Página 19 dos resultados de 4272 itens digitais encontrados em 0.036 segundos

How should abridged scientific articles be presented in journals? A survey of readers and authors

Müllner, Marcus; Waechter, Fabian; Schroter, Sara; Squire, Barbara
Fonte: Canadian Medical Association Publicador: Canadian Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/01/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
344.03473%
SEVERAL SCIENTIFIC AND GENERAL MEDICAL JOURNALS publish full-length articles on their Web sites and abridged versions in their print journals. We surveyed a stratified random sample of BMJ readers and authors to elicit their preferred format for the abridged print version. Each participant received a research paper abridged in 3 different formats: conventional abridged version, journalistic version and enhanced-abstract version. Overall, 45% (95% confidence interval [CI] 42%–48%) of the respondents said they liked the conventional version most, 31% (95% CI 28%–34%) preferred the journalistic version and 25% (95% CI 22%–27%) preferred the enhanced-abstract version. Twenty-eight percent (95% CI 25%–32%) indicated that use of the journalistic format for abridged articles would very likely stop them from submitting papers to BMJ, and 13% (95% CI 11%–16%) said the use of the enhanced-abstract version would stop them from submitting to BMJ. Publishers of general medical journals who publish shortened articles should consider that authors and readers prefer a more conventional style of abridged papers.

Managing medical research data with a Web-Interfacing Repository Manager.

Jakobovits, R. M.; Brinkley, J. F.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
344.03473%
This paper describes the Web-Interfacing Repository Manager (WIRM), a perl toolkit for managing and deploying multimedia data, which is built entirely from free, platform-independent components. The WIRM consists of an object-relational API layered over a relational database, with built-in support for file management and CGI programming. The basic underlying data structure for all WIRM data is the repository object, a perl associative array whose values are bound to a row of a table in the relational database. Based on our experience implementing a target application (the Brain Mapper Console), we describe five stages through which a system passes as it evolves from a primitive file hierarchy to a full-fledged repository console.

Research for research: tools for knowledge discovery and visualization.

Van Mulligen, Erik M.; Van Der Eijk, Christiaan; Kors, Jan A.; Schijvenaars, Bob J. A.; Mons, Barend
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
345.64414%
This paper describes a method to construct from a set of documents a spatial representation that can be used for information retrieval and knowledge discovery. The proposed method has been implemented in a prototype system and allows the researcher to browse interactively and in real-time a network of relationships obtained from a set of full text articles. These relationships are combined with the potential relationships between concepts as defined in the UMLS semantic network. The browser allows the user to select a seed term and find all related concepts, to find a path between concepts (hypothesis testing), and to retrieve the references to documents or database entries that support the relationship between concepts.

Involving Decision-Makers in Producing Research Syntheses: The Case of the Research Collective on Primary Healthcare in Quebec

Pineault, Raynald; Tousignant, Pierre; Roberge, Danièle; Lamarche, Paul; Reinharz, Daniel; Larouche, Danielle; Beaulne, Ginette; Lesage, Dominique
Fonte: Longwoods Publishing Publicador: Longwoods Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
345.64414%
This paper reports on a research collective on primary healthcare (PHC) conducted in Quebec in 2004. Thirty ongoing or recently completed studies were synthesized through a process involving a high degree of exchange among researchers who conducted the original studies, investigators and decision-makers. The viewpoints expressed by decision-makers who participated in the process were analyzed in terms of convergence with and divergence from the researchers’ viewpoints. In four cases, there was convergence between the decision-makers’ and the researchers’ viewpoints, thus increasing the validity of the collective’s findings. The main divergence between the two groups’ viewpoints concerns the strategy adopted in Quebec to create local health and social services networks. Such divergence reflects the distinction made by Klein between scientific evidence and organizational and political evidence.

