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Tilmicosin Induces Apoptosis in Bovine Peripheral Neutrophils in the Presence or in the Absence of Pasteurella haemolytica and Promotes Neutrophil Phagocytosis by Macrophages

Chin, Alex C.; Lee, Wilson D.; Murrin, Katherine A.; Morck, Douglas W.; Merrill, John K.; Dick, Paul; Buret, Andre G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2000 EN
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Pathogen virulence factors and inflammation are responsible for tissue injury associated with respiratory failure in bacterial pneumonia, as seen in the bovine lung infected with Pasteurella haemolytica. Tilmicosin is a macrolide antibiotic used for the treatment of bovine bacterial pneumonia. Recent evidence suggests that tilmicosin-induced neutrophil apoptosis may have anti-inflammatory effects. Using bovine leukocytes, we sought to define whether live P. haemolytica affected tilmicosin-induced neutrophil apoptosis, assessed the proapoptotic effects of tilmicosin in comparison with other drugs, and characterized its impact on phagocytic uptake of neutrophils by macrophages. Induction of apoptosis in the presence or absence of P. haemolytica was assessed by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for apoptotic nucleosomes. In addition, fluorescent annexin-V staining identified externalized phosphatidylserine in neutrophils treated with tilmicosin, penicillin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, or dexamethasone. Neutrophil membrane integrity was assessed by using propidium iodide and trypan blue exclusion. As phagocytic clearance of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages contributes to the resolution of inflammation, phagocytosis of tilmicosin-treated neutrophils by esterase-positive cultured bovine macrophages was assessed with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Unlike bovine neutrophils treated with penicillin...

Fosfomycin Reduces CD15s-Related Antigen Expression of Streptococcus pyogenes

Hirota, Katsuhiko; Murakami, Kinya; Nemoto, Ken; Ono, Tsuneko; Matsuo, Takashi; Kumon, Hiromi; Miyake, Yoichiro
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1998 EN
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We have previously shown the immunological mimicry of human sialyl-Lewisx (CD15s) by a surface antigen of Streptococcus pyogenes. This mimicking surface antigen may act as a ligand to the selectin family and may induce antibody production against CD15s on host cells, suggesting a possible role in the pathogenesis of S. pyogenes. In this study, the effects of antibiotics on the CD15s-related antigen expression of S. pyogenes were examined at a concentration below the MIC (sub-MIC). The amounts of CD15s on the surfaces of S. pyogenes cells and on the surfaces of S. pyogenes biofilms were determined by a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by laser scanning fluorescence microscopy, respectively, by using an anti-CD15s monoclonal antibody. At the sub-MICs, fosfomycin (1R,2S-1,2-epoxypropyl phosphonic acid), its enantiomer (1S,2R-1,2-epoxypropyl phosphonic acid), and benzylpenicillin significantly inhibited the CD15s expression of all strains studied. The effects of fosfomycin and its enantiomer on biofilms were also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Incubation of S. pyogenes with the sub-MIC of fosfomycin or its enantiomer, which has no antibacterial activity, reduced the amount of CD15s on the biofilm surface and made it smooth. These results suggest that fosfomycin or its enantiomer might be useful for preventing S. pyogenes adherence to human CD15s receptors and the resulting immunological pathogenicity.

Antiparasitic Effects of the Intra-Golgi Transport Inhibitor Megalomicin

Bonay, Pedro; Durán-Chica, Isabel; Fresno, Manuel; Alarcón, Balbino; Alcina, Antonio
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1998 EN
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The macrolide antibiotic megalomicin (MGM) has been shown to inhibit vesicular transport between the medial- and trans-Golgi, resulting in the undersialylation of cellular proteins (P. Bonay, S. Munro, M. Fresno, and B. Alarcón, J. Biol. Chem. 271:3719–3726, 1996). Due to the effects of MGM on the Golgi and on the replication of enveloped viruses, we decided to test whether it has any antiparasitic activity. The results showed that MGM has potent activity against the epimastigote stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, producing a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.2 μg/ml. Furthermore, MGM was also active against the intracellular replicative, amastigote form of T. cruzi, completely preventing its replication in infected murine LLC/MK2 macrophages at a dose of 5 μg/ml. Although less potent, MGM was also active against Trypanosoma brucei epimastigotes (IC50, 2 μg/ml) and Leishmania donovani and Leishmania major promastigotes (IC50, 3 and 8 μg/ml, respectively). MGM also blocked intracellular replication of the asexual stage of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes at 1 μg/ml. Finally, MGM was active in an in vivo model, resulting in the complete protection of BALB/c mice from death caused by acute T. brucei infection and significantly reducing the parasitemia. These results suggest that MGM is a potential drug for the treatment of veterinary and human parasitic diseases.

