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DYNAMIC AND STEADY-SHEAR RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF XANTHAN AND GUAR GUMS DISPERSED IN YELLOW PASSION FRUIT PULP (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa)

MORAES, I. C. F.; FASOLIN, L. H.; CUNHA, R. L.; MENEGALLI, F. C.
Fonte: BRAZILIAN SOC CHEMICAL ENG Publicador: BRAZILIAN SOC CHEMICAL ENG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.60914%
Yellow passion fruit pulp is unstable, presenting phase separation that can be avoided by the addition of hydrocolloids. For this purpose, xanthan and guar gum [0.3, 0.7 and 1.0% (w/w)] were added to yellow passion fruit pulp and the changes in the dynamic and steady-shear rheological behavior evaluated. Xanthan dispersions showed a more pronounced pseudoplasticity and the presence of yield stress, which was not observed in the guar gum dispersions. Cross model fitting to flow curves showed that the xanthan suspensions also had higher zero shear viscosity than the guar suspensions, and, for both gums, an increase in temperature led to lower values for this parameter. The gums showed different behavior as a function of temperature in the range of 5-35 degrees C. The activation energy of the apparent viscosity was dependent on the shear rate and gum concentration for guar, whereas for xanthan these values only varied with the concentration. The mechanical spectra were well described by the generalized Maxwell model and the xanthan dispersions showed a more elastic character than the guar dispersions, with higher values for the relaxation time. Xanthan was characterized as a weak gel, while guar presented a concentrated solution behavior. The simultaneous evaluation of temperature and concentration showed a stronger influence of the polysaccharide concentration on the apparent viscosity and the G and G ` moduli than the variation in temperature.

Otimização das condições de enchimento de colunas de cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia - CLAE

Paulo Afonso da Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.60914%
Em geral a eficiência das colunas comerciais longas microbore não têm sido ideal. Apesar de muitos grupos terem escrito sobre enchimentos de colunas microbore, utilizando técnicas de suspensão, seus procedimentos e resultados variam enormemente. Estes resultados levam à conclusão de que a técnica utilizadas no recheio de colunas longas com partículas de 3mm não funcionam para colunas de 1-2 mm de diâmetro interno. Deste modo, procurou-se estudar os efeitos que os diversos parâmetros têm no enchimento das colunas, tal como a pressão, a temperatura, a viscosidade do solvente de suspensão, a densidade do mesmo, a diluição e a forma do funil de saída do resevartório. Baseados nestes aspectos, procurou-se desenvolver um método que permitisse a obtenção de colunas microbore longas (25 x 0,2cm), com partículas de 3mm. Otimizando as condições físicas do enchimento, tal como o volume do reservatório, e aperfeiçoando a forma do funil de saída do mesmo, para evitar turbulência de fluxo, verificou-se que com a utilização de suspensões diluídas obteve-se colunas melhores do que aquelas recheadas com suspensões concentradas. A otimização do solvente de suspensão, que mantém as partículas estáveis na mesma pelo espaço de algumas horas...

Turbulent flow of red cells in dilute suspensions. Effect on kinetics of O2 uptake.

Gad-El-Hak, M; Morton, J B; Kutchal, H
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
281.43125%
The turbulent flow properties of dilute (0.06% by volume) suspensions of human red blood cells in 4-mm-bore glass tubing were estimated by laser anemometry. The flow properties of the dilute red cell suspension were similar to those of a dilute suspension of polystyrene spheres (0.5 micron diameter) in isotonic NaCl solution. Flow was found to be laminar when the Reynolds number was below 2,000, transitional in the range of Reynolds numbers from 2,000 to 3,000, and fully turbulent above Reynolds number 3,000. These results differ from previous studies of more concentrated red cell suspensions. The length scales of the turbulence were also estimated: at a Reynolds number near 4,000 the macroscale is about 1.25 mm, the Taylor microscale is about 0.85 mm, and the Kolmogoroff scale is near 0.075 mm. The results are discussed in relation to previous measurements of the rate of oxygen uptake by dilute red cell suspensions in the flow-type rapid reaction apparatus. Our results suggest that under the conditions of most of these oxygen uptake measurements, the turbulent flow is characterized by eddies about 1 mm across, mixing with each other on a time scale of about 45 ms. Since most of the reported oxygen uptake measurements involve a similar time scale...

