In the past decade, infrastructure
contributed 0.5 percentage points to Kenya's annual per
capita GDP growth. Raising the country s infrastructure
endowment to that of Africa's middle-income countries
could increase that contribution by 3 percentage points.
Several accomplishments are notable. More than 90 percent of
the population has access to GSM cell signals. A successful
public-private partnership in air transport has made
Kenya's airline a top carrier in the region and its
international airport a key gateway to Africa. Institutional
reforms in the power sector have reduced the burden of
subsidies on the public by approximately 1 percent of GDP.
But the power sector continues to pose Kenya's greatest
infrastructure challenge. Over the next decade, current
capacity will have to double. A second challenge is to
improve the efficiency of operations at the Port of Mombasa.
Other concerns include low levels of access to household
services, underfunding of road maintenance, and negative
progress on the Millennium Development Goals for water
supply and sanitation. Addressing Kenya's
infrastructure deficit will require sustained expenditures
of approximately $4 billion per year (20 percent of GDP)
over the next decade. As of 2006...
Infrastructure contributed 0.6
percentage points to Ethiopia's annual per capita GDP
growth over the last decade. Raising the country's
infrastructure endowment to that of the region's
middle-income countries could add an additional 3 percentage
points to infrastructure's contribution to growth.
Ethiopia's infrastructure successes include developing
Ethiopia Airlines, a leading regional carrier; upgrading its
network of trunk roads; and rapidly expanding access to
water and sanitation.The country's greatest
infrastructure challenge lies in the power sector, where a
further 8,700 megawatts of generating plant are needed over
the next decade, implying a doubling of current capacity.
The transport sector faces the challenges of low levels of
rural accessibility and inadequate road maintenance.
Ethiopia s ICT sector currently suffers from a poor
institutional and regulatory framework. Addressing
Ethiopia's infrastructure deficit will require a
sustained annual expenditure of $5.1 billion over the next
decade. The power sector alone requires $3.3 billion
Newly independent South Sudan faces a
challenge in making its own way in infrastructure
development. Despite earning $6 billion in oil revenues
since 2005, South Sudan's spending has not been
proportional to its income, but rather has lagged behind
North Sudan's development of infrastructure and social
support. South Sudan benefitted from strong donor support
during 2004-10, the interim period defined by the
Comprehensive Peace Agreement. It focused on reestablishing
regional transport links and access to seaports as well as
rehabilitating its ports, airstrips, and single rail line.
South Sudan also successfully liberalized the ICT sector.
Nonetheless, the new country's infrastructure remains
in such a dismal state that it is difficult to pinpoint a
single most pressing challenge. The transport sector
accounts for half of the country's spending needs, and
water and sanitation account for a further quarter of the
total. But so many improvements are needed that the nation
cannot realistically catch up with its neighbors within 10
Infrastructure contributed 1.3
percentage points to Tanzania's annual per capital GDP
growth during the 2000s. If the country's
infrastructure endowment were improved to the level of the
African leader, Mauritius, annual per capita growth rates
could increase by 3.4 percent. Tanzania has made great
progress in reforming its trunk roads, improving the quality
of the road network. The country has also seen significant
gains in ICT networks, and has one of the most competitive
domestic air transport sectors in Africa. The power sector
poses Tanzania's most serious infrastructure challenge.
Despite significant improvements in pricing and operational
performance in recent years, inefficiency still absorbs
about 1.4 percent of GDP. Moreover, due to heavy reliance on
hydro-power the sector remains vulnerable to climate
variability. The port of Dar es Salaam also suffers from
performance problems as rapid traffic growth has
increasingly exposed deficiencies in storage and access to
the port. Poor access to safe water is another challenge...