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2-Mercaptoimidazole covalently bonded to a silica gel surface for the selective separation of mercury(II) from an aqueous solution

Dias, N. L.; Gushikem, Y.
Fonte: Marcel Dekker Inc Publicador: Marcel Dekker Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2535-2545
ENG
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Silica gel with a specific surface area of 365 m(2).g(-1) and an average pore diameter of 60 Angstrom was chemically modified with 2-mercaptoimidazole. The degree of functionalization of the covalently attached molecule, (drop SiO)(3)(CH2)(3) - MI, where MI is the 2-mercaptoimidazole bound to the silica surface by a propyl group, was 0.58 mmolg.(-1). In individual metal adsorption experiments from aqueous solutions by the batch procedure, the affinity order was Hg(II)much greater than Cd-II > Cu-II approximate to Zn-II approximate to Pb-II > Mn-II at solution pHs between 4 and 7. Due to the high affinity by the sulfur atom, Hg-II is strongly bound to the functional groups. When solution containing a mixture of Hg-II, Cd-II, Cu-II, Zn-II, Pb-II, and Mn-II ions was passed through a column packed with the adsorbent, Hg-II was the only one whose adsorption and elution was not affected by the presence of other ions.

Dinitrosyl iron complexes with cysteine. kinetics studies of the formation and reactions of dnics in aqueous solution

Pereira, José Clayston Melo; Iretskii, Alexei V.; Han, Rui-min; Ford, Peter C.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 328-336
ENG
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Kinetics studies provide mechanistic insight regarding the formation of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) now viewed as playing important roles in the mammalian chemical biology of the ubiquitous bioregulator nitric oxide (NO). Reactions in deaerated aqueous solutions containing FeSO4, cysteine (CysSH), and NO demonstrate that both the rates and the outcomes are markedly pH dependent. The dinuclear DNIC Fe2(μ-CysS)2(NO)4, a Roussin’s red salt ester (Cys-RSE), is formed at pH 5.0 as well as at lower concentrations of cysteine in neutral pH solutions. The mononuclear DNIC Fe(NO)2(CysS)2 − (Cys-DNIC) is produced from the same three components at pH 10.0 and at higher cysteine concentrations at neutral pH. The kinetics studies suggest that both Cys-RSE and Cys-DNIC are formed via a common intermediate Fe(NO)(CysS)2 −. Cys-DNIC and Cys-RSE interconvert, and the rates of this process depend on the cysteine concentration and on the pH. Flash photolysis of the Cys-RSE formed from Fe(II)/NO/cysteine mixtures in anaerobic pH 5.0 solution led to reversible NO dissociation and a rapid, second-order back reaction with a rate constant kNO = 6.9 × 107 M−1 s −1 . In contrast...

A folding-dependent mechanism of antimicrobial peptide resistance to degradation unveiled by solution structure of distinctin

Raimondo, Domenico; Andreotti, Giuseppina; Saint, Nathalie; Amodeo, Pietro; Renzone, Giovanni; Sanseverino, Marina; Zocchi, Ivana; Molle, Gerard; Motta, Andrea; Scaloni, Andrea
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Many bioactive peptides, presenting an unstructured conformation in aqueous solution, are made resistant to degradation by posttranslational modifications. Here, we describe how molecular oligomerization in aqueous solution can generate a still unknown transport form for amphipathic peptides, which is more compact and resistant to proteases than forms related to any possible monomer. This phenomenon emerged from 3D structure, function, and degradation properties of distinctin, a heterodimeric antimicrobial compound consisting of two peptide chains linked by a disulfide bond. After homodimerization in water, this peptide exhibited a fold consisting of a symmetrical full-parallel four-helix bundle, with a well secluded hydrophobic core and exposed basic residues. This fold significantly stabilizes distinctin against proteases compared with other linear amphipathic peptides, without affecting its antimicrobial, hemolytic, and ion-channel formation properties after membrane interaction. This full-parallel helical orientation represents a perfect compromise between formation of a stable structure in water and requirement of a drastic structural rearrangement in membranes to elicit antimicrobial potential. Thus, distinctin can be claimed as a prototype of a previously unrecognized class of antimicrobial derivatives. These results suggest a critical revision of the role of peptide oligomerization whenever solubility or resistance to proteases is known to affect biological properties.

