When wheat seedlings (Triticum vulgare cf HD 2189) were grown in the presence of BASF 13.338 (4-chloro-5-[dimethylamino]-2-phenyl-3[2H]-pyridazinone), there was a decrease in the ratio of linolenic acid to linoleic acid in the thylakoid membrane lipids (JB St John 1976 Plant Physiol 57: 38) and an increase in the ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I (RM Mannan, S Bose 1984 Photochem Photobiol 41: 63). Accompanying these gross structural changes were alterations in the cationic regulation of structure and functioning of the thylakoid membranes: (a) Mg2+-induced increase in the room temperature fluorescence was totally absent; (b) Mg2+-induced increase in absorbance at 560 nm, indicative of granal stacking, was slightly higher in thylakoids isolated from the BASF 13.338 treated plants suggesting an increased degree of stacking; and (c) absorption changes in the red and Soret regions of the absorption spectrum, normally resulting from the addition of divalent cation or alkyl anion, or from osmotic shrinkage were almost totally absent in thylakoid membranes isolated from BASF 13.338 treated plants. These observations have been interpreted in terms of: (a) significant alterations in the lipid matrix of the thylakoids from treated plants...
The functional and physical properties of cellular membranes isolated from Triticum aestivum, cvs Norstar and Fredrick, were altered coincident with changes in composition after a lethal ice-encasement stress and further during a 6 hour post-thaw period. Crowns encased in ice for a duration which inhibited regrowth, exhibited enhanced rates of electrolyte leakage. Furthermore, the recovery of total microsomal protein and phospholipid declined, suggesting that some membrane degradation had been induced during the anoxic stress. The microviscosity of microsomes and liposomes prepared from such membranes increased during stress, and this was correlated with a 2- to 4-fold increase in the free fatty acid levels in the microsomal fraction. There was, however, only a relatively minor change in fatty acid unsaturation during the ice-encasement stress. The process continued during a 6 hour aerobic post-thaw treatment, but the pattern was somewhat different. During this phase, the leakage of electrolytes was further increased and the recovery of microsomal protein and phospholipid continued to decline, indicating general degradation; but, in contrast to the anoxic phase, the degree of fatty acid unsaturation declined markedly, indicating lipid peroxidation.
Crude plasma membranes of corn (Zea mays L.) roots were obtained according to MI De Michelis and RM Spanswick (1986 Plant Physiol 81: 542-547). This preparation, which contained tightly sealed vesicles displaying Mg-ATP dependent H+-transport, was purified by phase partitioning. The percentage of inside-out vesicles (10%) was determined from the Mg-ATPase latency, revealed with lysophosphatidylcholine. A Triton X-100 treatment described previously (JP Grouzis, R Gibrat, J Rigaud, C Grignon 1987 Biochim Biophys Acta 903: 449-464) was applied to phase-partitioned plasma membranes. The percentage of catalytic sites freely accessible to Mg-ATP increased to 50% after Triton X-100 treatment. Treated vesicles remained capable of electrogenic H+-pumping, as demonstrated by Mg:ATP-dependent quinacrine fluorescence quenching and oxonol absorbance shift. As expected from the large increase of the catalytic sites accessibility, increases of the dye responses were observed. Concanavalin A binding was estimated from microelectrophoretic measurements of individual vesicles. Statistical analysis of concanavalin A binding and Mg-ATPase latency suggest that treated membranes have lost their asymmetric structure.
A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana with reduced content of C18:3 and C16:3 fatty acids in membrane lipids exhibited a 45% reduction in the cross-sectional area of chloroplasts and had a decrease of similar magnitude in the amount of chloroplast lamellar membranes. The reduction in chloroplast size was partially compensated by a 45% increase in the number of chloroplasts per cell in the mutant. When expressed on a chlorophyll basis the rates of CO2-fixation and photosynthetic electron transport were not affected by these changes. Fluorescence polarization measurements indicated that the fluidity of the thylakoid membranes was not significantly altered by the mutation. Similarly, on the basis of temperature-induced fluorescence yield enhancement measurements, there was no significant effect on the thermal stability of chlorophyll-protein complexes in the mutant. These observations suggest that the high content of trienoic fatty acids in chloroplast lipids may be an important factor regulating organelle biogenesis but is not required to support normal levels of the photosynthetic activities associated with the thylakoid membranes.
