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Staphylococcal Hyaluronate Lyase: Purification and Characterization Studies

Abramson, Carl; Friedman, Herman
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1968 EN
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Staphylococcal hyaluronate lyase (hyaluronidase) derived from a pathogenic strain of staphylococcus was purified by means of salt fractionation with ammonium sulfate and gel filtration through Sephadex G-100. Most of the enzyme activity from concentrated culture supernatant fluids of staphylococci was obtained in a fraction precipitated by 90 to 100% saturation with ammonium sulfate. A small amount of enzyme was also precipitated by 80 to 90% saturation with the salt. The hyaluronidase-rich fractions did not contain other staphylococcal enzymes, such as coagulase, protease, lipase, and staphylokinase. These enzymes were present in the original concentrates. Molecular sieving chromatography of the partially purified enzyme by filtration through Sephadex G-100 resulted in a further increase in specific enzyme activity. However, more than one active peak was obtained after gel filtration, thus suggesting that there may be more than one molecular form of the enzyme. Immunodiffusion in agar gel of the chromatographically purified enzyme fraction, with immune serum from rabbits injected with concentrated staphylococcal culture supernatant fluids, indicated that there was one major antigen. A similar antigen, giving reactions of identity with the purified material...

Cholera Toxins: Purification and Preliminary Characterization of Ileal Loop Reactive Type 2 Toxin

Coleman, William H.; Kaur, Jasbir; Iwert, Marian E.; Kasai, George J.; Burrows, William
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1968 EN
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Details for the preparation and partial purification of culture supernatant fluids of Vibrio cholerae (V. comma) 569B which retain rabbit ileal loop fluid-accumulating activity are presented. These preparations were fractionated on Sephadex G-200 and on diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex. On the latter, two fractions were obtained by elution with a linear sodium chloride gradient. The fraction designated “fraction I” retains the toxic activity as demonstrated in the rabbit ileal loop model. Chemical and immunological properties of this active fraction are described.

Preparation and Description of High-Molecular-Weight Soluble Surface Antigens from a Group A Streptococcus

Besdine, Richard W.; Pine, Leo
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1968 EN
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High-molecular-weight proteins having M protein reactivity were isolated without acid or alkaline digestion. Treatment of a heat-killed group A Streptococcus with sonic vibration released antigens which reacted strongly and specifically with absorbed type-specific antiserum. This antigen preparation was released without diminishing the total yield of acid-extractable M protein of the original heat-killed cells. Fractionation of the sonic preparation on a sucrose gradient yielded four peaks of M reactivity. When these fractions were placed on Sephadex G-200 columns, the M reactive material of three fractions appeared in the void volumes, suggesting that the active material in each had a molecular weight greater than 300,000. The reactivity of the fourth fraction followed closely the void volume of Sephadex G-100. Chemical analysis revealed heterogeneity of the fractions. Spectral analysis showed virtual absence of nucleic acid in three of the fractions and a moderate amount in the fourth. Bactericidal inhibition tests showed activity of three of the four fractions. Analysis of the fractions by Ouchterlony double-diffusion technique revealed that each of the four fractions had several antigenic constituents. All four contained M antigen. T antigen and a third unnamed antigen were present in some of the fractions. Group reactivity was present in all fractions...

Evidence that the UV endonuclease activity induced by bacteriophage T4 contains both pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase and apyrimidinic/apurinic endonuclease activities in the enzyme molecule.

