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Substantially enhanced cloning efficiency of SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) by adding a heating step to the original protocol.

Kenzelmann, M; Mühlemann, K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/1999 EN
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The efficiency of the original SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) protocol was limited by a small average size of cloned concatemers. We describe a modification of the technique that overcomes this problem. Ligation of ditags yields concatemers of various sizes. Small concatemers may aggregate and migrate with large ones during gel electrophoresis. A heating step introduced before gel electrophoresis breaks such contaminating aggregates. This modification yields cloned concatemers with an average size of 67 tags as compared to 22 tags by the original protocol. It enhances the length of cloned concatemers substantially and reduces the costs of SAGE.

Teratocarcinoma cell variants rejected by syngeneic mice: protection of mice immunized with these variants against other variants and against the original malignant cell line.

Boon, T; Van Pel, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1978 EN
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We reported previously that, by mutagenesis of a malignant teratocarcinoma cell line, it is possible to obtain a number of variant clones that are incapable of forming progressive tumors. Each of these "tum-" variants is rejected in syngeneic mice and stimulates the production of immune memory cells (self-protection). We show here that four different tum- clones confer an immune protection against each other although this cross-protection is invariably weaker than the self-protection. Moreover, mice immunized with living tum- cells are partially protected against the original malignant teratocarcinoma cells, even though the latter cells are incapable of conferring any immune protection when injected after being killed by irradiation. These results indicate that each tum- variant carries at least one specific transplantation antigen that is absent from the original tumor cell line and from most other tum- variants. Other tumor-specific transplantation antigens are probably present on all the tum- variants and also on the malignant teratocarcinoma cell line.

A comparison of the original Rappaport medium (R medium) and the Rappaport-Vassiliadis medium (RV medium) in the isolation of salmonellae from meat products.

Vassiliadis, P.; Kalapothaki, V.; Mavrommati, C.; Trichopoulos, D.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1984 EN
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The Rappaport-Vassiliadis enrichment medium (RV medium) in 10 ml quantities (RV/43 degrees C, 10 ml) inoculated with 0.1 ml of pre-enrichment medium (P medium) was found more efficient in the isolation of salmonellae from 409 pre-enriched samples (mainly meat products), than the original Rappaport medium incubated at 43 degrees C (R/43 degrees C) and the RV medium in 5 ml quantities (RV/43 degrees C, 5 ml) inoculated with 0.01 ml of P medium (P less than 0.001, in both instances). Therefore, the inoculum from pre-enriched foods should not be less than 0.1 ml in 10 ml of RV medium. The RV/43 degrees, 10 ml was also better (P less than 0.01) in detecting samples containing salmonellas than the original Rappaport medium incubated at 37 degrees C (R/37 degrees C, 10 ml) and the modification R25 of R medium incubated at 37 degrees C. The R25 modification was used in 10 ml quantities (R25/37 degrees C, 10 ml) inoculated with 0.1 ml of P medium and in 5 ml quantities (R25/37 degrees, 5 ml) inoculated with 0.01 ml of P medium. The last two R25 procedures were of the same efficiency in isolating salmonellas from meat products.

Digital Image Enhancement Improves Diagnosis of Nondisplaced Proximal Femur Fractures

Botser, Itamar Busheri; Herman, Amir; Nathaniel, Ram; Rappaport, Dan; Chechik, Aharon
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Today most emergency room radiographs are computerized, making digital image enhancement a natural advancement to improve fracture diagnosis. We compared the diagnosis of nondisplaced proximal femur fractures using four different image enhancement methods using standard DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) after window-leveling optimization. Twenty-nine orthopaedic residents and specialists reviewed 28 pelvic images consisting of 25 occult proximal femur fractures and three images with no fracture, using four different image filters and the original DICOM image. For intertrochanteric fractures, the Retinex filter outperforms the other filters and the original image with a correct fracture type diagnosis rate of 50.6%. The Retinex filter also performs well for diagnosis of other fracture types. The Retinex filter had an interobserver agreement index of 53.5%, higher than the other filters. Sensitivity of fracture diagnosis increased to 85.2% when the Retinex filter was combined with the standard DICOM image. Correct fracture type diagnosis per minute for the Retinex filter was 1.43, outperforming the other filters. The Retinex filter may become a valuable tool in clinical settings for diagnosing fractures.