The effects of NO3− and assay temperature on proton translocating ATPases in membranes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv California Mariout 72) roots were examined. The membranes were fractionated on continuous and discontinuous sucrose gradients and proton transport was assayed by monitoring the fluorescence of acridine orange. A peak of H+-ATPase at 1.11 grams per cubic centimeter was inhibited by 50 millimolar KNO3 when assayed at 24°C or above and was tentatively identified as the tonoplast H+-ATPase. A smaller peak of H+-ATPase at 1.16 grams per cubic centimeter, which was not inhibited by KNO3 and was partially inhibited by vanadate, was tentatively identified as the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. A step gradient gave three fractions enriched, respectively, in endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast ATPase, and plasma membrane ATPase. There was a delay before 50 millimolar KNO3 inhibited ATP hydrolysis by the tonoplast ATPase at 12°C and the initial rate of proton transport was stimulated by 50 millimolar KNO3. The time course for fluorescence quench indicated that addition of ATP in the presence of KNO3 caused a pH gradient to form that subsequently collapsed. This biphasic time course for proton transport in the presence of KNO3 was explained by the temperature-dependent delay of the inhibition by KNO3. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase maintained a pH gradient in the presence of KNO3 for up to 30 minutes at 24°C.
A maize (Zea mays L. cv LG 11) root homogenate was prepared and centrifuged to sediment the mitochondria. The pellet (6 KP) and the supernatant (6 KS) were collected and fractionated on linear sucrose density gradients. Marker enzymes were used to study the distribution of the different cell membranes in the gradients. The distribution of the ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent proton pumping activities was similar after 3 hours of centrifugation of the 6 KS or the 6 KP fraction. The pumps were clearly separated from the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase and the plasmalemma marker UDP-glucose-sterolglucosyl-transferase. The pyrophosphate-dependent proton pump might be associated with the tonoplast, as the ATP-dependent pump, despite the lack of a specific marker for this membrane. However, under all the conditions tested, the two pumps overlapped the Golgi markers latent UDPase and glucan synthase I and the ER marker NADH-cytochrome c reductase. It is therefore not possible to exclude the presence of proton pumping activities on the Golgi or the ER of maize root cells. The two pumps (but especially the pyrophosphate-dependent one) were more active (or more abundant) in the tip than in the basal part of maize roots, indicating that these activities might be important in growth processes.
Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to investigate the structure of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplast membranes. In a low ionic strength Hepes-buffered medium, major calorimetric transitions were resolved at 42.5°C. (A), 60.6°C (B), 64.9°C (C1), 69.6°C (C2), 75.8°C (D), 84.3°C (E), and 88.9°C (F). A lipid melting transition was also commonly seen at 17°C in scans starting at lower temperatures. The D transition was demonstrated by four independent methods to derive from denaturation of the light harvesting complex associated with photosystem II (LHC-II). Evidence for this conclusion was as follows: (a) the endotherm of the isolated LHC-II (74.0°C) was very similar to that of D (75.8°C); (b) the denaturation temperature of the 27 kilodalton LHC-II polypeptide determined in intact chloroplast membranes by thermal gel analysis was identical to the temperature of the D transition at pH 7.6 and after destabilization by shifting the pH to 6.6 or by addition of Mg2+; (c) analysis of the stability of the LHC-II complex by electrophoresis in native gels demonstrated that the complex dissociates during the D transition, both at pH 7.6 and 6.6; and (d) the 77 Kelvin fluorescence maximum of LHC-II in chloroplasts was seen to shift to lower wavelengths (indicating gross denaturation of LHC-II)...
Sensitive differential scanning calorimetry was employed to investigate thylakoid membrane structure. Calorimetric scans of chloroplast membranes suspended in a low ionic strength Hepesbuffered medium revealed endothermic transitions centered at the following temperatures (°C): A (42.5), B (60.6), C1 (64.9), C2 (69.6), D (75.8), E (84.3), and F (88.9). The B transition was demonstrated by several different methods to originate from denaturation of the photosystem II reaction center complex. Evidence for this conclusion is as follows: (a) the isolated reaction center complex denatures near the temperature of the B transition; (b) inorganic phosphate destablizes the isolated reaction center complex and the B endotherm to a similar extent; (c) heat inactivation of the photosystem II-mediated 1,5-diphenylcarbazide → dichloroindophenol photoreaction occurs at the temperature of the B transition and is influenced in a manner similar to B by the presence of phosphate; (d) thermal gel analysis indicates that the 43 and 47 kilodalton polypeptides of the photosystem reaction center complex denature at the temperature of the B transition, both in the presence and absence of phosphate; (e) low temperature (77 Kelvin) fluorescence reveals that a change in photosystem II emission at 695 nanometers occurs during the B transition; and (f) ioxynil...
Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in plastid glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity have altered chloroplast membrane lipid composition. This caused an increase in the number of regions of appressed membrane per chloroplast and a decrease in the average number of thylakoid membranes in the appressed regions. The net effect was a significant decrease in the ratio of appressed to nonappressed membranes. A comparison of 77 K fluorescence emission spectra of thylakoid membranes from the mutant and wild type indicated that the ultrastructural changes were associated with an altered distribution of excitation energy transfer from antenna chlorophyll to photosystem II and photosystem I in the mutant. The changes in leaf lipid composition did not significantly affect growth or development of the mutant under standard conditions. However, at temperatures above 28°C the mutant grew slightly more rapidly than the wild type, and measurements of temperature-induced fluorescence yield enhancement suggested an increased thermal stability of the photosynthetic apparatus of the mutant. These effects are consistent with other evidence suggesting that membrane lipid composition is an important determinant of chloroplast structure but has relatively minor direct effects on the function of the membrane proteins associated with photosynthetic electron transport.
Tonoplast-enriched membranes were prepared from maize (Zea mays L. cv LG 11) primary roots, using sucrose nonlinear gradients. The functional molecular size of the tonoplast ATP-and PPi-dependent proton pumps were analyzed by radiation inactivation. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was added as an internal standard. Frozen samples (−196°C) of the membranes were irradiated with 60Co for different periods of time. After thawing the samples, the activities of G6PDH, ATPase, and PPase were tested. By applying target theory, the functional sizes of the ATPase and PPase in situ were found to be around 540 and 160 kilodaltons, respectively. The two activities were solubilized and separated by gel filtration chromatography. The different polypeptides copurifying with the two pumps were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two bands (around 59 and 65 kilodaltons) were associated with the ATPase activity, whereas a double band (around 40 kilodaltons) was recovered with the PPase activity.
The photosystem (PS) II antenna system comprises several biochemically and spectroscopically distinct complexes, including light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), chlorophyll-protein complex (CP) 29, CP26, and CP24. LHCII, the most abundant of these, is both structurally and functionally diverse. The photosynthetic apparatus is laterally segregated within the thylakoid membrane into PSI-rich and PSII-rich domains, and the distribution of antenna complexes between these domains has implications for antenna function. We report a detailed analysis of the differences in the polypeptide composition of LHCII, CP29, and CP26 complexes associated with grana and stroma thylakoid fractions from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), making use of a very high-resolution denaturing gel system, coupled with immunoblots using monospecific antibodies to identify specific antenna components. We first show that the polypeptide composition of the PSII antenna system is more complex than previously thought. We resolved at least five type I LHCII apoproteins and two to three type II LHCII apoproteins. We also resolved at least two apoproteins each for CP29 and CP26. In state 1-adapted grana and stroma thylakoid membranes, the spectrum of LHCII apoproteins is surprisingly similar. However...
Purification and functional reconstitution of a calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+-ATPase from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) is described. Activity was purified about 120-fold from a microsomal fraction using calmodulin-affinity chromatography. The purified fraction showed a polypeptide at 115 kD, which formed a phosphorylated intermediate in the presence of Ca2+, together with a few polypeptides with lower molecular masses that were not phosphorylated. The ATPase was reconstituted into liposomes by 3-([cholamidopropyl]-dimethylammonio-)1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) dialysis. The proteoliposomes showed ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake and ATPase activity, both of which were stimulated about 4-fold by calmodulin. Specific ATPase activity was about 5 μmol min−1 (mg protein)−1, and the Ca2+/ATP ratio was 0.1 to 0.5 when the ATPase was reconstituted with entrapped oxalate. The purified, reconstituted Ca2+-ATPase was inhibited by vanadate and erythrosin B, but not by cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin. Activity was supported by ATP (100%) and GTP (50%) and had a pH optimum of about 7.0. The effect of monovalent and divalent cations (including Ca2+) on activity is described. Assay of membranes purified by two-phase partitioning indicated that approximately 95% of the activity was associated with intracellular membranes...