Statistical Optimization of Sustained Release Venlafaxine HCI Wax Matrix Tablet

Bhalekar, M. R.; Madgulkar, A. R.; Sheladiya, D. D.; Kshirsagar, S. J.; Wable, N. D.; Desale, S. S.
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
344.03473%
The purpose of this research was to prepare a sustained release drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride by using a wax matrix system. The effects of bees wax and carnauba wax on drug release profile was investigated. A 32 full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. Amounts of carnauba wax (X1) and bees wax (X2) were selected as independent variables and release after 12 h and time required for 50% (t50) drug release were selected as dependent variables. A mathematical model was generated for each response parameter. Both waxes retarded release after 12 h and increases the t50 but bees wax showed significant influence. The drug release pattern for all the formulation combinations was found to be approaching Peppas kinetic model. Suitable combination of two waxes provided fairly good regulated release profile. The response surfaces and contour plots for each response parameter are presented for further interpretation of the results. The optimum formulations were chosen and their predicted results found to be in close agreement with experimental findings.

Indicators for Measuring Mental Health: Towards Better Surveillance

Tannenbaum, Cara; Lexchin, Joel; Tamblyn, Robyn; Romans, Sarah
Fonte: Longwoods Publishing Publicador: Longwoods Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
345.95605%
Accurate measurement and improvement of population mental health requires the recording of indicators that capture the full spectrum of disease severity. This paper describes four different strategies for measuring the prevalence of depression and anxiety in Canada based on data from the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health and Well-being (Cycle 1.2) and the 2003 Quebec medical services claims database. The use of multiple indicators provides a more comprehensive picture of mental health needs than a single indicator alone. However, the validity of these indicators raises certain challenges and highlights the complexity of obtaining valid and sustainable measurements of mental health problems over time. We include a discussion of problems related to information availability and management.

Programming languages for synthetic biology

Umesh, P.; Naveen, F.; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
345.95605%
In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

Multiple Sodium Channel Variants in the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

He, Lin; Li, Ting; Zhang, Lee; Liu, Nannan
Fonte: Ivyspring International Publisher Publicador: Ivyspring International Publisher
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/10/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
344.03473%
Voltage-gated sodium channels are the target sites of both DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. The importance of alternative splicing as a key mechanism governing the structural and functional diversity of sodium channels and the resulting development of insecticide and acaricide resistance is widely recognized, as shown by the extensive research on characterizing alternative splicing and variants of sodium channels in medically and agriculturally important insect species. Here we present the first comparative study of multiple variants of the sodium channel transcripts in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The variants were classified into two categories, CxNa-L and CxNa-S based on their distinguishing sequence sizes of ~6.5 kb and ~4.0 kb, respectively, and generated via major extensive alternative splicing with minor small deletions/ insertions in susceptible S-Lab, low resistant HAmCqG0, and highly resistant HAmCqG8 Culex strains. Four alternative Cx-Na-L splice variants were identified, including three full length variants with three optional exons (2, 5, and 21i) and one with in-frame-stop codons. Large, multi-exon-alternative splices were identified in the CxNa-S category. All CxNa-S splicing variants in the S-Lab and HAmCqG0 strains contained in-frame stop codons...

Variations in Institutional Review Board Approval in the Implementation of an Improvement Research Study

Patel, Darpan I.; Stevens, Kathleen R.; Puga, Frank
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
345.64414%
The purpose of this paper is to report the variance in institutional review board (IRB) reviews as part of the implementation of a multisite, quality improvement study through the Improvement Science Research Network (ISRN) and recommend strategies successful in procuring timely IRB approval. Using correspondence documents as data sources, the level of review was identified and time to submission, time to approval, and time to study start were analyzed. Thirteen of the 14 IRBs conducted independent reviews of the project. Twelve IRBs approved the study through expedited review while two IRBs reviewed the project at a full board meeting. Lastly, 11 of the 14 sites required documented consent. The greatest delay in approval was seen early on in the IRB process with site PIs averaging 45.1 ± 31.8 days to submit the study to the IRB. IRB approvals were relatively quick with an average of 14 ± 5.7 days to approval. The delay in study submission may be attributed to a lack of clear definitions and differing interpretations of the regulations that challenge researchers.