Solution structures of calcitonin-gene-related-peptide analogues of calcitonin-gene-related peptide and amylin.

Hubbard, J A; Martin, S R; Chaplin, L C; Bose, C; Kelly, S M; Price, N C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/05/1991 EN
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Near-u.v. and far-u.v. c.d. spectra of human alpha-calcitonin-gene-related peptide (h alpha CGRP), analogues and fragments of CGRP and amylin were recorded in aqueous solution and in trifluoroethanol (TFE)/water mixtures. All peptides contained significant amounts of alpha-helix in aqueous solution, and this amount increased on adding TFE. The helical content was unaffected by pH and salt. However, amylin contained much less helix than CGRP and the c.d. spectrum was more temperature-sensitive. A band in the near-u.v. c.d. spectrum of CGRP (but not present in the spectrum of amylin) was attributed to the disulphide bond in CGRP. The intensity of this band was pH-dependent and titrated with a pKa of 6.5, suggesting the involvement of histidine ionization.

First-Principles Determination of Molecular Conformations of Indolizidine (−)-235B′ in Solution

Zheng, Fang; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Crooks, Peter A.; Zhan, Chang-Guo
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2009 EN
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Indolizidine (−)-235B′ is a particularly interesting natural product, as it is the currently known, most potent and subtype-selective open-channel blocker of the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In the current study, extensive first-principles electronic structure calculations have been carried out in order to determine the stable molecular conformations and their relative free energies of the protonated and deprotonated states of (−)-235B′ in the gas phase, in chloroform, and in aqueous solution. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts calculated using the computationally determined dominant molecular conformation of the deprotonated state are all consistent with available experimental NMR spectra of (−)-235B′ in chloroform, which suggests that the computationally determined molecular conformations are reasonable. Our computational results reveal for the first time that two geminal H atoms on carbon-3 (C3) of (−)-235B′ have remarkably different chemical shifts (i.e. 3.24 and 2.03 ppm). The computational results help one to better understand and analyze the experimental 1H NMR spectra of (−)-235B′. The finding of remarkably different chemical shifts of two C3 geminal H atoms in a certain molecular conformation of (−)-235B′ may also be valuable in analysis of NMR spectra of other related ring-containing compounds. In addition...

Two-Step Enzymatic Modification of Solid-Supported Bergenin in Aqueous and Organic Media

Akbar, Umar; Shin, Dong-Sik; Schneider, Elizabeth; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Clark, Douglas S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/02/2010 EN
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The natural flavonoid bergenin was directly immobilized onto carboxylic acid functionalized controlled pore glass (carboxy-CPG) at 95% yield. Immobilized bergenin was brominated via chloroperoxidase in aqueous solution and then transesterified with vinyl butyrate in diisopropyl ether by subtilisin carslberg (SC) extracted into the organic solvent via ion pairing. Enzymatic cleavage of 7-bromo-4-butyrylbergenin from carboxy-CPG (9.6% final yield) was accomplished using lipase B (LipB) in an aqueous/organic mixture (90/10 v/v of water/acetonitrile), demonstrating the feasibility of solid phase biocatalysis of a natural product in aqueous and non-aqueous media.

UV Resonance Raman Elucidation of the Terminal and Internal Peptide Bond Conformations of Crystalline and Solution Oligoglycines

Bykov, Sergei V.; Asher, Sanford A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/11/2010 EN
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Spectroscopic investigations of macromolecules generally attempt to interpret the measured spectra in terms of the summed contributions of the different molecular fragments. This is the basis of the local mode approximation in vibrational spectroscopy. In the case of resonance Raman spectroscopy independent contributions of molecular fragments require both a local mode-like behavior and the uncoupled electronic transitions. Here we show that the deep UV resonance Raman spectra of aqueous solution phase oligoglycines show independent peptide bond molecular fragment contributions indicating that peptide bonds electronic transitions and vibrational modes are uncoupled. We utilize this result to separately determine the conformational distributions of the internal and penultimate peptide bonds of oligoglycines. Our data indicate that in aqueous solution the oligoglycine terminal residues populate conformations similar to those found in crystals (31-helices and β-strands), but with a broader distribution, while the internal peptide bond conformations are centered around the 31-helix Ramachandran angles.