Simulation of the AUC Changes after Generic Substitution in Patients

Yim, Dong-Seok
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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To address the debate on the safety of generic substitution quantitatively, the author compared the change in AUC in virtual patients who were simulated for several different scenarios of generic substitution. In four scenarios of original (branded) to generic and generic to generic substitution, 5,000 virtual patients were simulated per scenario using the programming software R. The mean population AUC of generics ranged from 90-110% (scenarios A and B) and 80-123.5% (scenarios C and D) of the AUC of the original. Those patients who had an AUC change (ratio) as a result of drug substitution of less than 0.67 or greater than 1.5 were considered to be in potential danger due to the substitution. We found that less than 6% of patients fell outside of the cutoff range of 0.67-1.5 as a result of original to generic substitution. However, in the case of generic to generic substitution, the proportion was as high as 9-12%. This alerts us to the potential danger of generic substitution, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.

Childhood Predictors of Deliberate Self-Harm Behavior and Suicide Ideation in Korean Adolescents: A Prospective Population-Based Follow-Up Study

Shin, Yun Mi; Chung, Young Ki; Lim, Ki Young; Lee, Young Moon; Oh, Eun Young; Cho, Sun Mi
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of adolescence suicidality in a longitudinal study. Additionally, the prevalence of deliberate self-harm behavior and suicide ideation at age 7 and during middle school were examined. Initial assessment data was obtained from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006 when the original subjects became middle school students. The addresses and names of 1,857 subjects were located from the original data; they were 910 boys and 947 girls. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), which was administered by the parents of the children, and by various demographic and psychosocial factors. They were reassessed using self reports on the Korea Youth Self Report (K-YSR); in particular, replies to items related to self-harm behavior and suicide ideation were recorded. A logistic regression analysis showed that the factors of gender, economic status, the overall amount of behavior problems, the tendency to internalizing and externalizing problems, somatic problems, thought problems, delinquent behavior, and aggressive behavior were independent predictors of adolescent suicide ideation and self-harm behavior. The importance of total behavior problems suggested that adolescent difficulty is a consequence of an accumulation of various risk factors. Accordingly...

Assessment of Yellow Fever Epidemic Risk: An Original Multi-criteria Modeling Approach

Briand, Sylvie; Beresniak, Ariel; Nguyen, Tim; Yonli, Tajoua; Duru, Gerard; Kambire, Chantal; Perea, William;
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/07/2009 EN
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This article describes the use of an original modeling approach to assess the risk of yellow fever (YF) epidemics. YF is a viral hemorrhagic fever responsible in past centuries for devastating outbreaks. Since the 1930s, a vaccine has been available that protects the individual for at least 10 years, if not for life. However, immunization of populations in African countries was gradually discontinued after the 1960s. With the decrease in immunity against YF in African populations the disease reemerged in the 1980s. In 2005, WHO, UNICEF, and the GAVI Alliance decided to support preventive vaccination of at-risk populations in West African endemic countries in order to tackle the reemergence of YF and reduce the risk of urban YF outbreaks. Financial resources were made available to scale up a global YF vaccine stockpile and to support countries with limited resources in the management of preventive vaccination campaigns. This article describes the process we used to determine the most at-risk populations using a mathematical model to prioritize targeted immunization campaigns. We believe that this approach could be useful for other diseases for which decision making process is difficult because of limited data availability, complex risk variables...