Warner, H R; Christensen, L M; Persson, M L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1981 EN
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We performed experiments to determine whether the phage T4-induced UV endonuclease activity is a single protein containing both pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase and apyrimidinic endonuclease activities. The UV endonuclease activity is induced by the denV gene and codes for the glycosylase activity. We obtained several kinds of evidence that the protein containing the glycosylase activity also contains the apyrimidinic endonuclease activity. After chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, the two activities copurified during phosphocellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, with a constant ratio of activities across the activity peaks. On Sephadex G-100 columns the molecular weights of the two activities agreed within 2,500 or less. When an extract of cells infected with the T4 V1 mutant was purified in exactly the same way as an extract of cells infected with T4 V1+, neither glycosylase nor apyrimidinic endonuclease activity was detected in the normal elution position of the T4 UV endonuclease activity. The glycosylase and apyrimidinic endonuclease activities were induced with similar kinetics, which were characteristic of immediate early rather than delayed early enzymes. This correlated well with the presumed major role of these activities in repairing thymine dimers in parental DNA before DNA replication begins. Finally...

Purification and immunochemical studies of type b carbohydrate antigen of oral Streptococcus milleri.

Yakushiji, T; Inoue, M; Koga, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1988 EN
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The type-specific antigen of serotype b Streptococcus milleri was extracted with trichloroacetic acid from a purified cell wall preparation of the strain NCTC 10708 and then purified on a DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column, followed by a Sephadex G-100 column. The antigen was composed of rhamnose and glucose in a molar ratio of 1.7:1.0, with a trace of galactosamine (0.1). The quantitative precipitin inhibition test with various haptenic sugars showed that rhamnose gave the greatest inhibition, whereas glucose and its related carbohydrates were less effective. The major carbohydrate components of the Rantz-Randall extracts from cells of all four serotype b strains tested were also rhamnose and glucose. These results suggest that rhamnose is structurally involved in the immunodeterminant of the serotype b-specific antigen of oral S. milleri.

Suppression of interleukin-2 production by macrophages in genetically susceptible mice infected with Leishmania major.

Cillari, E; Liew, F Y; Lelchuk, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1986 EN
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Spleen cells from BALB/c mice infected with 2 X 10(7) L. major promastigotes and developing progressive disease produced significantly lower levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in response to concanavalin A stimulation than did spleen cells from uninfected mice. In contrast, spleen cells from sublethally irradiated and infected mice, which were able to contain lesion development, produced significantly higher levels of IL-2. The increase in IL-2 production closely paralleled lesion regression. Mice protectively immunized by four intravenous injections with lethally irradiated promastigotes also produced enhanced levels of IL-2, which were sustained after challenge infection. In contrast, spleen cells from BALB/c mice given four s.c. injections of irradiated promastigotes produced high levels of IL-2 before but not after infection. These mice eventually produced levels of IL-2 indistinguishable from those of unimmunized mice with progressive disease. There is thus an inverse relation between disease progression and the ability of spleen cells to produce IL-2. Spleen cells from mice with uncontrolled disease not only produced lower levels of IL-2 but also impaired IL-2 production by normal spleen cells. The ability to inhibit IL-2 was abrogated by passing the cells through a Sephadex G-10 column...

Purification and properties of hemagglutinin from culture supernatant of Bacteroides gingivalis.

Okuda, K; Yamamoto, A; Naito, Y; Takazoe, I; Slots, J; Genco, R J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1986 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The hemagglutinating factor (hemagglutinin) of Bacteroides gingivalis was prepared from the supernatant of a 5-day diffusate broth culture by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography with a hydrophobic column of Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, DEAE-Sephadex A-50, and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The hemagglutinating activity of the preparation was 53.3 times higher than that of ammonium sulfate precipitate. In electron microphotographs, hemagglutinin appears to have a vesicle or tubelike structure. The hemagglutinating activity of intact cells was completely destroyed by heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min, but the activity of extracted hemagglutinin was heat stable. The activity of hemagglutinin was inhibited by L-arginine and L-lysine and partially inhibited by phospholipase D, but it was not affected by proteolytic enzymes, neuraminidase, hyaluronidase, lipase, phospholipase A and C, or sugars. The B. gingivalis hemagglutinin appeared to be comprised mainly of a 40,000-molecular-weight material. The Fab fragment of immunoglobulin G prepared from rabbit antiserum to whole cells of B. gingivalis and monoclonal antibody against the hemagglutinin bound to the cell surface and inhibited the hemagglutinating activity of both the cells and the purified hemagglutinin.