Interaction of Triapine and related thiosemicarbazones with iron(III)/(II) and gallium(III): a comparative solution equilibrium study†

Enyedy, Éva A.; Primik, Michael F.; Kowol, Christian R.; Arion, Vladimir B.; Kiss, Tamás; Keppler, Bernhard K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Stoichiometry and stability of GaIII, FeIII, FeII complexes of Triapine and five related α-N heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones with potential antitumor activity have been determined by pH-potentiometry, UV-vis spectrophotometry, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and spectrofluorimetry in aqueous solution (with 30% DMSO), together with the characterization of the proton dissociation processes. Additionally, the redox properties of the iron complexes were studied by cyclic voltammetry at various pH values. Formation of high stability bis-ligand complexes was found in all cases, which are predominant at physiological pH with FeIII/FeII, whilst only at the acidic pH range with GaIII. The results show that among the thiosemicarbazones with various substituents the N-terminal dimethylation does not exert a measurable effect on the redox potential, but has the highest impact on the stability of the complexes as well as the cytotoxicity, especially in the absence of a pyridine-NH2 group in the molecule. In addition the fluorescence properties of the ligands in aqueous solution and their changes caused by GaIII were studied.

Carboxylation and Decarboxylation of Active Site Lys 84 Controls the Activity of OXA-24 β-Lactamase of Acinetobacter baumannii: Raman Crystallographic and Solution Evidence

Che, Tao; Bonomo, Robert A.; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Bethel, Christopher R.; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Buynak, John D.; Carey, Paul R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The class D β-lactamases are characterized by the presence of a carboxylated lysine in the active site that participates in catalysis. Found in Acinetobacter baumannii, OXA-24 is a class D carbapenem hydrolyzing enzyme that exhibits resistance to most available β-lactamase inhibitors. In this study, the reaction between a 6-alkylidiene penam sulfone inhibitor, SA-1-204, in single crystals of OXA-24 is followed by Raman microscopy. Details of its reaction with SA-1-204 provide insight into the enzyme’s mode of action and help define the mechanism of inhibition. When the crystal is maintained in HEPES buffer, the reaction is fast, shorter than the time scale of the Raman experiment. However, when the crystal holding solution contains 28% PEG 2000, the reaction is slower and can be recorded by Raman microscopy in real time; the inhibitor’s Raman bands quickly disappear, transient features are seen due to an early intermediate, and, at approximately 2 to 11 minutes, new bands appear that are assigned to the late intermediate species. At about 50 minutes, bands due to all intermediates are replaced by Raman signals of the unreacted inhibitor. The new population remains unchanged indicating i) that the OXA-24 is no longer active and ii) that the decarboxylation of Lys84 occurred during the first reaction cycle. Using absorbance spectroscopy...

Molecular Modeling of Geometries, Charge Distributions, and Binding Energies of Small, Drug-Like Molecules Containing Nitrogen Heterocycles and Exocyclic Amino Groups in the Gas Phase and Aqueous Solution

White, Brian R.; Wagner, Carston R.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Amin, Elizabeth A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/10/2008 EN
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We have tested a variety of approximate methods for modeling 30 systems containing mixtures of nitrogen heterocycles and exocyclic amines, each of which is studied with up to 31 methods in one or two phases (gaseous and aqueous). Fifteen of the systems are protonated, and 15 are not. We consider a data set consisting of geometric parameters, partial atomic charges, and water binding energies for the methotrexate fragments 2-(aminomethyl)pyrazine and 2,4-diaminopyrimidine, as well as their cationic forms 1H-2-(aminomethyl)pyrazine and 1H-2,4-diaminopyrimidine. We first evaluated the suitability of several density functionals with the 6-31+G(d,p) basis set to serve as a benchmark by comparing calculated molecular geometries to results obtained from coupled-cluster [CCSD/6-31+G(d,p)] wave function theory (WFT). We found that the M05-2X density functional can be used to obtain reliable geometries for our data set. To accurately model partial charges in our molecules, we elected to utilize the well-validated Charge Model 4 (CM4). In the process of establishing benchmark values, we consider gas-phase coupled cluster and density functional theory (DFT) calculations followed by aqueous-phase DFT calculations, where the effect of solvent is treated by the SM6 quantum mechanical implicit solvation model. The resulting benchmarks were used to test several widely available and economical semiempirical molecular orbital (SE-MO) methods and molecular mechanical (MM) force fields for their ability to accurately predict the partial charges...