CT evaluation of placental abruption in pregnant trauma patients

Wei, Sindy H.; Helmy, Mohammad; Cohen, Allen J.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The purpose of the study was to assess the possibility of placental injury detection on computed tomography (CT) in pregnant trauma patients. The images and dictated reports of 44 CT scans of pregnant women who presented to the University of California Irvine Medical Center (UCIMC) from 2003 to 2008 for traumatic abdominal conditions were reviewed for placental abruption. Performances of original dictated reports, an untrained reviewer, and a trained reviewer (who was trained on 22 non-traumatic scans) were compared. Of the 66 pregnant women who received abdominal CT scans, 44 sustained abdominal trauma. Seven suffered placental abruptions, all of which were identified on CT. Sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79.5%, respectively, for the untrained reviewer, 100% and 82.1% for the trained reviewer, and 42.9% and 89.7% for the original dictated reports. Placental abruptions are often overlooked on CT scan. Sensitivity may be improved by systematic evaluation of the placenta and specificity by training on normal placental morphology.

Assignment of the gene locus for severe congenital neutropenia to chromosome 1q22 in the original Kostmann family from Northern Sweden

Melin, M; Entesarian, M; Carlsson, G; Garwicz, D; Klein, C; Fadeel, B; Nordenskjöld, M; Palmblad, J; Henter, JI; Dahl, N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Autosomal recessive severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) or Kostmann syndrome is characterised by reduced neutrophil counts and subsequent recurrent bacterial infections. The disease was originally described in a large consanguineous pedigree from Northern Sweden. A genome-wide autozygosity scan was initiated on samples from four individuals in the original pedigree using high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays in order to map the disease locus. Thirty candidate regions were identified and the ascertainment of samples from two additional patients confirmed a single haplotype with significant association to the disorder (p<0.01) on chromosome 1q22. One affected individual from the original Kostmann pedigree was confirmed as a phenocopy. The minimal haplotype shared by affected individuals spans a candidate region of 1.2 Mb, containing several potential candidate genes.

Direct determination of trace nitrogen dioxide by atmospheric pressure lonization mass spectrometry (APIMS) without conversion to nitric oxide

Kinoue, Takaaki; Asai, Satoshi; Ishii, Yukimoto; Ishikawa, Koichi; Fujii, Masashi; Nakano, Kazuo; Hasumi, Keiji
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2000 EN
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The aim of this study was to develop a new method for the determination of NO2 levels encountered in clinical settings as well as in environmental studies, using a bi-component atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (APIMS). Hydrogen (1%) diluted in pure argon was ionized by corona discharge in the first ionization component. Fifty ml of the analyte diluted in 250 ml of composite air or carbon dioxide (CO2) was introduced into the second ionization component and analyzed. When composite air was used as the sample carrier gas, NO in the analyte was oxygenated and there was an increase in the NO2 content from that in the original analyte. However, when CO2 was used as the sample carrier gas, the level of NO2 in the analyte could be determined because CO2 did not change the NO2 content from that in the original analyte. A calibration curve with good linearity was obtained using the UG-410 APIMS system, with a regression equation of Y(%) = 5.513*10-2 X (ppb) and a detection limit of 0.9 ppb. Since APIMS detects NO2 direcdy within its system, the concentration of NO does not need to be measured. This system may be of great help in the accurate detection and determination of the concentration of low levels of NO2 during inhaled NO therapy.

Regression analysis for peak designation in pulsatile pressure signals

Scalzo, Fabien; Xu, Peng; Asgari, Shadnaz; Bergsneider, Marvin; Hu, Xiao
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Following recent studies, the automatic analysis of intracranial pressure (ICP) pulses appears to be a promising tool for forecasting critical intracranial and cerebrovascular pathophysiological variations during the management of many disorders. A pulse analysis framework has been recently developed to automatically extract morphological features of ICP pulses. The algorithm is able to enhance the quality of ICP signals, to segment ICP pulses, and to designate the locations of the three ICP sub-peaks in a pulse. This paper extends this algorithm by utilizing machine learning techniques to replace Gaussian priors used in the peak designation process with more versatile regression models. The experimental evaluations are conducted on a database of ICP signals built from 700 h of recordings from 64 neurosurgical patients. A comparative analysis of different state-of-the-art regression analysis methods is conducted and the best approach is then compared to the original pulse analysis algorithm. The results demonstrate a significant improvement in terms of accuracy in favor of our regression-based recognition framework. It reaches an average peak designation accuracy of 99% using a kernel spectral regression against 93% for the original algorithm.

Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the bioabsorbable Milagro™ interference screw for graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Frosch, K.-H.; Sawallich, T.; Schütze, G.; Losch, A.; Walde, T.; Balcarek, P.; Konietschke, F.; Stürmer, K. M.
Fonte: Springer Milan Publicador: Springer Milan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Ligament graft fixation with bioabsorbable interference screws is a standard procedure in cruciate ligament replacement. Previous screw designs may resorb incompletely, and can cause osteolysis and sterile cysts despite being implanted for several years. The aim of this study was to examine the in vivo degradation and biocompatibility of the new Milagro™ interference screw (Mitek, Norderstedt, Germany). The Milagro™ interference screw is made of 30% ß-TCP (TriCalcium phosphate) and 70% PLGA (Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid). In the period between June 2005 and February 2006, 38 patients underwent graft fixation with Milagro™ screws in our hospital. Arthroscopic ACL reconstruction was performed using hamstring tendon grafts in all the patients. MR imaging was performed on 12 randomly selected patients out of the total of 38 at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. During the examination, the volume loss of the screw, tunnel enlargement, presence of osteolysis, fluid lines, edema and postoperative screw replacement by bone tissue were evaluated. There was no edema or signs of inflammation around the bone tunnels. At 3, 6 and 12 months, the tibial screws showed an average volume loss of 0, 8.1% (±7.9%) and 82.6% (±17.2%, P < 0.05)...

Low Motor Assessment: A Comparative Pilot Study with Young Children With and Without Motor Impairment

Ruiter, Selma Anne José; Nakken, Han; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Lunenborg, Carolien B.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Most of the developmental instruments that measure cognitive development in children rely heavily on fine motor skills, especially for young children whose language skills are not yet well developed. This is problematic when evaluating the cognitive development of young children with motor impairment. The purpose of this study is to assess the need for a Low Motor adapation of a standardized instrument when testing children with motor impairment. To accomplish this, we have adapted the procedures, item instructions and play material of a widely used and standardized instrument, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Second Edition (BSID-II, Bayley 1993). The Original and the Low Motor versions were administered to 20 children experiencing typical development and 19 children with motor impairment within a period of two weeks. Results showed that children with motor impairments scored significantly higher on the Low Motor version of the Bayley Mental Scale than on the Original version: a difference of between 5 and 10 points when the score is expressed in terms of a developmental index score. Results from children with typical development support the assumption that item content and difficulty remain unchanged in the Low Motor version.

The Original Michaelis Constant: Translation of the 1913 Michaelis-Menten Paper

Johnson, Kenneth A.; Goody, Roger S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Nearly 100 years ago Michaelis and Menten published their now classic paper (Michaelis, L., and Menten, M. L. (1913) Die Kinetik der Invertinwirkung, Biochemische Zeitschrift 49, 333–369), in which they show that the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction is proportional to the concentration of enzyme-substrate complex predicted by the Michaelis-Menten equation. Because the original text was written in German, yet is often quoted by English speaking authors, we undertook a complete translation of the 1913 publication, which we provide as an online supplement (http://pubs.acs.org). Here we introduce the translation, describe the historical context of the work, and show a new analysis of the original data. In doing so, we uncovered several surprises that reveal an interesting glimpse into the early history of enzymology. In particular, our re-analysis of Michaelis and Menten’s data using modern computational methods revealed an unanticipated rigor and precision in the original publication and uncovered a sophisticated, comprehensive analysis that has been overlooked in the century since their work was published. Michaelis and Menten not only analyzed initial velocity measurements, but they also fit their full time course data to the integrated form of the rate equations...

