Página 18 dos resultados de 4763 itens digitais encontrados em 0.005 segundos

DNA binding of Jun and Fos bZip domains: homodimers and heterodimers induce a DNA conformational change in solution.

John, M; Leppik, R; Busch, S J; Granger-Schnarr, M; Schnarr, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/11/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
We constructed plasmids encoding the sequences for the bZip modules of c-Jun and c-Fos which could then be expressed as soluble proteins in Escherichia coli. The purified bZip modules were tested for their binding capacities of synthetic oligonucleotides containing either TRE or CRE recognition sites in electrophoretic mobility shift assays and circular dichroism (CD). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that bZip Jun homodimers and bZip Jun/Fos heterodimers bind a collagenase-like TRE (CTGACTCAT) with dissociation constants of respectively 1.4 x 10(-7) M and 5 x 10(-8) M. As reported earlier [Patel et al. (1990) Nature 347, 572-575], DNA binding induces a marked change of the protein structure. However, we found that the DNA also undergoes a conformational change. This is most clearly seen with small oligonucleotides of 13 or 14 bp harboring respectively a TRE (TGACTCA) or a CRE (TGACGTCA) sequence. In this case, the positive DNA CD signal at 280 nm increases almost two-fold with a concomitant blue-shift of 3-4 nm. Within experimental error the same spectral changes are observed for TRE and CRE containing DNA fragments. The spectral changes observed with a non-specific DNA fragment are weaker and the signal of free DNA is recovered upon addition of much smaller salt concentrations than required for a specific DNA fragment. Surprisingly the spectral changes induced by Jun/Jun homodimers are not identical to those induced by Jun/Fos heterodimers. However...

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) binding to hormone response elements: A cause of vitamin D resistance

Chen, Hong; Hewison, Martin; Hu, Bing; Adams, John S.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
In previous studies, we have shown that steroid hormone resistance in New World primates occurs in the absence of abnormal expression of cognate nuclear receptors. Rather, these animals have elevated levels of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) that act as hormone response element-binding proteins and attenuate target gene transactivation. Here we present evidence for a similar mechanism in humans via a patient with resistance to the active form of vitamin D [1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)] who presented with normal vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression. Initial cotransfection studies showed that the cells of the patient suppressed basal and hormone-induced transactivation by wild-type VDR. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays and Western/Southwestern blot analyses indicated that this suppressive effect was due to overexpression of a nuclear protein that specifically interacts with a DNA response element known to bind retinoid X receptor–VDR heterodimers. Ab blocking in electrophoretic mobility-shift assays indicated that this dominant-negative acting protein was in the hnRNPA family of nucleic acid-binding proteins. Further studies have shown that several members of this family, most notably hnRNPA1, were able to suppress basal and 1...

Purification of Mitochondrial Glutamate Dehydrogenase from Dark-Grown Soybean Seedlings.

Turano, F. J.; Dashner, R.; Upadhyaya, A.; Caldwell, C. R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
Proteins in extracts from cotyledons, hypocotyls, and roots of 5-d-old, dark-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Williams) seedlings were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Three isoforms of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were resolved and visualized in gels stained for GDH activity. Two isoforms with high electrophoretic mobility, GDH1 and GDH2, were in protein extracts from cotyledons and a third isoform with the lowest electrophoretic mobility, GDH3, was identified in protein extracts from root and hypocotyls. Subcellular fractionation of dark-grown soybean tissues demonstrated that GDH3 was associated with intact mitochondria. GDH3 was purified to homogeneity, as determined by native and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The isoenzyme was composed of a single 42-kD subunit. The pH optima for the reductive amination and the oxidative deamination reactions were 8.0 and 9.3, respectively. At any given pH, GDH activity was 12- to 50-fold higher in the direction of reductive amination than in the direction of the oxidative deamination reaction. GDH3 had a cofactor preference for NAD(H) over NADP(H). The apparent Michaelis constant values for [alpha]-ketoglutarate, ammonium, and NADH at pH 8.0 were 3.6, 35.5...

Influence of Surface Characteristics on the Stability of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts

Butkus, Michael A.; Bays, J. Timothy; Labare, Michael P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
Microelectrophoresis is a common technique for probing the surface chemistry of the Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst. Results of previous studies of the electrophoretic mobility of C. parvum oocysts in which microelectrophoresis was used are incongruent. In this work we demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis may also be used to probe the surface characteristics of C. parvum oocysts, and we related the surface chemistry of C. parvum oocysts to their stability in water. Capillary electrophoresis results indicated that oocysts which were washed in a phosphate buffer solution had neutrally charged surfaces. Inactivation of oocysts with formalin did not influence their electrophoretic mobility, while oocyst populations that were washed in distilled water consisted of cells with both neutral and negative surface charges. These results indicate that washing oocysts in low-ionic-strength distilled water can impart a negative charge to a fraction of the oocysts in the sample. Rapid coagulation experiments indicated that oocysts did not aggregate in a 0.5 M NaCl solution; oocyst stability in the salt solution may have been the result of Lewis acid-base forces, steric stabilization, or some other factor. The presence of sucrose and Percoll could not be readily identified on the surface of C. parvum oocysts by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...