Effect of selected non-ionic surfactants on the flow behavior of aqueous veegum suspensions

Kennedy, Ross A.; Kennedy, Michelle L.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
281.43125%
The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of some non-ionic surfactants, Tween 80 and Brij 98, on the viscosity and flow behavior of a commercial montmorillonite clay, Veegum Granules. The effect of different concentrations of the surfactants on the shear stress-shear rate rheograms of hydrated concentrated clay suspensions was determined by shear viscometry. The addition of either surfactant increased the plastic viscosity and the yield stress of the suspensions. Furthermore both surfactants altered the thixotropy of the suspensions to an extent that depended on both the surfactant concentration and the time of equilibration of the surfactant and Veegum. Brij 98 had a greater and more rapid effect. It is proposed that the surfactant polar head-groups anchor at the tetrahedral sheet surface, leaving the alkyl chains extending away from the edges and faces. Consequently, the alkyl chains undergo hydrophobic interactions that facilitate the association between the platelets and increase the physical structure within the suspension. Stereochemical differences between the polar groups may lead to differences in the way the surfactants associate with the tetrahedral sheet and hence their ultimate effect on the rheological behavior. There is a significant interaction between these surfactants and montmorillonite clays...

Detection of poliovirus by ICC/qPCR in concentrated water samples has greater sensitivity and is less costly using BGM cells in suspension as compared to monolayers

Balkin, Helene B; Margolin, Aaron B
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.60914%
The integrated cell culture quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (ICC/qRT-PCR) method is used in our lab to detect enteroviruses in environmental waters. Typically we utilize monolayers of 3 cell lines; buffalo green monkey kidney (BGM), human colonic carcinoma (CACO-2) and African rhesus monkey kidney (MA104) with the intent of providing one or more permissive hosts to a wide range of enteroviruses. In this study the BGM cell line was used to compare poliovirus infectivity in conventional monolayer cultures to BGM cells in suspensions. Propagated virus was subsequently amplified by qRT-PCR. Our PCR data showed lower cycle threshold (Ct) values in the suspensions which corresponded to a higher rate of infectivity than that observed in the monolayers. The difference in Ct values was determined statistically significant by One-way ANOVA (0.000). Infecting BGM cells in suspensions required less hands-on time, less chance of contamination and was more cost effective than utilizing the conventional monolayer technique.

Uma contribuição ao estudo da sedimentação gravitacional em batelada

Arouca, Fábio de Oliveira
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.60914%
Sedimentadores são equipamentos que utilizam a força gravitacional como agente separador de partículas sólidas suspensas em correntes líquidas de processos industriais. O uso comum dos sedimentadores em indústrias químicas desperta o interesse no desenvolvimento de estudos cada vez mais elaborados sobre o assunto. A sedimentação em batelada é o ponto de partida para o projeto de unidades industriais contínuas. A operação, que consiste na separação de uma suspensão sólido-líquido, pode ter sua representação fenomenológica através da introdução da Teoria das Misturas da Mecânica do Contínuo, com a aplicação das equações da continuidade e do movimento para ambos os constituintes, sólido e líquido, e pelo conhecimento de equações constitutivas relativas a cada sistema em particular. O conhecimento da concentração de partículas, por sua vez, é de extrema importância para a descrição do fenômeno. Para suspensões bem diluídas a concentração de sólidos pode ser medida por técnicas de amostragem, mas a extensão de tal técnica para suspensões mais concentradas não conduz a bons resultados. Neste trabalho estudou-se o fenômeno da sedimentação em batelada de suspensões aquosas de diferentes materiais sólidos...

Solid/liquid suspension flow in pipes: modelling and experimental investigation

Silva, Rui
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
281.43125%
With this thesis the leading objective was to study the complex behaviour of solid-liquid suspensions pipeline conveying. To that regard, experimental and numerical studies were both conducted. Experimental data was acquired in the form of velocity profiles for both the liquid and solid phases employing Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocimetry (UPV), respectively, for a range of experiments with several sizes and concentrations of settling particles. Moreover, in order to attain the particle distribution in the pipeline, which is one of more prominent variables in solid-liquid suspensions flow, a new Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) system was developed: this type of systems use the distribution of electrical conductivity in a domain has is principle of development. The Mixture Model was implemented in the numerical studies using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations in an attempt to replicate the experimental data that resulted from the aforementioned experiments. Additionally, experimental data for highly concentrated buoyant and settling particles, existent in the literature, where complex phenomena like turbulence attenuation and particle migration occur, was also simulated by means of the Mixture Model. The EIT apparatus displayed the capability of recognizing the different flow regimes and particle concentration variations in the pipeline. Furthermore...