Characterization of neuraminidases produced by various serotypes of group B streptococci.

Brown, J G; Straus, D C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1987 EN
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Neuraminidase produced by 11 strains of group B streptococci (GBS), from serotypes Ia, Ib, Ic, II, and III, were characterized according to molecular weight, antigenic identity, and substrate specificity. Following growth in a chemically defined medium, ammonium sulfate-concentrated culture supernatants were assayed for activity with bovine submaxillary mucin as substrate. Neuraminidase produced by GBS strain 122 (serotype III) was purified by a combination of salt fractionation, affinity chromatography with Affi-Gel Blue, ion-exchange chromatography with DEAE-cellulose, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. Purified neuraminidase was used to immunize rabbits, and the resultant antiserum reduced the activity of purified neuraminidase from strain 122 by 87.7%. The antiserum also reduced the activity of neuraminidases produced by the other four serotypes by between 78.3 and 90%. Molecular weight estimates of the neuraminidases produced by the various serotypes were obtained by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200. The molecular weights obtained for the neuraminidases from the representative strains of each serotype ranged from 110,000 to 180,000. In addition, all of the GBS neuraminidases examined (regardless of the producing serotype) were active only on bovine submaxillary mucin. On the basis of these results...

Purification and some properties of Aeromonas hydrophila hemolysin.

Asao, T; Kinoshita, Y; Kozaki, S; Uemura, T; Sakaguchi, G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1984 EN
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A hemolysin produced by a strain of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from a patient with diarrhea was purified by acid precipitation and quarternary aminoethyl-Sephadex chromatography. The molecular weight of the hemolysin was estimated at 50,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and at 48,000 by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 4.0 and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the hemolysin migrated as a single band, whereas electrophoresis at pH 9.4 and thin-layer isoelectric focusing demonstrated multiple bands. The results may indicate charge isomers of the hemolysin. The purified hemolysin had a hemolytic activity of 134 hemolytic units per microgram of protein on rabbit erythrocytes. It caused fluid accumulation in infant mouse intestines and rabbit ligated ileal loops. Purified hemolysin also elicited cytotoxicity to Vero cells and lethal toxicity to mice. All these biological activities were lost on heating for 5 min at 56 degrees C. These findings support the notion that A. hydrophila hemolysin is a cytotoxic enterotoxin.

Purification of dermonecrotic toxin from a sonic extract of Pasteurella multocida SP-72 serotype D.

Nakai, T; Sawata, A; Tsuji, M; Samejima, Y; Kume, K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1984 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A procedure was developed to purify dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) from a sonic extract of a serotype D strain of Pasteurella multocida. Sonic extract containing DNT was applied to a DEAE-Sephacel column and eluted by a linear gradient of NaCl. Upon rechromatographing, fractions with dermonecrotic activity for guinea pigs were applied on a second Sephacel column, and a pooled fraction with the toxic activity was filtered through a Sephadex G-200 column. Pooled fractions with the toxic activity were subjected to polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and the toxic substance was eluted from each sliced gel. Eluted fractions with the toxic activity were rechromatographed on a second Sephadex G-200 column, and a pooled fraction with high dermonecrotic activity was referred to as a purified DNT. The activity of purified DNT was increased by 1,000 times, and the average yield was about 1.8%. The purified DNT was homogeneous as determined by Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and thin-layer isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels and gave a single band on PAGE and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The molecular weight of the toxin was ca. 160,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The isoelectric point of the toxin was ca. 4.7 to 4.8. Amino acid analysis of the purified DNT revealed that the toxin was composed of characteristically high proportions of glutamic acid...

Functional role of interleukin 1 in periodontal disease: induction of interleukin 1 production by Bacteroides gingivalis lipopolysaccharide in peritoneal macrophages from C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice.

