Distinction between neuropathic pain and nociceptive pain helps facilitate appropriate management of pain; however, diagnosis of neuropathic pain remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to develop a Korean version of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) pain scale and assess its reliability and validity. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original LANSS pain scale into Korean was established according to the published guidelines. The Korean version of the LANSS pain scale was applied to a total of 213 patients who were expertly diagnosed with neuropathic (n = 113) or nociceptive pain (n = 100). The Korean version of the scale had good reliability (Cronbach's α coefficient = 0.815, Guttman split-half coefficient = 0.800). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.928 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.885-0.959 (P < 0.001), suggesting good discriminate value. With a cut-off score ≥ 12, sensitivity was 72.6%, specificity was 98.0%, and the positive and negative predictive values were 98% and 76%, respectively. The Korean version of the LANSS pain scale is a useful, reliable, and valid instrument for screening neuropathic pain from nociceptive pain.
Utilization of a novel plant host by herbivorous insects requires coordination of numerous physiological and behavioral adaptations in both larvae and adults. The recent host range expansion of the crucifer-specialist diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), to the sugar pea crop in Kenya provides an opportunity to study this process in action. Previous studies have shown that larval ability to grow and complete development on sugar pea is genetically based, but that females of the pea-adapted strain do not prefer to oviposit on pea. Here we examine larval preference for the novel host plant. Larvae of the newly evolved pea-adapted host strain were offered the choice of the novel host plant sugar pea and the original host cabbage. These larvae significantly preferred pea, while in contrast, all larvae of a cabbage-adapted DBM strain preferred cabbage. However, pea-adapted larvae, which were reared on cabbage, also preferred cabbage. Thus both genetic differences and previous exposure affect larval host choice, while adult choice for the novel host has not yet evolved.
The Illness Behaviour Questionnaire (IBQ) of Pilowsky and Spence (1981), which was developed as a self report instrument to record aspects of “Illness Behaviour” particularly those attitudes that suggest inappropriate or maladaptive modes of responding to one's state of health (Pilowsky 1971), was translated into Hindi and adapted. Factor analysis of the data revealed four meaningful factors which correspond with the four out of seven factor reported by original authors.
Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms.
To detect the type of contact dermatitis caused due to the handling ofAlstroemeria wilhelmina, 1% α-methylene-λ-butyrolactone (α-MBL) dissolved in physiological alien and a five-fold diluted saline solution of original extracts of flowers, leaves and stems of the flower were applied to guinea-pigs for extracts were applied to the animals as the challenge treatment in compliance with the guinea-pig maximization test (GMT). As a consequence, not only primary irritant dermatitis was observed, but also delayed type allergic contact dermatitis due toAlstroemeria wilhelmina was observed. α-MBL determined in the extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was found to be the biochemical material cause of the contact dermatitis. the flower region contained α-MBL in the highest concentrations compared with those of the leaves and stems. Therefore, the quantification of α-MBL in the extracts was concluded as being a useful evaluating method for contact dermatitis due to the handling ofAlstroemeria.
Extreme arid regions in the worlds' major deserts are typified by quartz pavement terrain. Cryptic hypolithic communities colonize the ventral surface of quartz rocks and this habitat is characterized by a relative lack of environmental and trophic complexity. Combined with readily identifiable major environmental stressors this provides a tractable model system for determining the relative role of stochastic and deterministic drivers in community assembly. Through analyzing an original, worldwide data set of 16S rRNA-gene defined bacterial communities from the most extreme deserts on the Earth, we show that functional assemblages within the communities were subject to different assembly influences. Null models applied to the photosynthetic assemblage revealed that stochastic processes exerted most effect on the assemblage, although the level of community dissimilarity varied between continents in a manner not always consistent with neutral models. The heterotrophic assemblages displayed signatures of niche processes across four continents, whereas in other cases they conformed to neutral predictions. Importantly, for continents where neutrality was either rejected or accepted, assembly drivers differed between the two functional groups. This study demonstrates that multi-trophic microbial systems may not be fully described by a single set of niche or neutral assembly rules and that stochasticity is likely a major determinant of such systems...