Programmed cell death during quinoa perisperm development

López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
344.03473%
At seed maturity, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) perisperm consists of uniform, non-living, thin-walled cells full of starch grains. The objective of the present study was to study quinoa perisperm development and describe the programme of cell death that affects the entire tissue. A number of parameters typically measured during programmed cell death (PCD), such as cellular morphological changes in nuclei and cytoplasm, endoreduplication, DNA fragmentation, and the participation of nucleases and caspase-like proteases in nucleus dismantling, were evaluated; morphological changes in cytoplasm included subcellular aspects related to starch accumulation. This study proved that, following fertilization, the perisperm of quinoa simultaneously accumulates storage reserves and degenerates, both processes mediated by a programme of developmentally controlled cell death. The novel findings regarding perisperm development provide a starting point for further research in the Amaranthaceae genera, such as comparing seeds with and without perisperm, and specifying phylogeny and evolution within this taxon. Wherever possible and appropriate, differences between quinoa perisperm and grass starchy endosperm—a morphologically and functionally similar...

A plant-produced protective antigen vaccine confers protection in rabbits against a lethal aerosolized challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores

Chichester, Jessica A.; Manceva, Slobodanka D.; Rhee, Amy; Coffin, Megan V.; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Mett, Vadim; Shamloul, Moneim; Norikane, Joey; Streatfield, Stephen J.; Yusibov, Vidadi
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
344.03473%
The potential use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioterrorism weapon threatens the security of populations globally, requiring the immediate availability of safe, efficient and easily delivered anthrax vaccine for mass vaccination. Extensive research efforts have been directed toward the development of recombinant subunit vaccines based on protective antigen (PA), the principal virulence factor of B. anthracis. Among the emerging technologies for the production of these vaccine antigens is our launch vector-based plant transient expression system. Using this system, we have successfully engineered, expressed, purified and characterized full-length PA (pp-PA83) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using agroinfiltration. This plant-produced antigen elicited high toxin neutralizing antibody titers in mice and rabbits after two vaccine administrations with Alhydrogel. In addition, immunization with this vaccine candidate protected 100% of rabbits from a lethal aerosolized B. anthracis challenge. The vaccine effects were dose-dependent and required the presence of Alhydrogel adjuvant. In addition, the vaccine antigen formulated with Alhydrogel was stable and retained immunogenicity after two-week storage at 4°C, the conditions intended for clinical use. These results support the testing of this vaccine candidate in human volunteers and the utility of our plant expression system for the production of a recombinant anthrax vaccine.

PaFlexPepDock: Parallel Ab-Initio Docking of Peptides onto Their Receptors with Full Flexibility Based on Rosetta

Li, Haiou; Lu, Liyao; Chen, Rong; Quan, Lijun; Xia, Xiaoyan; Lü, Qiang
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
345.95605%
Structural information related to protein–peptide complexes can be very useful for novel drug discovery and design. The computational docking of protein and peptide can supplement the structural information available on protein–peptide interactions explored by experimental ways. Protein–peptide docking of this paper can be described as three processes that occur in parallel: ab-initio peptide folding, peptide docking with its receptor, and refinement of some flexible areas of the receptor as the peptide is approaching. Several existing methods have been used to sample the degrees of freedom in the three processes, which are usually triggered in an organized sequential scheme. In this paper, we proposed a parallel approach that combines all the three processes during the docking of a folding peptide with a flexible receptor. This approach mimics the actual protein–peptide docking process in parallel way, and is expected to deliver better performance than sequential approaches. We used 22 unbound protein–peptide docking examples to evaluate our method. Our analysis of the results showed that the explicit refinement of the flexible areas of the receptor facilitated more accurate modeling of the interfaces of the complexes, while combining all of the moves in parallel helped the constructing of energy funnels for predictions.