Redox activities, NADH:ferricyanide reductase, NAD(P)H:cytochrome reductases, and NADH:ascorbate free-radical reductase, are present in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and glyoxysomal membranes from the endosperm of germinating castor bean (Ricinus comminus L. var Hale). The development of these functions was followed in glyoxysomes and ER isolated on sucrose gradients from castor bean endosperm daily from 0 through 6 days of germination. On a per seed basis, glyoxysomal and ER protein, glyoxysomal and ER membrane redox enzyme activities, and glyoxylate cycle activities peaked at day 4 as did the ER membrane content of cytochrome P-450. NADH:ferricyanide reductase was present in glyoxysomes and ER isolated from dry seed. This activity increased only about twofold in glyoxysomes and threefold in ER during germination relative to the amount of protein in the respective fractions. The other reductases, NADH:cytochrome reductase and NADH:ascorbate free-radical reductase, increased about 10-fold in the ER relative to protein up to 4 to 5 days, then declined. NADPH:cytochrome reductase reached maximum activity relative to protein at day 2 in both organelles. The increases in redox activities during germination indicate that the membranes of the ER and glyoxysome are being enriched with redox proteins during their development. The development of redox functions in glyoxysomes was found to be coordinated with development of the glyoxylate cycle.
The vacuolar H+-translocating ATPase (H+-ATPase), originally reported to consist of three major subunits, has been further purified from oat roots (Avena sativa var Lang) to determine the complete subunit composition. Triton-solubilized ATPase activity was purified by gel filtration on Sephacryl S400 and ion-exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose). ATP hydrolysis activity of purified preparations was inhibited by 100 nanomolar bafilomycin A1, a specific vacuolar-type ATPase inhibitor. The purified oat H+-ATPase (relative molecular weight = 650,000) was composed of polypeptides of 70, 60, 44, 42, 36, 32, 29, 16, 13, and 12 kilodaltons. To analyze the organization of the H+-ATPase subunits, native vacuolar membranes were treated with KI and MgATP to dissociate peripheral proteins. Release of 70, 60, 44, 42, 36, and 29 kilodalton polypeptides from the membrane was accompanied by a loss of ATP hydrolysis and ATP-dependent H+-pumping activities. Five of the peripheral subunits were released from the membrane as a large complex of 540 kilodaltons. Vesicles that had lost the peripheral sector of the ATPase could hold a pH gradient generated by the proton-translocating pyrophosphatase, suggesting that the integral sector of the ATPase did not form a H+-conducting pathway. Negative staining of native vesicles revealed knob-like structures of 10 to 12 nanometers in dense patches on the surface of vacuolar membranes. These structures were removed by MgATP and KI...
Intact spinach (Spinacia oleracea) thylakoid membranes were treated with various proteases and photosystem I (PSI) complexes were isolated from these membranes to define the membrane topology of specific PSI subunits. Trypsin treatment caused cleavage of the PSI-D and E subunits. Thermolysin treatment cleaved the PSI-D, E, H, and K subunits, and also caused limited degradation of the reaction center core PSI-A and B subunits. Pronase treatment produced the most dramatic results as the PSI-A and B subunits were cleaved to 47-, 45-, 26-, and 24-kilodalton products. In addition, pronase degraded the PSI-D, E, H, K, and L subunits. Proteolytic cleavage sites for several of the products were identified by amino acid sequencing. The results indicate that PSI-A, B, D, E, H, K, and L subunits all have stroma-exposed regions, and these findings are summarized in a model describing the subunit organization of PSI.
This report extends research on Al-induced changes in membrane behavior of intact root cortex cells of Northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Membrane permeability was determined by the plasmometric method for individual intact cells at temperatures from 2 or 4 to 35°C. Al (0.37 millimolar) significantly increased membrane permeability to urea and monoethyl urea and decreased permeability to water. Al significantly altered the activation energy required to transport water (+32%), urea (+9%), and monoethyl urea (−7%) across cell membranes. Above 9°C, Al increased the lipid partiality of the cell membranes; below 7°C, Al decreased it. Al narrowed by 6°C the temperature range over which plasmolysis occurred without membrane damage. These changes in membrane behavior are explainable if Al reduces membrane lipid fluidity and kink frequency and increases packing density and the occurrence of straight lipid chains.