Rous sarcoma virus-29 (RSV-29) is the strain of RSV that has the least number of passages beyond its isolation from chicken tumor no. 1 among all current strains of RSV. Biological characterization indicated that it was replication defective. RNA analysis of nonproducer clones of RSV-29-infected chicken embryonic fibroblasts showed the presence of a subgenomic message of 2.6 kilobases containing src and a genomic RNA of 7.7 kilobases that contains gag, pol, and src, but not env. The src-containing EcoRI fragment of RSV-29 proviral DNA was molecularly cloned. Sequence analysis of the regions flanking src revealed that the env gene was completely deleted in RSV-29 and that the sequence across the deletion was exactly the same as the Bryan high-titer strain of RSV. The sequence immediately 3' to src in RSV-29 was closely related to that of the Prague strain of RSV. The fact that the strain of RSV which has the minimal number of passages beyond its isolation is replication defective supports the hypothesis of Lerner and Hanafusa (J. Virol. 49:549-556, 1984) that the original RSV is a defective transforming virus. This defective transforming virus is postulated to be the precursor to other defective RSVs like the Bryan high-titer strain and to nondefective RSVs like the Prague strain. The particular clone of RSV-29 that we studied also had a short stretch of sequence duplication at the 3' end of the pol gene...
Interspecific hybridization may result in asexual hybrid lineages that reproduce via parthenogenesis. Contrary to true parthenogens, sperm-dependent asexuals (gynogens and hybridogens) are restricted to the range of bisexual species, generally the parental taxa, by their need for a sperm donor. It has been documented that asexual lineages may rarely use sperm from a non-parental species or even switch a host. The available literature reports do not allow distinguishing, between whether such host switches arise by the expansion of asexuals out of their parental's range (and into that of another's) or by the local extinction of a parental population followed by a host switch. The present study combines new and previously collected data on the distribution and history of gynogenetic spined loaches (Cobitis) of hybrid origin. We identified at least three clonal lineages that have independently switched their sperm dependency to different non-parental Cobitis species, and in cases incorporated their genomes. Our current knowledge of European Cobitis species and their hybrids suggests that this pattern most probably results from the expansion of gynogenetic lineages into new areas. Such expansion was independent of the original parental species. This suggests that sperm dependence is not as restrictive to geographical expansion when compared with true parthenogenesis as previously thought.
Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the canal transportation and centering ability of Twisted File (TF) to that of Reciproc system. Methods and Materials: Forty noncalcified roots with mature apices, minimum length of 19 mm and an apical curvature of 15-30 degrees (according to Schneider’s method), from freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary teeth, were selected for this study. Samples were randomly divided into two groups (n=20) and canal preparation with either TF or Reciproc was performed according to manufacturers' instruction. Pre- and post-instrumentation cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were captured and the extent of canal transportation and centering ability of the files were calculated, using the NNT Viewer software and Photoshop CS5, at levels of 3, 4, and 5 mm from the apex. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the statistical significance between the two groups. Results: One fracture occurred in the TF group. TF produced more transportation than Reciproc in both mesiodistal and buccolingual directions; however, the difference between the two systems were not statistically significant except for the TF group at 5-mm distance from the working length, where the difference was significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Both file systems were able keep the original curvature of the canal and thus can be considered safe for clinical application.
The Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) is one of the standardized neuropsychological test batteries widely used in Korea. However, it may be a bit too lengthy for patients with decreased attention span; and it does not provide the score of global cognitive function (GCF), which is useful for monitoring patients longitudinally. We sought to validate a dementia version of SNSB (SNSB-D) that was shorter than the original SNSB and contained only scorable tests with a GCF score of 300. We administered SNSB-D to patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=43) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=93), and normal controls (NC) (n=77). MCI and AD groups had GCF scores significantly different from NC group, and GCF scores were able to distinguish patients with Clinical Dementia Rating of 0.5 and 1. Test-retest reliability was high, with a correlation coefficient of 0.918 for AD, 0.999 for MCI, and 0.960 for NC. The GCF score significantly correlated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Through ROC-curve analysis, GCF scores were found to yield more accurate diagnoses than the MMSE. The SNSB-D is a valid, reliable tool for assessing the overall cognitive function, and can be used to monitor cognitive changes in patients with dementia.