Prediction of the Oncotype DX recurrence score: use of pathology-generated equations derived by linear regression analysis

Klein, Molly E; Dabbs, David J; Shuai, Yongli; Brufsky, Adam M; Jankowitz, Rachel; Puhalla, Shannon L; Bhargava, Rohit
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Oncotype DX is a commercial assay frequently used for making chemotherapy decisions in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers. The result is reported as a recurrence score ranging from 0 to 100, divided into low-risk (<18), intermediate-risk (18–30), and high-risk (≥31) categories. Our pilot study showed that recurrence score can be predicted by an equation incorporating standard morphoimmunohistologic variables (referred to as original Magee equation). Using a data set of 817 cases, we formulated three additional equations (referred to as new Magee equations 1, 2, and 3) to predict the recurrence score category for an independent set of 255 cases. The concordance between the risk category of Oncotype DX and our equations was 54.3%, 55.8%, 59.4%, and 54.4% for original Magee equation, new Magee equations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. When the intermediate category was eliminated, the concordance increased to 96.9%, 100%, 98.6%, and 98.7% for original Magee equation, new Magee equations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Even when the estimated recurrence score fell in the intermediate category with any of the equations, the actual recurrence score was either intermediate or low in more than 80% of the cases. Any of the four equations can be used to estimate the recurrence score depending on available data. If the estimated recurrence score is clearly high or low...

Establishment of NOD/SCID mouse models of human hepatocellular carcinoma via subcutaneous transplantation of histologically intact tumor tissue

Yan, Mingxia; Li, Hong; Zhao, Fangyu; Zhang, Lixing; Ge, Chao; Yao, Ming; Li, Jinjun
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 EN
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most deadly human cancers, but it is very difficult to establish an animal model by using surgical specimens. In the present experiment, histologically intact fresh surgical specimens of HCC were subcutaneously transplanted in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficienccy (NOD/SCID) mice. The biological characteristics of the original and the corresponding transplanted tumors and cell lines were investigated. The results showed that 5 new animal models and 2 primary cell lines were successfully established from surgical specimens. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that xenografts retained major histological features of the original surgical specimens. The two new cell lines had been cultivated for 3 years and successively passaged for more than 100 passages in vitro. The morphological characteristics and biologic features of the two cell lines were genetically similar to the original tumor. The subcutaneous transplant animal models with histologically intact tumor tissue and primary cell lines could be useful for in vivo and in vitro testing of anti-cancer drugs and be ideal models to study various biologic features of HCC.

Assisted curation of regulatory interactions and growth conditions of OxyR in E. coli K-12

Gama-Castro, Socorro; Rinaldi, Fabio; López-Fuentes, Alejandra; Balderas-Martínez, Yalbi Itzel; Clematide, Simon; Ellendorff, Tilia Renate; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Marques-Madeira, Hernani; Collado-Vides, Julio
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/06/2014 EN
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Given the current explosion of data within original publications generated in the field of genomics, a recognized bottleneck is the transfer of such knowledge into comprehensive databases. We have for years organized knowledge on transcriptional regulation reported in the original literature of Escherichia coli K-12 into RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx), our database that is currently supported by >5000 papers. Here, we report a first step towards the automatic biocuration of growth conditions in this corpus. Using the OntoGene text-mining system (http://www.ontogene.org), we extracted and manually validated regulatory interactions and growth conditions in a new approach based on filters that enable the curator to select informative sentences from preprocessed full papers. Based on a set of 48 papers dealing with oxidative stress by OxyR, we were able to retrieve 100% of the OxyR regulatory interactions present in RegulonDB, including the transcription factors and their effect on target genes. Our strategy was designed to extract, as we did, their growth conditions. This result provides a proof of concept for a more direct and efficient curation process, and enables us to define the strategy of the subsequent steps to be implemented for a semi-automatic curation of original literature dealing with regulation of gene expression in bacteria. This project will enhance the efficiency and quality of the curation of knowledge present in the literature of gene regulation...

Genetic predisposition of stroke: understanding the evolving landscape through meta-analysis

Huang, Hai-Dong; Yang, Chun-Min; Shu, Hai-Feng; Kuang, Yong-Qin; Yang, Tao; He, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Kai; Xia, Xun; Cheng, Jing-Min; Ma, Yuan; Gu, Jian-Wen
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/01/2015 EN
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Stroke, either ischemic or hemorrhagic, is the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. Identifying the risk factors is a prerequisite step for stroke prevention and treatment. It is believed that a major portion of the currently unidentified risk factors is of genetic origin. Consistent with this idea, numerous potential risk alleles for stroke have been reported, however, the genetic evidence so far is not conclusive. The major goal of this review is to update the current knowledge about the genetic predisposition to the common multifactorial stroke, and to provide a bird’s-eye view of this fast moving field. We selectively review and meta-analyze the related English literatures in public domain (PubMed) from 2000 onward, including the original reports and meta-analyses, to evaluate the genetic risk factors of common multifactorial stroke. The results indicated that we reviewed and meta-analyzed original reports and existing meta-analyses that studied the genetic predisposition to the common multifactorial stroke. Some original reports and meta-analyses were specific for ischemic stroke and others were for hemorrhagic stroke only. We also evaluated the major evolving issues in this field and discussed the future directions. In conclusion...

Mechanical rigidity of the Ortho-SUV frame compared to the Ilizarov frame in the correction of femoral deformity

Skomoroshko, Petr V.; Vilensky, Victor A.; Hammouda, Ahmed I.; Fletcher, Matt D. A.; Solomin, Leonid N.
Fonte: Springer Milan Publicador: Springer Milan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The Ortho-SUV frame (OSF) is a novel hexapod circular external fixator which draws upon the innovation of the Ilizarov method and the advantages of hexapod construction in the three-dimensional control of bone segments. Stability of fixation is critical to the success or failure of an external circular fixator for fracture or osteotomy healing. In vitro biomechanical modelling study was performed comparing the stability of the OSF under load in both original form and after dynamisation to the Ilizarov fixator in all zones of the femur utilising optimal frame configuration. A superior performance of the OSF in terms of resistance to deforming forces in both original and dynamised forms over that of the original Ilizarov fixator was found. The OSF shows higher rigidity than the Ilizarov in the control of forces acting upon the femur. This suggests better stabilisation of femoral fractures and osteotomies and thus improved healing with a reduced incidence of instability-related bone segment deformity, non-union and delayed union.

Analysis of the structure of original research papers: an aid to writing original papers for publication.

Skelton, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1994 EN
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BACKGROUND. An increasing number of people involved in medicine are under pressure to publish research, but there is little understanding of how to describe structured writing. AIM. This paper aims to describe the structure of original research papers published in the British Journal of General Practice with a view to providing insight into the nature of such analyses, and particularly to help researchers and trainers to write and teach writing more successfully. METHOD. A sample of 50 original papers published in the Journal between January 1989 and March 1993 were examined. The papers were subjected to a form of 'move structure analysis', a technique used in applied linguistics; move structure analysis assigns a tentative function to a piece of text, and identifies words/phrases associated with it. To be recognized, moves thus identified had to occur in the same section of the paper in 65% of the corpus, and/or appear in the same order relative to other moves in 50%. RESULTS. Fifteen moves were identified, four in the introduction, three in the method, and four each in the results and discussion. These moves functioned, for example in the discussion, to state limitations and defend successes; describe achievements; contextualize procedures and findings; and offer recommendations. Frequency scores ranged from 66% to 100%...