Hanazawa, S; Nakada, K; Ohmori, Y; Miyoshi, T; Amano, S; Kitano, S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1985 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Hot phenol-water-extracted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Bacteroides gingivalis 381 was purified by Sephadex G-100 chromatography with Tris buffer supplemented with sodium deoxycholate and EDTA (B-LPS). In the present study, B-LPS was examined for its ability to induce interleukin 1 (IL-1) production, a mitogenic response, and macrophage activation in LPS high-responder C3H/HeN and low-responder C3H/HeJ mice. A significant increase in IL-1 production was observed in C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ peritoneal macrophages treated with various doses (1.0 to 50 micrograms/ml) of B-LPS. IL-1 production by C3H/HeN macrophages treated with B-LPS (10 micrograms/ml) was about seven times greater than that by C3H/HeJ macrophages. However, the IL-1 production induced by B-LPS (10 micrograms/ml) in C3H/HeN macrophages was four times lower compared with that induced by Escherichia coli O111 B4 LPS. Also, a significant increase in IL-1 production was found in human monocytes stimulated with B-LPS. That B-LPS-induced IL-1 exhibits some molecular weight heterogeneity was indicated from Sephadex G-75 gel filtration profiles. A significant, high mitogenic response by whole spleen cells with 1 X 10(5) to 5 X 10(4) cells of either mouse strain per well treated with B-LPS (10 to 50 micrograms/ml) was observed. However...

Purification and characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 heat-stable enterotoxin.

Arita, M; Takeda, T; Honda, T; Miwatani, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1986 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A toxin which causes rapid fluid accumulation in a suckling mouse assay and which was produced by Vibrio cholerae non-O1 was investigated. The toxin was purified from the culture supernatant of V. cholerae non-O1 (strain A-5) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydroxyapatite treatment, ethanol extraction, column chromatographies on SP-Sephadex C-50 and DEAE-Sephadex A-25, and high-pressure liquid chromatography on a Lichrosorb RP-8 column. About 1.4 X 10(5)-fold purification was achieved, with a recovery of about 12%. Although the crude preparation was heat labile, the purified toxin was heat stable. The minimum effective dose of purified toxin was about 5 ng in the suckling mouse assay. The amino acid composition of the purified toxin was determined to be Asp(3), Glu(1), Ala(1), half-Cys(6), Ile(2), Leu(1), Phe(1), and Pro(1). These data show the production of a new type of heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST) by V. cholerae non-O1.

Extracellular phospholipase A2 and lysophospholipase produced by Vibrio vulnificus.

Testa, J; Daniel, L W; Kreger, A S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1984 EN
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Phospholipase A2 and lysophospholipase activities were detected in the culture supernatant fluids of a virulent strain of Vibrio vulnificus. The phospholipase A2 was inactivated by heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min, had an apparent molecular weight of greater than or equal to 80,000 (estimated by gel filtration with Sephadex G-75), and a pI of ca. 5.0. Phospholipid hydrolysis was unaffected by Ca2+ or ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N-tetraacetic acid and was optimal at pH 5.0 to 5.5. The lysophospholipase was not affected by heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min but was inactivated at 100 degrees C and had an apparent molecular weight of greater than or equal to 80,000 and a pI of ca. 4.0. The enzymes were detected coincidentally with a previously described extracellular cytolysin of V. vulnificus; however, they were physically separable from the toxin (which did not possess phospholipase A, C, or D activity) by gel filtration with Sephadex G-75.

Isolation of milligram quantities of a group of histidine-rich polypeptides from human parotid saliva.