Antileishmanial Activity of a Linalool-Rich Essential Oil from Croton cajucara

Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Rodrigues, Igor de Almeida; Soares, Rosangela Maria A.; Souto-Padrón, Thais; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Lopes, Angela Hampshire C. S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2003 EN
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The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of a linalool-rich essential oil from the leaves of Croton cajucara against Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. Morphological changes in L. amazonensis promastigotes treated with 15 ng of essential oil per ml were observed by transmission electron microscopy; leishmanial nuclear and kinetoplast chromatin destruction, followed by cell lysis, was observed within 1 h. Pretreatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these macrophages and L. amazonensis, with a concomitant increase by 220% in the level of nitric oxide production by the infected macrophages. Treatment of preinfected macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these cells and the parasites, which led to a 60% increase in the amount of nitric oxide produced by the preinfected macrophages. These results provide new perspectives on the development of drugs with activities against Leishmania, as linalool-rich essential oil is a strikingly potent leishmanicidal plant extract (50% lethal doses, 8.3 ng/ml for promastigotes and 8.7 ng/ml for amastigotes) which inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis promastigotes at very low concentrations (MIC...

Gene-Specific Effects of Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomer-Peptide Conjugates on Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Pure Culture and in Tissue Culture

Tilley, Lucas D.; Hine, Orion S.; Kellogg, Jill A.; Hassinger, Jed N.; Weller, Dwight D.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Geller, Bruce L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 EN
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The objective was to improve efficacy of antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) by improving their uptake into bacterial cells. Four different bacterium-permeating peptides, RFFRFFRFFXB, RTRTRFLRRTXB, RXXRXXRXXB, and KFFKFFKFFKXB (X is 6-aminohexanoic acid and B is β-alanine), were separately coupled to two different PMOs that are complementary to regions near the start codons of a luciferase reporter gene (luc) and a gene required for viability (acpP). Luc peptide-PMOs targeted to luc inhibited luciferase activity 23 to 80% in growing cultures of Escherichia coli. In cell-free translation reactions, Luc RTRTRFLRRTXB-PMO inhibited luciferase synthesis significantly more than the other Luc peptide-PMOs or the Luc PMO not coupled to peptide. AcpP peptide-PMOs targeted to acpP inhibited growth of E. coli or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to various extents, depending on the strain. The concentrations of AcpP RFFRFFRFFXB-PMO, AcpP RTRTRFLRRTXB-PMO, AcpP KFFKFFKFFKXB-PMO, and ampicillin that reduced CFU/ml by 50% after 8 h of growth (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]) were 3.6, 10.8, 9.5, and 7.5 μM, respectively, in E. coli W3110. Sequence-specific effects of AcpP peptide-PMOs were shown by rescuing growth of a merodiploid strain that expressed acpP with silent mutations in the region targeted by AcpP peptide-PMO. In Caco-2 cultures infected with enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)...

Interaction of the Gelsolin-Derived Antibacterial PBP 10 Peptide with Lipid Bilayers and Cell Membranes

Bucki, Robert; Janmey, Paul A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2006 EN
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PBP 10, an antibacterial, cell membrane-permeant rhodamine B-conjugated peptide derived from the polyphosphoinositide binding site of gelsolin, interacts selectively with both lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), the distinct components of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Isolated LPS and LTA decrease the antimicrobial activities of PBP 10, as well as other antimicrobial peptides, such as cathelicidin-LL37 (LL37) and mellitin. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism of bacterial killing by PBP 10, we compared its effects on artificial lipid bilayers and eukaryotic cell membranes with the actions of the mellitin, magainin II, and LL37 peptides. This study reveals that pore formation is unlikely to be involved in PBP 10-mediated membrane destabilization. We also investigated the effects of these peptides on platelets and red blood cells (RBCs). Comparison of these antimicrobial peptides shows that only mellitin has a toxic effect on platelets and RBCs in a concentration range concomitant with its bactericidal activity. The hemolytic activities of the PBP 10 and LL37 peptides significantly increase when RBCs are osmotically swollen in hypotonic solution, indicating that these antibacterial peptides may take advantage of the more extended form of bacterial membranes in exerting their killing activities. Additionally...