Solution-Processed Flexible Fluorine-doped Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Plastic Film at Low Temperature

Seo, Jin-Suk; Jeon, Jun-Hyuck; Hwang, Young Hwan; Park, Hyungjin; Ryu, Minki; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Bae, Byeong-Soo
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/06/2013 EN
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Transparent flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were demonstrated using the spin-coating method of the metal fluoride precursor aqueous solution with annealing at 200°C for 2 hrs on polyethylene naphthalate films. The proposed thermal evolution mechanism of metal fluoride aqueous precursor solution examined by thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy can easily explain oxide formation. The chemical composition analysed by XPS confirms that the fluorine was doped in the thin films annealed below 250°C. In the IZO:F thin films, a doped fluorine atom substitutes for an oxygen atom generating a free electron or occupies an oxygen vacancy site eliminating an electron trap site. These dual roles of the doped fluorine can enhance the mobility and improve the gate bias stability of the TFTs. Therefore, the transparent flexible IZO:F TFT shows a high mobility of up to 4.1 cm2/V·s and stable characteristics under the various gate bias and temperature stresses.

Staudinger ligation towards cyclodextrin dimers in aqueous/organic media. Synthesis, conformations and guest-encapsulation ability

Manouilidou, Malamatenia D; Lazarou, Yannis G; Mavridis, Irene M; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina
Fonte: Beilstein-Institut Publicador: Beilstein-Institut
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/04/2014 EN
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β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) dimers have been prepared using the bioorthogonal Staudinger ligation for the first time. In addition to a known linker, methyl 2-(diphenylphosphanyl)terephthalate, a doubly active linker was specifically developed that enabled connection of two β-CD units in a single step and in aqueous/organic media, under mild conditions and with good yields. A three-carbon spacer between the β-CD torus and the azido group was required for facile dimer formation. The products, as studied by NMR spectroscopy, were found to adopt closed conformations by intramolecular self-inclusion. On the other hand, association via intermolecular binding was also observed in aqueous solution, confirmed by DOSY NMR experiments. Despite self-inclusion, the β-CD cavities were capable of guest encapsulation, as shown by titration experiments: the binding constant with 1-adamantylamine was similar to that of natural β-CD. Theoretical calculations for isolated molecules (PM3 level of theory) and in the presence of solvent [water, PM3(COSMO)] as well as DFT calculations suggested that the compounds prefer to adopt conformations which bring the phenyl groups either inside the β-CD cavity (inclusion) or over its narrow side (vicinal). Thus, Staudinger ligation could be the method of choice for linking CDs exhibiting (i) ease of preparation in aqueous media...

A computer simulation and molecular-thermodynamic framework to model the micellization of ionic branched surfactants in aqueous solution

Lin, Shangchao
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 132 leaves
ENG
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Surfactants, or surface active agents, are chemicals exhibiting amphiphilic behavior toward a solvent. This amphiphilic character leads to increased activity at interfaces and to self-assembly into micellar aggregates beyond a threshold surfactant concentration, referred to as the critical micelle concentration (CMC), in bulk solutions. As a result of these unique attributes, surfactants are used in many pharmaceutical, industrial, and environmental applications, including biological separations, fat metabolism during digestion, drug delivery, and water purification. Selection of the appropriate surfactant for a given application is often motivated by the need to control bulk solution micellization properties, such as the CMC and the micelle shape and size. The ability to make molecular-level predictions of these surfactant properties would allow formulators in industry to speed up the design and optimization of new surfactant formulations. In this thesis, a combined computer simulation/molecular-thermodynamic (CS-MT) modeling approach was developed and utilized to study the micellization behavior of ionic branched surfactants, which are a class of surfactants of great industrial relevance in applications such as detergency, emulsification...