Zinc proteome interaction network as a model to identify nutrient-affected pathways in human pathologies

Leoni, Guido; Rosato, Antonio; Perozzi, Giuditta; Murgia, Chiara
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
345.64414%
Zinc is an essential micronutrient playing fundamental roles in cellular metabolism. It acts mostly through binding a wide range of proteins, thus affecting a broad spectrum of biological processes, which include cell division, growth and differentiation. Full annotation of zinc-binding proteins showed them to represent about 10 % of the human proteome, with over 300 enzymes containing zinc ions within their catalytic domains. Also, hundreds of key regulatory proteins, including transcription factors, require zinc for their activity. In this study, the whole set of zinc-binding proteins together with their direct interactors was listed and defined as the zinc proteome (ZNP). We interrogated pathway analysis tools to identify the cellular processes that are predicted to be affected by zinc availability. Network and functional enrichment analyses highlighted biological processes potentially affected by deregulated zinc homeostasis. This computational approach was also tested on a real case study: The possible involvement of ZNP network proteins in Crohn’s disease pathogenesis was assessed on genes transcriptionally regulated in the intestine of patients affected by this condition. The analysis produced a network of pathways likely to be influenced by zinc and associated with Crohn’s disease. These results highlight a central role for zinc in the tissue remodeling process which occurs upon gut inflammation...

A living document: reincarnating the research article

Shanahan, Daniel R
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
345.64414%
The limitations of the traditional research paper are well known and widely discussed; however, rather than seeking solutions to the problems created by this model of publication, it is time to do away with a print era anachronism and design a new model of publication, with modern technology embedded at its heart. Instead of the current system with multiple publications, across multiple journals, publication could move towards a single, evolving document that begins with trial registration and then extends to include the full protocol and results as they become available, underpinned by the raw clinical data and all code used to obtain the result. This model would lead to research being evaluated prospectively, based on its hypothesis and methodology as stated in the study protocol, and move away from considering serendipitous results to be synonymous with quality, while also presenting readers with the opportunity to reliably evaluate bias or selective reporting in the published literature.

Central obesity, type 2 diabetes and insulin: exploring a pathway full of thorns

Papaetis, Georgios S.; Papakyriakou, Panagiotis; Panagiotou, Themistoklis N.
Fonte: Termedia Publishing House Publicador: Termedia Publishing House
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
345.95605%
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is rapidly increasing. This is strongly related to the contemporary lifestyle changes that have resulted in increased rates of overweight individuals and obesity. Central (intra-abdominal) obesity is observed in the majority of patients with T2D. It is associated with insulin resistance, mainly at the level of skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver. The discovery of macrophage infiltration in the abdominal adipose tissue and the unbalanced production of adipocyte cytokines (adipokines) was an essential step towards novel research perspectives for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the development of insulin resistance. Furthermore, in an obese state, the increased cellular uptake of non-esterified fatty acids is exacerbated without any subsequent β-oxidation. This in turn contributes to the accumulation of intermediate lipid metabolites that cause defects in the insulin signaling pathway. This paper examines the possible cellular mechanisms that connect central obesity with defects in the insulin pathway. It discusses the discrepancies observed from studies organized in cell cultures, animal models and humans. Finally, it emphasizes the need for therapeutic strategies in order to achieve weight reduction in overweight and obese patients with T2D.

The Macroeconomics of Health Savings Accounts

Tran, Chung; Jung, Juergen
Fonte: Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research Publicador: Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 574757 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
344.03473%
This paper has been revised. The revised version is at https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/handle/2022/3116; We analyze whether a consumer driven health care plan like the newly established Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) can reduce health care expenditures in the United States and increase the fraction of the population with health insurance. We use an overlapping generations model with health uncertainty and endogenous health care spending. Agents can choose between a low deductible- and a high deductible health insurance. If agents choose to purchase the high deductible health insurance, they are allowed to contribute tax free to an HSA. We examine the steady state effects of introducing HSAs into a system with private health insurance for young agents and Medicare for old agents. Since the model is a general equilibrium model, we fully account for feedback effects from both, factor markets and insurance markets. Our results from numerical simulations indicate that HSAs can decrease total health expenditures by up to 3% of GDP but increase the number of uninsured individuals by almost 5%. Furthermore, HSAs decrease the aggregate level of health capital and therefore decrease output. We also address possible extensions of the HSA reform that include the eligibility to pay health insurance premiums with HSA funds...