Combination of Suboptimal Doses of Inhibitors Targeting Different Domains of LtrMDR1 Efficiently Overcomes Resistance of Leishmania spp. to Miltefosine by Inhibiting Drug Efflux

Pérez-Victoria, José M.; Cortés-Selva, Fernando; Parodi-Talice, Adriana; Bavchvarov, Boris I.; Pérez-Victoria, F. Javier; Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Maitrejean, Mathias; Costi, M. Paola; Barron, Denis; Di Pietro, Attilio; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2006 EN
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Miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine) is the first orally active drug approved for the treatment of leishmaniasis. We have previously shown the involvement of LtrMDR1, a P-glycoprotein-like transporter belonging to the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, in miltefosine resistance in Leishmania. Here we show that overexpression of LtrMDR1 increases miltefosine efflux, leading to a decrease in drug accumulation in the parasites. Although LtrMDR1 modulation might be an efficient way to overcome this resistance, a main drawback associated with the use of P-glycoprotein inhibitors is related to their intrinsic toxicity. In order to diminish possible side effects, we have combined suboptimal doses of modulators targeting both the cytosolic and transmembrane domains of LtrMDR1. Preliminary structure-activity relationships have allowed us to design a new and potent flavonoid derivative with high affinity for the cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains. As modulators directed to the transmembrane domains, we have selected one of the most potent dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpenes described, and we have also studied the effects of two of the most promising, latest-developed modulators of human P-glycoprotein, zosuquidar (LY335979) and elacridar (GF120918). The results show that this combinatorial strategy efficiently overcomes P-glycoprotein-mediated parasite miltefosine resistance by increasing intracellular miltefosine accumulation without any side effect in the parental...

Activities of Naphthylisoquinoline Alkaloids and Synthetic Analogs against Leishmania major▿

Ponte-Sucre, Alicia; Faber, Johan H.; Gulder, Tanja; Kajahn, Inga; Pedersen, Sarah E. H.; Schultheis, Martina; Bringmann, Gerhard; Moll, Heidrun
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The current treatments for leishmaniasis are unsatisfactory due to their toxic side effects, high costs, and increasing problems with drug resistance. Thus, there is an urgent need for alternative drugs against leishmaniasis. Different approaches have been used to identify novel pharmacophores against Leishmania sp. parasites, and one strategy has been the analysis of naturally occurring plant-derived compounds, including naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids. In the present study, we examined the abilities of these alkaloids to inhibit the growth of Leishmania major promastigotes and evaluated their effects on macrophages, dendritic cells, and fibroblasts. Furthermore, we determined the efficacy of selected compounds in decreasing the infection rate of macrophages and regulating their production of cytokines and nitric oxide. Our results demonstrate that the naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids ancistrocladiniums A and B (compounds 10 and 11) and the synthetic isoquinolinium salt (compound 14) were effective against intracellular amastigotes in the low submicromolar range, while toxicity against mammalian cells was observed at concentrations that were significantly higher than those needed to impair parasite replication. The activities of compounds 11 and 14 were mainly directed against the amastigote stage of L. major. This effect was not associated with the stimulation of host macrophages to produce nitric oxide or secrete cytokines relevant for the leishmanicidal function. In conclusion...

Ribosome Protection Prevents Azithromycin-Mediated Quorum-Sensing Modulation and Stationary-Phase Killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

Köhler, Thilo; Dumas, Jean-Luc; Van Delden, Christian
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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779.0929%
In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, azithromycin has been shown to reduce virulence factor production, to retard biofilm formation, and to exhibit bactericidal effects on stationary-phase cells. In this study we analyzed whether these azithromycin-mediated effects require interaction with the ribosome. We blocked the access of azithromycin to the ribosome in P. aeruginosa PAO1 by expressing the 23S rRNA methylase ErmBP from Clostridium perfringens. Ribosome protection prevented the azithromycin-mediated reduction of elastase and rhamnolipid production, as well as the inhibition of swarming motility. Ribosome protection also prevented the killing of stationary-phase cells, suggesting that the cell-killing effect of azithromycin does not result solely from membrane destabilization. We further show that rhamnolipids are involved in cell killing, probably by increasing the uptake of the hydrophobic azithromycin molecule. These results have important implications for the treatment with azithromycin of patients chronically colonized by P. aeruginosa and might explain the variability in the efficacy of azithromycin treatments.