NMR observation of individual molecules of hydration water bound to DNA duplexes: direct evidence for a spine of hydration water present in aqueous solution.

Liepinsh, E; Otting, G; Wüthrich, K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/12/1992 EN
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The residence times of individual hydration water molecules in the major and minor grooves of DNA were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in aqueous solutions of d-(CGCGAATTCGCG)2 and d-(AAAAATTTTT)2. The experimental observations were nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE) between water protons and the protons of the DNA. The positive sign of NOEs with the thymine methyl groups shows that the residence times of the hydration water molecules near these protons in the major groove of the DNA must be shorter than about 500 ps, which coincides with the behavior of surface hydration water in peptides and proteins. Negative NOEs were observed with the hydrogen atoms in position 2 of adenine in both duplexes studied. This indicates that a 'spine of hydration' in the minor groove, as observed by X-ray diffraction in DNA crystals, is present also in solution, with residence times significantly longer than 1 ns. Such residence times are reminiscent of 'interior' hydration water molecules in globular proteins, which are an integral part of the molecular architecture both in solution and in crystals.

Disinfection of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopy equipment: an evaluation of a cetrimide chlorhexidine solution and glutaraldehyde.

Carr-Locke, D L; Clayton, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1978 EN
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There is little information available on the bacteriological contamination of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopes during routine use and the effects of 'disinfecting solutions'. A bacteriological evaluation was therefore made of cleaning an endoscope and its ancillary equipment with (1) water, (2) an aqueous solution of 1% cetrimide with 0.1% chlorhexidine, and (3) activated aqueous 2% glutaraldehyde. All equipment, but particularly the endoscope itself, was found to be heavily contaminated after use with a wide variety of organisms of which 53% were Gram positive. Cleaning the endoscope and ancillary equipment with water and the cetrimide/chlorhexidine solution alone or in combination was inadequate to produce disinfection but immersion in glutaraldehyde for two minutes consistently produced sterile cultures with our sampling technique. A rapid and simple method for disinfection of endoscopic equipment is therefore recommended and we think this is especially suitable for busy endoscopy units.

Metal–5-Fluorouracil–Histamine Complexes: Solution, Structural, and Antitumour Studies

Tyagi, Sadhna; Singh, Sukh Mahendra; Gencaslan, Sujan; Sheldrick, W. S.; Singh, Udai P.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
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Solution studies were performed pH-metrically to study the interaction of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal ions with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and histamine (Hm) separately (binary) and in the presence of each other (ternary) at 25±0.1 °C temperature and a constant ionic strength of 0.1 M NaNO3 in aqueous solution. The ternary complexes have been found to be more stable than the corresponding binary complexes as shown by the positive value of ΔlogK. The species distribution curves have been obtained using the computer programme BEST. On the basis of species distribution results, efforts were also made to prepare some mixed complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions by performing the reaction of their metal nitrates, 5FU and Hm in aqueous ethanol medium at suitable pH. The isolated solid complexes were characterized by different physico-chemical method in order to suggest the possible binding site of the ligands and the structure of the resultant complexes. All these complexes were checked for their antitumour activity by injecting in Dalton's lymphoma (DL) and Sarcoma-180 (S-180) bearing C3H/He mice. The results indicate that some complexes have good antitumour activity both in vivo and in vitro.

Effect of Base Stacking on the Acid-Base Properties of the Adenine Cation Radical [A•+] in Solution: ESR and DFT Studies

Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Khanduri, Deepti; Sevilla, Michael D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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In this study, the acid–base properties of the adenine cation radical are investigated by means of experiment and theory. Adenine cation radical (A•+) is produced by one-electron oxidation of dAdo and of the stacked DNA-oligomer (dA)6 by Cl2•− in aqueous glass (7.5 M LiCl in H2O and in D2O) and investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Theoretical calculations and deuterium substitution at C8–H and N6–H in dAdo aid in our assignments of structure. We find the pKa value of A•+ in this system to be ca. 8 at 150 K in seeming contradiction to the accepted value of ≤ 1 at ambient temperature. However, upon thermal annealing to ≥160 K, complete deprotonation of A•+ occurs in dAdo in these glassy systems even at pH ca. 3. A•+ found in (dA)6 at 150 K also deprotonates on thermal annealing. The stability of A•+ at 150 K in these systems is attributed to charge delocalization between stacked bases. Theoretical calculations at various levels (DFT B3LYP/6-31G*, MPWB95, and HF-MP2) predict binding energies for the adenine stacked dimer cation radical of 12 to 16 kcal/mol. Further DFT B3LYP/6-31G* calculations predict that, in aqueous solution, monomeric A•+ should deprotonate spontaneously (a predicted pKa of ca. −0.3 for A•+). However...