The glycolate/glycerate transporter of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplast inner envelope membranes was solubilized by treatment of the membranes with sodium cholate. Mixtures of the cholate extracts and soy asolectin were subjected to gel filtration to remove the detergent. The reconstituted vesicles were frozen, thawed, and sonicated in a buffer that contained 10 millimolar d-glycerate and, usually, [3H]sucrose as an internal space indicator. The dilution of the vesicles into a medium that contained 0.4 millimolar [14C]d-glycerate resulted in a rapid accumulation of labeled glycerate, followed by a much slower loss of [14C]d-glycerate from the vesicles. This behavior is characteristic of counterflow. The accumulation of [14C]d-glycerate was strongly inhibited by HgCl2, which blocks glycolate/glycerate transport in intact chloroplasts. In the absence of proton ionophores, the extent of [14C]glycolate accumulation under similar conditions was much greater than that of [14C]d-glycerate. External glycolate inhibited d-glycerate counterflow and external d-glycerate inhibited glycolate counterflow. The external pH dependence of the efflux of [14C]d-glycerate accumulated in vesicles by counterflow and its inhibition by external l-mandelate are characteristics displayed by glycolate transport in intact chloroplasts. Partial purification of the transporter was achieved by glycerol gradient centrifugation. The solubilized glycolate and glycerate counterflow activities...
Reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ is a prerequisite for Fe uptake by tomato roots. Ferric chelate reductase activity in plasma membranes (PM) isolated from roots of both iron-sufficient (+Fe) and iron-deficient (−Fe) tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was measured as NADH-dependent ferric citrate reductase and exhibited simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics for the substrates, NADH and Fe3+(citrate3−)2. NADH and Fe3+(citrate3−)2 Km values for reductase in PM from +Fe and −Fe tomato roots were similar, whereas Vmax values were two- to threefold higher for reductase from −Fe tomatoes. The pH optimum for Fe-chelate reductase was 6.5. Fe-chelate reductases from −Fe and +Fe tomato roots were equally sensitive to several triazine dyes. Reductase was solubilized with n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside and electrophoresed in nondenaturing isoelectric focusing gels. Three bands, with isoelectric points of 5.5 to 6.2, were resolved by enzyme activity staining of electrofocused PM proteins isolated from +Fe and −Fe tomato roots. Activity staining was particularly enhanced in the isoelectric point 5.5 and 6.2 bands solubilized from −Fe PM. We conclude that PM from roots of +Fe and −Fe plants contain Fe-chelate reductases with similar characteristics. The response to iron deficiency stress likely involves increased expression of constitutive Fe-chelate reductase isoforms in expanding epidermal root PM.
Membrane deterioration differs in aging and senescent tissues. Involvement of free radicals in the process is generally recognized. Little is known about the physiological effects of gamma irradiation on plant tissues. Degradation of microsomal membranes by the action of free radicals, generated in vivo by gamma rays, was investigated. Cauliflower florets (Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group) were exposed to 2 or 4 kiloGray of gamma radiation. Membrane deterioration was assessed during 8-day storage at 13°C. Some senescence was indicated in nonirradiated controls by a parallel depletion of lipid phosphate and protein. Irradiation caused an immediate increase in tissue electrolyte leakage and a small increase in the free fatty acid content of membranes. In irradiated samples, leakage of electrolytes and the ratios of sterol to phospholipid and of free fatty acid to phospholipid increased with storage. During this period, membrane protein was progressively lost and the lipid phosphate-to-protein ratio increased markedly. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were selectively depleted from the free fatty acid fraction for all treatments, suggesting lipoxygenase activity. No change in lipid saturation was observed in the polar lipid fraction. The results suggest an enzyme-catalyzed senescence-like membrane deterioration...
The iron respiratory chain of the acidophilic bacterium
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans involves various metalloenzymes. Here
we demonstrate that the oxygen reduction pathway from ferrous iron (named
downhill pathway) is organized as a supercomplex constituted of proteins
located in the outer and inner membranes as well as in the periplasm. For the
first time, the outer membrane-bound cytochrome c Cyc2 was purified,
and we showed that it is responsible for iron oxidation and determined that
its redox potential is the highest measured to date for a cytochrome
c. The organization of metalloproteins inside the supramolecular
structure was specified by protein-protein interaction experiments. The
isolated complex spanning the two membranes had iron oxidase as well as oxygen
reductase activities, indicating functional electron transfer between the
first iron electron acceptor, Cyc2, and the CuA center of
cytochrome c oxidase aa3. This is the first
characterization of a respirasome from an acidophilic bacterium. In
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans,O2 reduction from ferrous
iron must be coupled to the energy-consuming reduction of NAD+(P)
from ferrous iron (uphill pathway) required for CO2 fixation and
other anabolic processes. Besides the proteins involved in the O2