Host Cells Participate in the In Vitro Effects of Novel Diamidine Analogues against Tachyzoites of the Intracellular Apicomplexan Parasites Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii▿

Leepin, Angela; Stüdli, Angela; Brun, Reto; Stephens, Chad E.; Boykin, David W.; Hemphill, Andrew
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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779.21586%
The in vitro effects of 19 dicationic diamidine derivatives against the proliferative tachyzoite stages of the apicomplexan parasites Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii were investigated. Four compounds (DB811, DB786, DB750, and DB766) with similar structural properties exhibited profound inhibition of tachyzoite proliferation. The lowest 50% inhibitory concentrations were found for DB786 (0.21 μM against Neospora and 0.22 μM against Toxoplasma) and DB750 (0.23 μM against Neospora and 0.16 μM against Toxoplasma), with complete proliferation inhibition at 1.7 μM for both drugs against both species. DB750 and DB786 were chosen for further studies. Electron microscopy of N. caninum-infected human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cultures revealed distinct alterations and damage of parasite ultrastructure upon drug treatment, while host cells remained unaffected. For true parasiticidal efficacy against N. caninum, a treatment duration of 3 h at 1.7 μM was sufficient for DB750, while a longer treatment period (24 h) was necessary for DB786. Pretreatment of tachyzoites for 1 h prior to host cell exposure had no effect on infectivity. However, pretreatment of uninfected host cells had a significant adverse effect on N. caninum proliferation: exposure of HFFs to 1.7 μM DB750 for 6...

Erythromycin- and Chloramphenicol-Induced Ribosomal Assembly Defects Are Secondary Effects of Protein Synthesis Inhibition▿

Siibak, Triinu; Peil, Lauri; Xiong, Liqun; Mankin, Alexander; Remme, Jaanus; Tenson, Tanel
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Several protein synthesis inhibitors are known to inhibit ribosome assembly. This may be a consequence of direct binding of the antibiotic to ribosome precursor particles, or it could result indirectly from loss of coordination in the production of ribosomal components due to the inhibition of protein synthesis. Here we demonstrate that erythromycin and chloramphenicol, inhibitors of the large ribosomal subunit, affect the assembly of both the large and small subunits. Expression of a small erythromycin resistance peptide acting in cis on mature ribosomes relieves the erythromycin-mediated assembly defect for both subunits. Erythromycin treatment of bacteria expressing a mixture of erythromycin-sensitive and -resistant ribosomes produced comparable effects on subunit assembly. These results argue in favor of the view that erythromycin and chloramphenicol affect the assembly of the large ribosomal subunit indirectly.

Novel Antimalarial Aminoquinolines: Heme Binding and Effects on Normal or Plasmodium falciparum-Parasitized Human Erythrocytes ▿

Omodeo-Salè, Fausta; Cortelezzi, Lucia; Basilico, Nicoletta; Casagrande, Manolo; Sparatore, Anna; Taramelli, Donatella
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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779.27266%
Two new quinolizidinyl-alkyl derivatives of 7-chloro-4-aminoquinoline, named AM-1 and AP4b, which are highly effective in vitro against both the D10 (chloroquine [CQ] susceptible) and W2 (CQ resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in the rodent malaria model, have been studied for their ability to bind to and be internalized by normal or parasitized human red blood cells (RBC) and for their effects on RBC membrane stability. In addition, an analysis of the heme binding properties of these compounds and of their ability to inhibit beta-hematin formation in vitro has been performed. Binding of AM1 or AP4b to RBC is rapid, dose dependent, and linearly related to RBC density. Their accumulation in parasitized RBC (pRBC) is increased twofold compared to levels in normal RBC. Binding of AM1 or AP4b to both normal and pRBC is higher than that of CQ, in agreement with the lower pKa and higher lipophilicity of the compounds. AM1 or AP4b is not hemolytic per se and is less hemolytic than CQ when hemolysis is accelerated (induced) by hematin. Moreover, AM-1 and AP4b bind heme with a stoichiometry of interaction similar to that of CQ (about 1:1.7) but with a lower affinity. They both inhibit dose dependently the formation of beta-hematin in vitro with a 50% inhibitory concentration comparable to that of CQ. Taken together...

Anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of A-Type Cranberry Proanthocyanidins ▿

La, Vu Dang; Howell, Amy B.; Grenier, Daniel
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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779.2371%
A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) have recently been reported to be beneficial for human health, especially urinary tract health. The effect of these proanthocyanidins on periodontitis, a destructive disease of tooth-supporting tissues, needs to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of AC-PACs on various virulence determinants of Porphyromonas gingivalis as well as on the inflammatory response of oral epithelial cells stimulated by this periodontopathogen. We examined the effects of AC-PACs on P. gingivalis growth and biofilm formation, adherence to human oral epithelial cells and protein-coated surfaces, collagenase activity, and invasiveness. We also tested the ability of AC-PACs to modulate the P. gingivalis-induced inflammatory response by human oral epithelial cells. Our results showed that while AC-PACs neutralized all the virulence properties of P. gingivalis in a dose-dependent fashion, they did not interfere with growth. They also inhibited the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) but did not affect the secretion of IL-6 by epithelial cells stimulated with P. gingivalis. This anti-inflammatory effect was associated with reduced activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 pathway. AC-PACs may be potentially valuable bioactive molecules for the development of new strategies to treat and prevent P. gingivalis-associated periodontal diseases.

Effects of Dimerization on the Structure and Biological Activity of Antimicrobial Peptide Ctx-Ha

Lorenzón, E. N.; Cespedes, G. F.; Vicente, E. F.; Nogueira, L. G.; Bauab, T. M.; Castro, M. S.; Cilli, E. M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 EN
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It is well known that cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) are potential microbicidal agents for the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance. However, the physicochemical properties of each peptide need to be optimized for clinical use. To evaluate the effects of dimerization on the structure and biological activity of the antimicrobial peptide Ctx-Ha, we have synthesized the monomeric and three dimeric (Lys-branched) forms of the Ctx-Ha peptide by solid-phase peptide synthesis using a combination of 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) and t-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) chemical approaches. The antimicrobial activity assay showed that dimerization decreases the ability of the peptide to inhibit growth of bacteria or fungi; however, the dimeric analogs displayed a higher level of bactericidal activity. In addition, a dramatic increase (50 times) in hemolytic activity was achieved with these analogs. Permeabilization studies showed that the rate of carboxyfluorescein release was higher for the dimeric peptides than for the monomeric peptide, especially in vesicles that contained sphingomyelin. Despite different biological activities, the secondary structure and pore diameter were not significantly altered by dimerization. In contrast to the case for other dimeric cAMPs...

pH Dependence of Microbe Sterilization by Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides

Walkenhorst, William F.; Klein, J. Wolfgang; Vo, Phuong; Wimley, William C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2013 EN
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We recently described a family of cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) selected from a combinatorial library that exhibited potent, broad-spectrum activity at neutral pH and low ionic strength. To further delimit the utility and activity profiles of these peptides, we investigated the effects of solution conditions, such as pH and ionic strength, on the efficacy of the peptide antimicrobials against a panel of microorganisms. Peptide minimum sterilizing concentrations (MSCs) varied linearly with pH for each subtype within our family of CAMPs for all organisms tested. The peptides were much less effective against Gram-negative bacteria at high pH, consistent with a decrease in net positive charge on the peptides. A similar trend was observed for the fungus Candida albicans. Surprisingly, the opposite pH trend was observed with the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, an additive ionic strength effect was observed with increasing buffer strengths at identical pH values. The extreme difference in the observed pH behavior between Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms is attributed to the presence of native charged molecules in the much thicker peptidoglycan layer of the Gram-positive organism. The novel species-specific effects of pH observed here have important implications for applications using CAMPs and for the design of novel CAMPs.

Homeostasis of Glutathione Is Associated with Polyamine-Mediated β-Lactam Susceptibility in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606

Kwon, Dong H.; Hekmaty, Saboor; Seecoomar, Gomattie
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2013 EN
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Glutathione is a tripeptide (l-γ-glutamyl–l-cysteinyl–glycine) thiol compound existing in many bacteria and maintains a proper cellular redox state, thus protecting cells against toxic substances such as reactive oxygen species. Polyamines (spermine and spermidine) are low-molecular-weight aliphatic polycations ubiquitously presenting in all living cells and modulate many cellular functions. We previously reported that exogenous polyamines significantly enhanced β-lactam susceptibility of β-lactam-associated multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. In this study, three genes differentially associated with the polyamine effects on β-lactam susceptibility were identified by transposon mutagenesis of A. baumannii ATCC 19606. All three genes encoded components of membrane transport systems. Inactivation of one of the genes encoding a putative glutathione transport ATP-binding protein increased the accumulation of intracellular glutathione (∼150 to ∼200%) and significantly decreased the polyamine effects on β-lactam susceptibility in A. baumannii ATCC 19606. When the cells were grown with polyamines, the levels of intracellular glutathione in A. baumannii ATCC 19606 significantly decreased from ∼0.5 to ∼0.2 nmol, while the levels of extracellular glutathione were correspondingly increased. However...