Energy absorption of reticulated foams filled with shear-thickening silica suspensions

Bettin, Giorgia
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 98 p.; 4354797 bytes; 4358891 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
281.43125%
The need for smarter and adaptive, energy absorption materials especially for human protection applications has fueled the interest in new and alternative energy absorbing composites. In this thesis a 'novel' energy absorbing fluid-composite that utilized a shear thickening fluid is developed. Shear-thickening fluids are a class of field responsive fluids that have the ability to transition from low viscosity to high viscosity under an imposed deformation field. Two different types of silica particles are used to create shear thickening fluids. The first are polydisperse and non spherical, with a median diameter of 1.7 ± 1.4 micrometer, while the second are monodisperse spherical particles of 0.3 ± 0.03 micrometer diameter. The particles are dispersed in ethylene glycol at volume fractions of up to [phi]=47% for the polydisperse sample and up to [phi]=60% for the monodisperse spheres. The behavior of the silica suspensions is studied under steady shear, small and large amplitude oscillatory shear flow and also in transient extensional flow. The viscosity of the polydisperse suspension is found to be much greater than the monodisperse one due to the difference in particles shape. Oscillatory experiments indicate that both the onset and magnitude of the shear thickening depends on the frequency and strain applied and show that rapid time-varying deformations result in maximum energy dissipation.; (cont.) Two different regimes are found through extensional flow measurement: at low extension rates the suspensions respond as a viscous rate-thinning fluid...

STUDIES OF PPLO INFECTION : IV. THE NEUROTOXICITY OF INTACT MYCOPLASMAS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION OF TOXIN IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

Thomas, Lewis; Bitensky, Mark W.
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.60914%
Concentrated suspensions of washed Mycoplasma neurolyticum produce rolling disease in mice and rats, with neurological manifestations and pathological lesions similar to those seen with the exotoxin of this organism. Pretreatment of animals with tetracycline protects completely against the toxic effects of washed suspensions of mycoplasmas, while tetracycline affords no protection against the exotoxin. Freeze-thawing disruption of mycoplasma suspensions eliminates their neurotoxicity, while the same treatment does not affect exotoxin. The toxicity of intact organisms is not affected by exposure to the sedimentable component of brain, nor to ganglioside. These observations are interpreted to indicate that the neurotoxicity of living mycoplasmas must be due to their production of toxin after they have been injected into the animal. Resting mycoplasmas, suspended in Ringer's solution in dialysis sacs submerged in PPLO broth) produce considerable amounts of toxin within 15 min of incubation at 37°C. Toxin is also produced, although in somewhat less amount, by washed organisms suspended in phosphate buffer containing glucose. The formation of toxin is prevented by the presence of puromycin, but not by the aminonucleoside analogue of puromycin...

Effect of many-body interactions on the solid-liquid phase-behavior of charge-stabilized colloidal suspensions

Dobnikar, J.; Rzehak, R.; von Gruenberg, H. H.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.60914%
The solid-liquid phase-diagram of charge-stabilized colloidal suspensions is calculated using a technique that combines a continuous Poisson-Boltzmann description for the microscopic electrolyte ions with a molecular-dynamics simulation for the macroionic colloidal spheres. While correlations between the microions are neglected in this approach, many-body interactions between the colloids are fully included. The solid-liquid transition is determined at a high colloid volume fraction where many-body interactions are expected to be strong. With a view to the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory predicting that colloids interact via Yukawa pair-potentials, we compare our results with the phase diagram of a simple Yukawa liquid. Good agreement is found at high salt conditions, while at low ionic strength considerable deviations are observed. By calculating effective colloid-colloid pair-interactions it is demonstrated that these differences are due to many-body interactions. We suggest a density-dependent pair-potential in the form of a truncated Yukawa potential, and show that it offers a considerably improved description of the solid-liquid phase-behavior of concentrated colloidal suspensions.