The breaking of bad news is a routine but difficult task for many health
professionals. There are numerous anecdotes of insensitive practice but the
subject has attracted little systematic research. We therefore interviewed 106
patients with advanced cancer (from an original sample of 195) to assess their
perceptions of the doctors involved in their care. Aspects of the
‘breaking bad news’ event were recorded during discussion of the
illness history and were subsequently rated. Participants were also asked to
nominate doctors under the headings ‘most helpful’ and ‘less
helpful’, and completed standardized psychological screening
Cho, Mee-Yon; Sohn, Jin Hee; Kim, Joon Mee; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Park, Young Su; Kim, Woo Ho; Jung, Jin Sook; Jung, Eun Sun; Jin, So-Young; Kang, Dae Young; Park, Jae Bok; Park, Ho Sung; Choi, You Duck; Sung, Sun Hee; Kim, Young-Bae; Kim, Hogeun; Bae, Young-K
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical SciencesPublicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Despite remarkable progress in understanding and treating gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) during the past two decades, the pathological characteristics of GISTs have not been made clear yet. Furthermore, concrete diagnostic criteria of malignant GISTs are still uncertain. We collected pathology reports of 1,227 GISTs from 38 hospitals in Korea between 2003 and 2004 and evaluated the efficacy of the NIH and AFIP classification schemes as well as the prognostic factors among pathologic findings. The incidence of GISTs in Korea is about 1.6 to 2.2 patients per 100,000. Extra-gastrointestinal GISTs (10.1%) are more common in Korea than in Western countries. In univariate analysis, gender, age, tumor location, size, mitosis, tumor necrosis, vascular and mucosal invasions, histologic type, CD34 and s-100 protein expression, and classifications by the NIH and AFIP criteria were found to be significantly correlated with patient's survival. However, the primary tumor location, stage and classification of the AFIP criteria were prognostically significant in predicting patient's survival in multivariate analysis. The GIST classification based on original tumor location, size, and mitosis is more efficient than the NIH criteria in predicting patient's survival...
Cancerogenesis is driven by mutations leading to aberrant functioning of a complex network of molecular interactions and simultaneously affecting multiple cellular functions. Therefore, the successful application of bioinformatics and systems biology methods for analysis of high-throughput data in cancer research heavily depends on availability of global and detailed reconstructions of signalling networks amenable for computational analysis. We present here the Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network (ACSN), an interactive and comprehensive map of molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer. The resource includes tools for map navigation, visualization and analysis of molecular data in the context of signalling network maps. Constructing and updating ACSN involves careful manual curation of molecular biology literature and participation of experts in the corresponding fields. The cancer-oriented content of ACSN is completely original and covers major mechanisms involved in cancer progression, including DNA repair, cell survival, apoptosis, cell cycle, EMT and cell motility. Cell signalling mechanisms are depicted in detail, together creating a seamless ‘geographic-like' map of molecular interactions frequently deregulated in cancer. The map is browsable using NaviCell web interface using the Google Maps engine and semantic zooming principle. The associated web-blog provides a forum for commenting and curating the ACSN content. ACSN allows uploading heterogeneous omics data from users on top of the maps for visualization and performing functional analyses. We suggest several scenarios for ACSN application in cancer research...
Hyperhidrosis is a disorder of perspiration in excess of the body's physiologic need and significantly impacts one's occupational, physical, emotional, and social life. The purpose of our study was to investigate the characteristics of primary hyperhidrosis in 255 patients at Ajou University Hospital Hyperhidrosis Center from March 2006, to February 2008. Information collected from the medical records was: sex, sites of hyperhidrosis, age at visit, age of onset, aggravating factors, hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS) rank, family history, occupation, and past treatment. A total of 255 patient records were reviewed; 57.6% were male. Patients with a family history (34.1%) showed a lower age of onset (13.21±5.80 yr vs. 16.04±9.83 yr in those without family history); 16.5% had previous treatment, most commonly oriental medicine. Palmar and plantar sites were the most commonly affected, and 87.9% of patients felt their sweating was intolerable and always interfered with their daily activities. Our study provides some original information on the Korean primary hyperhidrosis population. Patients who have a family history show signs of disease in early age than those without family history.
In real-world applications, the image of faces varies with illumination, facial expression, and poses. It seems that more training samples are able to reveal possible images of the faces. Though minimum squared error classification (MSEC) is a widely used method, its applications on face recognition usually suffer from the problem of a limited number of training samples. In this paper, we improve MSEC by using the mirror faces as virtual training samples. We obtained the mirror faces generated from original training samples and put these two kinds of samples into a new set. The face recognition experiments show that our method does obtain high accuracy performance in classification.
Seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica were subjected to preliminary phytochemical tests and its presence was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. The TLC profile of the methanolic extract of seeds of S. nux-vomica was developed using the solvent system toluene:chloroform:methanol in the ratio 8:2:1. The plate was observed in visible light after spraying with Dragendorff's reagent (specific method). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile of the methanolic extracts of S. nux-vomica was developed, and the amount of strychnine seems to be 0.36% (w/w) in the seeds. The TLC and HPLC profiles developed are very valuable for the identification of the original drug from their adulterants. The TLC profile identifies the presence of strychnine in the plant material. The quantification method for the strychnine in the seeds can be used for the quality standardization of the raw drug because the strychnine is reported to have some toxicity.
Although the MHC class II ‘u' haplotype is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in rats, the role of MHC class II in the development of tissue-specific autoimmune diseases including T1D and autoimmune thyroiditis remains unclear. To clarify this, we produced a congenic strain carrying MHC class II ‘a' and ‘u' haplotypes on the Komeda diabetes-prone (KDP) genetic background. The u/u homozygous animals developed T1D similar to the original KDP rat; a/u heterozygous animals did develop T1D but with delayed onset and low frequency. In contrast, none of the a/a homozygous animals developed T1D; about half of the animals with a/u heterozygous or a/a homozygous genotypes showed autoimmune thyroiditis. To investigate the role of genetic background in the development of thyroiditis, we also produced a congenic strain carrying Cblb mutation of the KDP rat on the PVG.R23 genetic background (MHC class II ‘a' haplotype). The congenic rats with homozygous Cblb mutation showed autoimmune thyroiditis without T1D and slight to severe alopecia, a clinical symptom of hypothyroidism such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. These data indicate that MHC class II is involved in the tissue-specific development of autoimmune diseases, including T1D and thyroiditis.
Since the introduction of new growth charts in the mid 1990s, there has been confusion about which charts should be used, with many districts using more than one version. Because of this uncertainty, an expert working party, the Growth Reference Review Group, was convened by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health to provide guidance on the validity and comparability of the different charts currently in use. This paper describes the technical background to the construction and evaluation of growth charts and outlines the group's findings on the validity of each growth reference in relation to contemporary British children. The group concluded that for most clinical purposes the UK90 reference is superior and for many measures is the only usable reference that can be recommended, while the original Tanner–Whitehouse and the Gairdner–Pearson charts are no longer reliable for use at any age. After the age of 2 the revised Buckler–Tanner references are still suitable for assessing height. There are presently no reliable head circumference reference charts for use beyond infancy. The group propose that apart from refinements of chart design and layout, the new UK90 reference should now be "frozen", with any future revisions only undertaken after careful planning and widespread consultation
Changes in the blood expression levels of SAT1, PTEN, MAP3K3 and MARCKS genes have been reported as biomarkers of high versus low suicidality state (Le-Niculescu et al.). Here, we investigate these expression biomarkers in the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study, of patients with major depressive disorder on a 12-week antidepressant treatment. Blood gene expression levels were available at baseline and week 8 for patients who experienced suicidal ideation during the study (n=20) versus those who did not (n=37). The analysis is well powered to detect the effect sizes reported in the original paper. Within either group, there was no significant change in the expression of these four genes over the course of the study, despite increasing suicidal ideation or initiation of antidepressant treatment. Comparison of the groups showed that the gene expression did not differ between patients with or without treatment-related suicidality. This independent study does not support the validity of the proposed biomarkers.
Since the original formulation of the dopamine hypothesis, a number of other cellular-level abnormalities—eg, NMDA receptor hypofunction, GABA system dysfunction, neural connectivity disturbances—have been identified in schizophrenia, but the manner in which these potentially interact with hyperdopaminergia to lead to schizophrenic symptomatology remains uncertain. Previously, we created a neuroanatomically detailed, biophysically realistic computational model of hippocampus in the control (unaffected) and schizophrenic conditions, implemented on a 72-processor supercomputer platform. In the current study, we apply the effects of dopamine (DA), dose-dependently, to both models on the basis of an exhaustive review of the neurophysiologic literature on DA's ion channel and synaptic level effects. To index schizophrenic behavior, we use the specific inability of the model to attune to the 40 Hz (gamma band) frequency, a finding that has been well replicated in the clinical electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography literature. In trials using 20 ‘simulated patients', we find that DA applied to the control model produces modest increases in 40 Hz activity, similar to experimental studies. However, in the schizophrenic model...