Evaluation of Acanthamoeba Myosin-IC as a Potential Therapeutic Target

Martín-Navarro, Carmen M.; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E.; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 EN
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Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as “traction-mediated cytokinesis”. We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy.

Synergy of Streptogramin Antibiotics Occurs Independently of Their Effects on Translation

Noeske, Jonas; Huang, Jian; Olivier, Nelson B.; Giacobbe, Robert A.; Zambrowski, Mark; Cate, Jamie H. D.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2014 EN
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779.13125%
Streptogramin antibiotics are divided into types A and B, which in combination can act synergistically. We compared the molecular interactions of the streptogramin combinations Synercid (type A, dalfopristin; type B, quinupristin) and NXL 103 (type A, flopristin; type B, linopristin) with the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome by X-ray crystallography. We further analyzed the activity of the streptogramin components individually and in combination. The streptogramin A and B components in Synercid and NXL 103 exhibit synergistic antimicrobial activity against certain pathogenic bacteria. However, in transcription-coupled translation assays, only combinations that include dalfopristin, the streptogramin A component of Synercid, show synergy. Notably, the diethylaminoethylsulfonyl group in dalfopristin reduces its activity but is the basis for synergy in transcription-coupled translation assays before its rapid hydrolysis from the depsipeptide core. Replacement of the diethylaminoethylsulfonyl group in dalfopristin by a nonhydrolyzable group may therefore be beneficial for synergy. The absence of general streptogramin synergy in transcription-coupled translation assays suggests that the synergistic antimicrobial activity of streptogramins can occur independently of the effects of streptogramin on translation.

Nonclinical and Pharmacokinetic Assessments To Evaluate the Potential of Tedizolid and Linezolid To Affect Mitochondrial Function

Flanagan, Shawn; McKee, Edward E.; Das, Debaditya; Tulkens, Paul M.; Hosako, Hiromi; Fiedler-Kelly, Jill; Passarell, Julie; Radovsky, Ann; Prokocimer, Philippe
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/10/2014 EN
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Prolonged treatment with the oxazolidinone linezolid is associated with myelosuppression, lactic acidosis, and neuropathies, toxicities likely caused by impairment of mitochondrial protein synthesis (MPS). To evaluate the potential of the novel oxazolidinone tedizolid to cause similar side effects, nonclinical and pharmacokinetic assessments were conducted. In isolated rat heart mitochondria, tedizolid inhibited MPS more potently than did linezolid (average [± standard error of the mean] 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] for MPS of 0.31 ± 0.02 μM versus 6.4 ± 1.2 μM). However, a rigorous 9-month rat study comparing placebo and high-dose tedizolid (resulting in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve values about 8-fold greater than those with the standard therapeutic dose in humans) showed no evidence of neuropathy. Additional studies explored why prolonged, high-dose tedizolid did not cause these mitochondriopathic side effects despite potent MPS inhibition by tedizolid. Murine macrophage (J774) cell fractionation studies found no evidence of a stable association of tedizolid with eukaryotic mitochondria. Monte Carlo simulations based on population pharmacokinetic models showed that over the course of a dosing interval using standard therapeutic doses...

Increased Survival of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli inside Macrophages

Miskinyte, Migla; Gordo, Isabel
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
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Mutations causing antibiotic resistance usually incur a fitness cost in the absence of antibiotics. The magnitude of such costs is known to vary with the environment. Little is known about the fitness effects of antibiotic resistance mutations when bacteria confront the host's immune system. Here, we study the fitness effects of mutations in the rpoB, rpsL, and gyrA genes, which confer resistance to rifampin, streptomycin, and nalidixic acid, respectively. These antibiotics are frequently used in the treatment of bacterial infections. We measured two important fitness traits—growth rate and survival ability—of 12 Escherichia coli K-12 strains, each carrying a single resistance mutation, in the presence of macrophages. Strikingly, we found that 67% of the mutants survived better than the susceptible bacteria in the intracellular niche of the phagocytic cells. In particular, all E. coli streptomycin-resistant mutants exhibited an intracellular advantage. On the other hand, 42% of the mutants incurred a high fitness cost when the bacteria were allowed to divide outside of macrophages. This study shows that single nonsynonymous changes affecting fundamental processes in the cell can contribute to prolonged survival of E. coli in the context of an infection.