Rheological behaviour of suspensions of bubbles in yield stress fluids

Ducloué, Lucie; Pitois, Olivier; Goyon, Julie; Chateau, Xavier; Ovarlez, Guillaume
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.60914%
The rheological properties of suspensions of bubbles in yield stress fluids are investigated through experiments on model systems made of monodisperse bubbles dispersed in concentrated emulsions. Thanks to this highly tunable system, the bubble size and the rheological properties of the suspending yield stress fluid are varied over a wide range. We show that the macroscopic response under shear of the suspensions depends on the gas volume fraction and the bubble stiffness in the suspending fluid. This relative stiffness can be quantified through capillary numbers comparing the capillary pressure to stress scales associated with the rheological properties of the suspending fluid. We demonstrate that those capillary numbers govern the decrease of the elastic and loss moduli, the absence of variation of the yield stress and the increase of the consistency with the gas volume fraction, for the investigated range of capillary numbers. Micro-mechanical estimates are consistent with the experimental data and provide insight on the experimental results.; Comment: submitted to Journal of non Newtonian Fluid Mechanics

Bi-axial shear of confined colloidal suspensions: the structure and rheology of the vorticity-aligned string phase

Lin, Neil Y.; Cheng, Xiang; Cohen, Itai
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.60914%
Using a novel bi-axial confocal rheoscope, we investigate the structure and rheology of sheared colloidal suspensions under confinement. Consistent with previous work [X. Cheng \textit{et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.}, 2011, 109, 63], we observe a vorticity-aligned string phase in moderate concentrated colloidal suspensions under uniaxial shear. Using bi-axial shear protocols, we directly manipulate the orientation and morphology of the string structures. Simultaneously, we measure the suspension rheology along both the flow and vorticity directions with a bi-axial force measurement device. Our results demonstrate that despite the highly anisotropic microstructure, the suspension viscosity remains isotropic and constant over the shear rates explored. These results suggest that hydrodynamic contributions dominate the suspension response. In addition they highlight the capabilities of bi-axial confocal rheoscopes for elucidating the relationship between microstructure and rheology in complex fluids.

Mixtures of foam and paste: suspensions of bubbles in yield stress fluids

Kogan, Michael; Ducloué, Lucie; Goyon, Julie; Chateau, Xavier; Pitois, Olivier; Ovarlez, Guillaume
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.60914%
We study the rheological behavior of mixtures of foams and pastes, which can be described as suspensions of bubbles in yield stress fluids. Model systems are designed by mixing monodisperse aqueous foams and concentrated emulsions. The elastic modulus of the suspensions decreases with the bubble volume fraction. This decrease is all the sharper as the elastic capillary number (defined as the ratio of the paste elastic modulus to the bubble capillary pressure) is high, which accounts for the softening of the bubbles as compared to the paste. By contrast, the yield stress of most studied materials is not modified by the presence of bubbles. Their plastic behavior is governed by the plastic capillary number, defined as the ratio of the paste yield stress to the bubble capillary pressure. At low plastic capillary number values, bubbles behave as nondeformable inclusions, and we predict that the suspension dimensionless yield stress should remain close to unity. At large plastic capillary number values, we observe bubble breakup during mixing: bubbles are deformed by shear. Finally, at the highest bubble volume fractions, the yield stress increases abruptly: this is interpreted as a 'foamy yield stress fluid' regime, which takes place when the paste mesoscopic constitutive elements are strongly confined in the films between the bubbles.

Viscosity of Colloidal Suspensions

Verberg, R.; de Schepper, I. M.; Cohen, E. G. D.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
281.43125%
Simple expressions are given for the Newtonian viscosity $\eta_N(\phi)$ as well as the viscoelastic behavior of the viscosity $\eta(\phi,\omega)$ of neutral monodisperse hard sphere colloidal suspensions as a function of volume fraction $\phi$ and frequency $\omega$ over the entire fluid range, i.e., for volume fractions $0 < \phi < 0.55$. These expressions are based on an approximate theory which considers the viscosity as composed as the sum of two relevant physical processes: $\eta (\phi,\omega) = \eta_{\infty}(\phi) + \eta_{cd}(\phi,\omega)$, where $\eta_{\infty}(\phi) = \eta_0 \chi(\phi)$ is the infinite frequency (or very short time) viscosity, with $\eta_0$ the solvent viscosity, $\chi(\phi)$ the equilibrium hard sphere radial distribution function at contact, and $\eta_{cd}(\phi,\omega)$ the contribution due to the diffusion of the colloidal particles out of cages formed by their neighbors, on the P\'{e}clet time scale $\tau_P$, the dominant physical process in concentrated colloidal suspensions. The Newtonian viscosity $\eta_N(\phi) = \eta(\phi,\omega = 0)$ agrees very well with the extensive experiments of Van der Werff et al and others. Also, the asymptotic behavior for large $\omega$ is of the form $\eta_{\infty}(\phi) + A(\phi)(\omega \tau_P)^{-1/2}$...