MacKay, B J; Pollock, J J; Iacono, V J; Baum, B J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1984 EN
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Freshly collected parotid saliva collected from human donors were shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to continuously secrete a group of low-molecular-weight cationic polypeptides. Up to 14 bands could be identified by Coomassie blue staining, and all bands migrated more rapidly than purified human leukemic lysozyme in cationic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These peptides could be isolated as a group relatively free of other salivary components and recovered in high yields from concentrated parotid saliva by Sephadex G-25 chromatography. In sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, the histidine-rich polypeptide bands appeared as just two bands migrating at the tracking dye and ahead of insulin chain B. Amino acid analysis of the mixture revealed an average content of at least 48% cationic residues, of which half were histidine. When stained bands were eluted from electrophoretic gels, hydrolyzed, and subjected to amino acid analyses, they were found to be enriched in histidine. There was also a correlation of the electrophoretic mobility with the content of basic amino acids. Sephadex G-25 chromatography is a convenient, simple method for preparing milligram quantities of the histidine-rich polypeptides for chemical and biochemical studies.

Isolation and some properties of an enterotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus.

Thompson, N E; Ketterhagen, M J; Bergdoll, M S; Schantz, E J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1984 EN
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Extracellular proteins produced by Bacillus cereus B-4ac were separated by chromatography on Amberlite CG-400, QAE-Sephadex, Sephadex G-75, and hydroxylapatite. A fraction, containing three detectable antigens, obtained from chromatography on hydroxylapatite caused fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit ileal loops, was dermonecrotic to rabbit skin, was cytotoxic to cultured cells, and was lethal to mice after intravenous injection. Two other fractions obtained from chromatography on hydroxylapatite showed essentially no toxic activity when tested individually. Each nontoxic fraction contained two of the three proteins present in the toxic material. When the two nontoxic fractions were combined, activity in all of the biological assays was observed. Antiserum against either of the nontoxic fractions neutralized the dermonecrotic response of the combined material. These results suggest that all of these biological activities probably are due to a single entity and that more than one component probably comprise the toxic entity.

Purification and immunochemical characterization of Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10557 serotype II carbohydrate antigen.

Koga, T; Okahashi, N; Yamamoto, T; Mizuno, J; Inoue, M; Hamada, S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Cell wall carbohydrate antigen of Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10557 (serotype II/biotype B) was extracted from purified cell walls by treatment with 5% trichloroacetic acid at 4 degrees C for 8 h. The extract was purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and Sephadex G-100 columns. The purified carbohydrate antigen produced a single precipitin band against anti-type II serum, which fused with the band produced by the autoclaved extract or the phenol-water extract of the S. sanguis cells. The type II antigen was a polysaccharide composed of glucose, galactose, rhamnose, and N-acetylgalactosamine in a molar ratio of approximately 3:6:3:2. Quantitative precipitin inhibition tests with various haptenic sugars indicated that N-acetylgalactosamine was a major determinant of the type II antigen.

Potency of bactericidal proteins purified from the large granules of bovine neutrophils.

Gennaro, R; Dolzani, L; Romeo, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.55107%
The novel population of large granules of bovine neutrophils, which is the cell store of bactericidal activity independent of O2 derivatives, was extracted with an acid medium. Several fractions were resolved from the extract by ion-exchange chromatography (with carboxymethyl-cellulose) and gel filtration (with Sephadex G-50). Some of these fractions contained only a very limited number of major components, as detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified bactericidal proteins exhibited their activity at 0.1 to 10 micrograms/0.3 ml of assay mixture containing 1 X 10(6) to 2 X 10(6) CFU of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli in media with physiological concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+. Two fractions, containing polypeptides with apparent molecular weights ranging from 28,000 to less than 12,000, caused rather selective and rapid (5 to 20 min) killing of S. aureus. Their action was accompanied by significant binding to the gram-positive bacteria of some low (less than 12,000)-molecular-weight components. Other Sephadex G-50 fractions, containing the first emerging proteins with relatively high molecular weights, were more active on E. coli than on S. aureus. With the gram-negative bacteria there was a 10-min delay in the onset of bactericidal activity...

Enhancement of Bacteroides intermedius growth by Fusobacterium necrophorum.