Solution structures of nisin A and its two major degradation products determined by n.m.r.

Lian, L Y; Chan, W C; Morley, S D; Roberts, G C; Bycroft, B W; Jackson, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/04/1992 EN
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The conformations of nisin and two major degradation products, nisin-(1-32)-peptide (nisin1-32) and des-delta Ala5-nisin1-32 (where delta Ala is alpha beta-didehydroalanine), in aqueous solution have been determined from n.m.r. data. Sequential assignments of the peptides using correlation spectroscopy ('COSY'), homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn spectroscopy ('HOHAHA'), nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY), relayed NOESY and rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy (ROESY) experiments are presented, including stereospecific assignments of beta-methylene protons of the lanthionine residues. ROESY experiments are also used to detect flexible regions in the polypeptide chain. A dynamic-stimulated-annealing approach is used for structural determination. It can be concluded that all these peptides are flexible in aqueous solution, with no experimental evidence of preferred overall conformations; the only defined conformational features are imposed by the presence of the lanthionine residues. Low-temperature studies also reveal that des-delta Ala5-nisin1-32 adopts conformations similar to those when the ring is intact, suggesting that the loss of activity of this degradation product is due to the absence of the delta Ala5 residue rather than to the conformational consequences of ring-opening.

How does the chain extension of poly (acrylic acid) scale in aqueous solution? A combined study with light scattering and computer simulation

Reith, D.; Mueller, B.; Mueller-Plathe, F.; Wiegand, S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/03/2001
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This work adresses the question of the scaling behaviour of polyelectrolytes in solution for a realistic prototype: We show results of a combined experimental (light scattering) and theoretical (computer simulations) investigation of structural properties of poly (acrylic acid) (PAA). Experimentally, we determined the molecular weight (M_W) and the hydrodynamic radius (R_H) by static light scattering for six different PAA samples in aqueous NaCl-containing solution (0.1-1 mol/L) of polydispersity D_P between 1.5 and 1.8. On the computational side, three different variants of a newly developed mesoscopic force field for PAA were employed to determine R_H for monodisperse systems of the same M_W as in the experiments. The force field effectively incorporates atomistic information and one coarse-grained bead corresponds to one PAA monomer. We find that R_H matches with the experimental data for all investigated samples. The effective scaling exponent for R_H is found to be around 0.55, which is well below its asymptotic value for good solvents. Additionally, data for the radius of gyration (R_G) are presented.; Comment: 17 pages, 3 figures, submitted to Macromolecules

Kinetic and ion pairing contributions in the dielectric spectra of electrolyte aqueous solutions

Sega, Marcello; Kantorovich, Sofia; Holm, Christian; Arnold, Axel
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/04/2014
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Understanding dielectric spectra can reveal important information about the dynamics of solvents and solutes from the dipolar relaxation times down to electronic ones. In the late 1970s, Hubbard and Onsager predicted that adding salt ions to a polar solution would result in a reduced dielectric permittivity that arises from the unexpected tendency of solvent dipoles to align opposite to the applied field. So far, this effect has escaped an experimental verification, mainly because of the concomitant appearance of dielectric saturation from which the Hubbard-Onsager decrement cannot be easily separated. Here we develop a novel non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation approach to determine this decrement accurately for the first time. Using a thermodynamic consistent all-atom force field we show that for an aqueous solution containing sodium chloride around 4.8 Mol/l, this effect accounts for 12\% of the total dielectric permittivity. The dielectric decrement can be strikingly different if a less accurate force field for the ions is used. Using the widespread GROMOS parameters, we observe in fact an {\it increment} of the dielectric permittivity rather than a decrement. We can show that this increment is caused by ion pairing, introduced by a too low dispersion force...