wavelength pump pulses have revealed the presence of a pump wavelength-dependent dynamic feature at early time, which has been assigned to stimulated emission from nonequilibrium excited states.; Dong Hee Son, Patanjali Kambhampati, Tak W. Kee, and Paul F. Barbara

Action of combined magnetic fields on aqueous solution of glutamic acid: the further development of investigations

Giuliani, Livio; Grimaldi, Settimio; Lisi, Antonella; D'Emilia, Enrico; Bobkova, Natalia; Zhadin, Mikhail
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/01/2008 EN
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In the present work the results of the known investigation of the influence of combined static (40 μT) and alternating (amplitude of 40 nT) parallel magnetic fields on the current through the aqueous solution of glutamic acid, were successfully replicated. Fourteen experiments were carried out by the application of the combined magnetic fields to the solution placed into a Plexiglas reaction vessel at application of static voltage to golden electrodes placed into the solution. Six experiments were carried out by the application of the combined magnetic fields to the solution placed in a Plexiglas reaction vessel, without electrodes, within an electric field, generated by means of a capacitor at the voltage of 27 mV. The frequency of the alternating field was scanned within the bounds of 1.0 Hz including the cyclotron frequency corresponding to a glutamic acid ion and to the applied static magnetic field. In this study the prominent peaks with half-width of ~0.5 Hz and with different heights (till 80 nA) were registered at the alternating magnetic field frequency equal to the cyclotron frequency (4.2 Hz). The general reproducibility of the investigated effects was 70% among the all solutions studied by us and they arose usually after 40–60 min. after preparation of the solution. In some made-up solutions the appearance of instability in the registered current was noted in 30–45 min after the solution preparation. This instability endured for 20–40 min. At the end of such instability period the effects of combined fields action appeared practically every time. The possible mechanisms of revealed effects were discussed on the basis of modern quantum electrodynamics.