Price, S B; McCallum, R E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1986 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.55107%
Previous work from this laboratory has demonstrated the persistence of Bacteroides intermedius in the livers of mice receiving an intraperitoneal inoculum of B. intermedius and Fusobacterium necrophorum. This study was undertaken to determine whether F. necrophorum enhanced the in vitro growth of B. intermedius. Tryptose phosphate broth did not support the growth of B. intermedius alone, but the bacterium did survive in a tryptose phosphate broth culture of F. necrophorum. B. intermedius cultured in F. necrophorum-conditioned tryptose phosphate broth grew impressively, reaching maximal absorbance at 24 h after inoculation. The growth of B. intermedius in F. necrophorum-conditioned tryptose phosphate broth was proportional to the amount of conditioned medium present. The B. intermedius growth-stimulating factor was detectable in conditioned medium 8 h after inoculation with F. necrophorum and could be detected throughout the 96-h incubation period. Growth-factor-active fractions eluted from a Sephadex G-100 column did not absorb at 280 nm and were retained on the column until 4 column volumes were eluted. The growth factor was nondialyzable and stable to boiling, lyophilization, extraction with hot aqueous phenol, and trypsin digestion. The factor was inactivated by exposure to pH 2.0 in the pepsin digestion protocol. Significant amounts of hexose...

Posttranslational modification of tubulin by palmitoylation: II. Identification of sites of palmitoylation.

Ozols, J; Caron, J M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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As shown in the companion article, tubulin is posttranslationally modified in vivo by palmitoylation. Our goal in this study was to identify the palmitoylation sites by protein structure analysis. To obtain quantities of palmitoylated tubulin required for this analysis, a cell-free system for enzymatic [3H]palmitoylation was developed and characterized in our companion article. We then developed a methodology to examine directly the palmitoylation of all 451 amino acids of alpha-tubulin. 3H-labeled palmitoylated alpha-tubulin was cleaved with cyanogen bromide (CNBr). The CNBr digest was resolved according to peptide size by gel filtration on Sephadex LH60 in formic acid:ethanol. The position of 3H-labeled palmitoylated amino acids in peptides could not be identified by analysis of the Edman degradation sequencer product because the palmitoylated sequencer products were lost during the final derivatization step to phenylthiohydantoin derivatives. Modification of the gas/liquid-phase sequencer to deliver the intermediate anilinothiozolinone derivative, rather than the phenylthiohydantoin derivative, identified the cycle containing the 3H-labeled palmitoylated residue. Therefore, structure analysis of peptides obtained from gel filtration necessitated dual sequencer runs of radioactive peptides...

COMPARATIVE GEL FILTRATION OF TOXIN PRECURSOR AND TRYPSIN-ACTIVATED TOXIN OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TYPE E

Sakaguchi, Genji; Sakaguchi, Sumiko; Imai, Nobuko
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1964 EN
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Sakaguchi, Genji (National Institute of Health, Tokyo, Japan), Sumiko Sakaguchi, and Nobuko Imai. Comparative gel filtration of toxin grecursor and trypsin-activated toxin of Clostridium botulinum type E. J. Bacteriol. 87:401–407. 1964.—Precursor of type E botulinus toxin was highly purified from bacterial cells by extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ribonuclease digestion, and chromatography on CM-Sephadex. The sample free from ribonucleic acid had a toxicity of 5.1 × 105ld50 per mg of nitrogen before activation and 8.3 × 107ld50 per mg of nitrogen after activation. This precursor and its activated product were subjected to gel filtration on a column of Sephadex G-200. No evidence for smaller fractions was obtained. Both precursor and trypsin-activated toxin were eluted in the void volume with 0.05 or 1 m acetate buffer (pH 6.0) or with 0.05 or 0.5 m phosphate buffer (pH 7.5). Intact trypsin and its degradation products were separated from toxin. The toxins eluted with the acetate buffers had potencies of 1.2 × 108 and 1.3 × 108ld50 per mg of N, while those eluted with the phosphate buffers showed lower toxicities. Possible mechanisms involved in the activation process are discussed.