Getting More Out of Biomedical Documents with GATE's Full Lifecycle Open Source Text Analytics

Cunningham, Hamish; Tablan, Valentin; Roberts, Angus; Bontcheva, Kalina
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
345.64414%
This software article describes the GATE family of open source text analysis tools and processes. GATE is one of the most widely used systems of its type with yearly download rates of tens of thousands and many active users in both academic and industrial contexts. In this paper we report three examples of GATE-based systems operating in the life sciences and in medicine. First, in genome-wide association studies which have contributed to discovery of a head and neck cancer mutation association. Second, medical records analysis which has significantly increased the statistical power of treatment/outcome models in the UK's largest psychiatric patient cohort. Third, richer constructs in drug-related searching. We also explore the ways in which the GATE family supports the various stages of the lifecycle present in our examples. We conclude that the deployment of text mining for document abstraction or rich search and navigation is best thought of as a process, and that with the right computational tools and data collection strategies this process can be made defined and repeatable. The GATE research programme is now 20 years old and has grown from its roots as a specialist development tool for text processing to become a rather comprehensive ecosystem...

Nearest Keyword Set Search in Multi-dimensional Datasets

Singh, Vishwakarma; Singh, Ambuj K.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/09/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
345.95605%
Keyword-based search in text-rich multi-dimensional datasets facilitates many novel applications and tools. In this paper, we consider objects that are tagged with keywords and are embedded in a vector space. For these datasets, we study queries that ask for the tightest groups of points satisfying a given set of keywords. We propose a novel method called ProMiSH (Projection and Multi Scale Hashing) that uses random projection and hash-based index structures, and achieves high scalability and speedup. We present an exact and an approximate version of the algorithm. Our empirical studies, both on real and synthetic datasets, show that ProMiSH has a speedup of more than four orders over state-of-the-art tree-based techniques. Our scalability tests on datasets of sizes up to 10 million and dimensions up to 100 for queries having up to 9 keywords show that ProMiSH scales linearly with the dataset size, the dataset dimension, the query size, and the result size.; Comment: Accepted as Full Research Paper to ICDE 2014, Chicago, IL, USA

An Interdisciplinary research agenda for the study of ecological-economic systems in the American West

Batabyal, Amitrajeet
Fonte: Elsevier. The definitive version can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/resourpol Publicador: Elsevier. The definitive version can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/resourpol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
345.64414%
Increased public awareness off resource management issues and new attitudes toward resource conservation have led to great interest in the subject of the apposite use and management of natural and environmental resources in the American West. This paper analyzes this subject from an interdisciplinary ecological-economic perspective. Four salient issues concerning the study of the West's ecological-economic systems that remain inadequately understood are identified and then discussed. A research agenda is proposed to answer some key questions concerning the functioning, health, and management of the West's ecological-economic systems.; RIT community members may access full-text via RIT Libraries licensed databases: http://library.rit.edu/databases/

Integration, Service Orientation and Convergence – Advancing Research Information Management at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

Fondermann, Philipp; Höllrigl, Thorsten
Fonte: euroCRIS Publicador: euroCRIS
Tipo: Conference Paper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
345.64414%
Presented at the CRIS2012 Conference in Prague.-- 10 pages.-- Full conference programme available at: http://www.cris2012.org/findByFilter.do?categoryId=1158; The analysts in their outlooks for 2012 identify as trends Social Media, Unified Communication & Collaboration (UCC), Next Generation Business Intelligence and Mobile IT. The paper by considering the impact of these innovations on Current Research Information Systems (CRIS) evolves a picture of the ‘Next-Generation CRIS’. The future CRIS as a multifunctional platform will not only be deeply embedded in integrated and service-oriented architectures, but also comprise strong Social Media and UCC components, be graded up to a severe Business Intelligence tool and be accessible on all kinds of mobile devices anywhere and anytime. By these extensions of its range of functionalities the whole scientific and science management lifecycle will be supported. In the final chapter it is shown, to which extent the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in a strategic partnership with the AVEDAS AG is about to realize a Next-Generation CRIS within the running implementation project KIT-CRIS.