Short-time diffusion in concentrated bidisperse hard-sphere suspensions

Wang, Mu; Heinen, Marco; Brady, John F.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.60914%
Diffusion in bidisperse Brownian hard-sphere suspensions is studied by Stokesian Dynamics (SD) computer simulations and a semi-analytical theoretical scheme for colloidal short-time dynamics, based on Beenakker and Mazur's method [Physica 120A, 388 (1983) & 126A, 349 (1984)]. Two species of hard spheres are suspended in an overdamped viscous solvent that mediates the salient hydrodynamic interactions among all particles. In a comprehensive parameter scan that covers various packing fractions and suspension compositions, we employ numerically accurate SD simulations to compute the initial diffusive relaxation of density modulations at the Brownian time scale, quantified by the partial hydrodynamic functions. A revised version of Beenakker and Mazur's $\delta\gamma$-scheme for monodisperse suspensions is found to exhibit surprisingly good accuracy, when simple rescaling laws are invoked in its application to mixtures. The so-modified $\delta\gamma$ scheme predicts hydrodynamic functions in very good agreement with our SD simulation results, for all densities from the very dilute limit up to packing fractions as high as $40\%$.; Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures

A fractal approach to the rheology of concentrated cell suspensions

Iordan, Andreea; Duperray, Alain; Verdier, Claude
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.60914%
Results on the rheological behavior of novel CHO cell suspensions in a large range of concentrations are reported. The concentration dependent yield stress and elastic plateau modulus are formalized in the context of fractal aggregates under shear, and quite different exponents are found as compared to the case of red blood cell suspensions. This is explained in terms of intrinsic microscopic parameters such as the cell-cell adhesion energy and cell elasticity but also the cell individual dynamic properties, found to correlate well with viscoelastic data at large concentrations (phi>0.5).; Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures

The yielding of concentrated cohesive suspensions can be deformation rate dependent

Buscall, Richard; Scales, Peter J.; Stickland, Anthony D.; Teo, Hui-En; Kusuma, Tiara E.; Rubasingha, Sayuri; Lester, Daniel R.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
281.86887%
The yielding of concentrated cohesive suspensions can be deformation-rate dependent. One consquence of this is that a single suspension can present in one several different ways, depending upon how it is tested, or more generally, how it is caused to flow. We have seen variously Herschel-Bulkley flow, highly non-monotonic flow curves and highly erratic or chaotic yield, all in one suspension. In controlled-rate testing one sees a systematic effect of deformation rate. In controlled stress testing, matters are more subtle. Whereas step-stress creep testing will elicit reproducible behaviour, any attempt to determine a flow curve by, e.g. stepping up or sweeping stress at an inappropriate rate can lead to highly irreproducible behaviour.; Comment: Updated and corrected version of a short informal article written for the Bulletin of the British Soc. Rheology. An alternative extended abstract on the same topic with an additional figure has been included

Dynamic structure factor study of diffusion in strongly sheared suspensions

Leshansky, Alexander M.; Brady, John F.
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia da Califórnia Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia da Califórnia
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
281.43125%
Diffusion of neutrally buoyant spherical particles in concentrated monodisperse suspensions under simple shear flow is investigated. We consider the case of non-Brownian particles in Stokes flow, which corresponds to the limits of infinite Péclet number and zero Reynolds number. Using an approach based upon ideas of dynamic light scattering we compute self- and gradient diffusion coefficients in the principal directions normal to the flow numerically from Accelerated Stokesian Dynamics simulations for large systems (up to 2000 particles). For the self-diffusivity, the present approach produces results identical to those reported earlier, obtained by probing the particles' mean-square displacements (Sierou & Brady, J. Fluid Mech. vol. 506, 2004 p. 285). For the gradient diffusivity, the computed coefficients are in good agreement with the available experimental results. The similarity between diffusion mechanisms in equilibrium suspensions of Brownian particles and in non-equilibrium non-colloidal sheared suspensions suggests an approximate model for the gradient diffusivity: ${\textsfbi D}^\triangledown\,{\approx}\,{\textsfbi D}^s/S^{eq}(0)$, where ${\textsfbi D}^s$ is the shear-induced self-diffusivity and $S^{eq}(0)$ is the static structure factor corresponding to the hard-sphere suspension at thermodynamic equilibrium.

Short-time diffusion in concentrated bidisperse hard-sphere suspensions

Wang, Mu; Heinen, Marco; Brady, John F.
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf