Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 09/11079-1; Processo FAPESP: 10/12524-6; In the present work, we investigated the immobilization and electrochemical behavior of Reactive Blue 4 dye on 3-aminopropyl-functionalized silica. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode and the electro-oxidation of dipyrone were studied by cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode showed a well-defined redox coupling with a formal potential of 0.45 V (vs. saturated calomel reference electrode) assigned to anthraquinone/anthrahydroquinone redox process (pH = 2). The modified electrode also demonstrated electrocatalytic activity and an increased peak current towards the oxidation of dipyrone at a reduced overall potential. The electrocatalytic process was found to be highly dependent on the pH of the supporting electrolyte. The voltammetric responses for dipyrone were linear in the concentration range of 49.9 to 440 mu mol L-1 at a pH of 2.0 with a detection limit and sensitivity of 22.0 mu mol L-1 and 0.0278 mu A mmol L-1, respectively.
Pb2CrO5 nanoparticles were embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix by the sol-gel process. The pH and heat treatment effects were evaluated in terms of structural, microstructural and optical properties from Pb2CrO5/SiO2 compounds. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and diffuse reflectance techniques were employed. Kubelka-Munk theory was used to calculate diffuse reflectance spectra that were compared to the experimental results. Finally, colorimetric coordinates of the Pb2CrO5/SiO2 compounds were shown and discussed. In general, an acid pH initially dissolves Pb2CrO5 nanoparticles and following heat treatment at 600 A degrees C crystallized into PbCrO4 composition with grain size around 6 nm in SiO2 matrix. No Pb2CrO5 solubilization was observed for basic pH. These nanoparticles were incorporated in silica matrix showing a variety of color ranging from yellow to orange.