Functional Analysis of Regulatory Elements in the Gene Promoter for an Abscission-Specific Cellulase from Bean and Isolation, Expression, and Binding Affinity of Three TGA-Type Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors

Tucker, Mark L.; Whitelaw, Catherine A.; Lyssenko, Nicholas N.; Nath, Pravendra
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
Site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify cis-acting elements that control hormonal and abscission-specific expression of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) abscission cellulase (BAC) promoter. Auxin inhibition of BAC promoter expression is at least in part controlled by a negatively regulated element and ethylene induction by a positively regulated element. One of a series of 15 different 10-bp mutations created in a 2.9-kb BAC promoter reduced reporter gene expression by 60%. The native sequence for this 10-bp mutation includes a TGA-type basic leucine zipper (bZIP) motif. Tandem ligation of three 18-bp BAC elements (Z-BAC), which includes the bZIP motif to a minimal −50 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter, enhanced expression in abscission zones (AZs) 13-fold over that of the minimal promoter alone. The native forward orientation of the Z-BAC elements was essential for high expression levels. Expression of the Z-BAC minimal construct was 3-fold greater in AZ than stems when compared with the expression levels of an internal control with an enhanced 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. Polymerase chain reaction was used to identify three TGA-type bZIP transcription factors in an AZ cDNA library. One of these factors was of the class I type and two of the class II type. RNA-blot analysis was completed for these genes and electrophoretic mobility shift assays used to confirm their binding to the Z-BAC element. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay-binding affinity was greatest for the class I TGA-type bZIP factor. The results indicate a complex interaction of negative and positive regulating transcription factors that control BAC gene expression.

Use of homoduplex ribosomal DNA spacer amplification products and heteroduplex cross-hybridization products in the identification of Salmonella serovars.

Jensen, M A; Hubner, R J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
When the hypervariable 16S-23S intergenic spacer regions found in prokaryotic ribosomal DNA (rDNA) are amplified from conserved adjacent sequences, homoduplex double-stranded DNA structures and heteroduplex structures containing substantial regions of single-stranded DNA are generated. The electrophoretic separation of these structures results in product profile patterns, which may be organized into highly correlated pattern groups of ribosomal spacer and heteroduplex polymorphism (RS/HP) types. In a test panel of 380 Salmonella strains that were analyzed by this procedure, 36 unique RS/HP types were observed. Of the 28 serovars in the test group, 21 showed single characteristic RS/HP types. The remaining seven serovars each contained multiple RS/HP types, which were also unique to individual serovars. Formation of heteroduplex structures with a substantially reduced electrophoretic mobility was observed in 29 of the 36 RS/HP pattern types. Because the mobility of these heteroduplex structures is sensitive to intergenic spacer sequence composition, the presence of these structures adds an additional diagnostic feature that is extremely useful in the differentiation of Salmonella serovars. The RS/HP types show sufficient diversity to be useful in the identification of many commonly observed Salmonella serovars. This analytical procedure is simple to perform and is well suited to rapid and inexpensive screening of large numbers of Salmonella strains.

Glycopeptides of Murine Leukemia Viruses III. Glycosylation of env Precursor Glycoproteins

Kemp, Maurice C.; Famulari, Nancy G.; Compans, Richard W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1981 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
We have compared the glycopeptides obtained after extensive pronase digestion of the env precursors (PrENV proteins) of ecotropic, xenotropic, and dual-tropic murine leukemia viruses. Two glycopeptide size classes, having molecular weights of approximately 2,200 and 1,500, were shown to be associated with the PrENV proteins of all murine leukemia viruses studied. Glycopeptides associated with the env precursors were totally susceptible to endo-β-N-acetyglucosaminidase H. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of partial endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H digestion products of the env precursor of dual-tropic mink cell focus-forming virus (MCF 247) revealed the presence of seven bands, suggesting that six glycosylation sites were present on the precursor molecule. The MCF 247 PrENV protein had been previously shown to be accessible to lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination on the surface of infected cells. The cell surface PrENV molecules had the same electrophoretic mobility as pulse-labeled PrENV protein, and after endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H treatment a similar shift in electrophoretic mobility was observed for the cell surface PrENV protein and the pulse-labeled precursors, a finding which indicated that the PrENV protein located on the cell surface also possessed only mannose-rich oligosaccharides. These results indicated that the env precursor glycoproteins of dual-tropic viruses had the unusual property of migrating to the cell surface without undergoing the normal oligosaccharide processing and proteolytic cleavage events that had been observed for ecotropic and xenotropic murine leukemia virus glycoproteins.

Effect of the surface composition of motile Escherichia coli and motile Salmonella species on the direction of galvanotaxis.

Shi, W; Stocker, B A; Adler, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
We have reported that motile Escherichia coli K-12 placed in an electric field swims toward the anode but that motile Salmonella typhimurium strains swim toward the cathode, a phenomenon called galvanotaxis (J. Adler and W. Shi, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 53:23-25, 1988). In the present study, we isolated mutants with an altered direction of galvanotaxis. By further analyses of these mutants and by examination of E. coli and Salmonella strains with altered cell surface structure, we have now established a correlation between the direction of galvanotaxis and the surface structure of the cell: motile rough bacteria (that is, those without O polysaccharide; for example, E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium mutants of classes galE and rfa) swam toward the anode, whereas motile smooth bacteria (that is, those with O polysaccharide; for example, wild-type S. typhimurium LT2) swam toward the cathode. However, smooth bacteria with acidic polysaccharide capsules (K1 in E. coli and Vi in Salmonella typhi) swam toward the anode. Measurements of passive electrophoretic mobility of strains representative of each set were made. We propose that the different directions of galvanotaxis of rough (or capsulate) bacteria and of smooth bacteria are explicable if the negative electrophoretic mobility of flagellar filaments is less than that of rough bodies but greater than that of smooth bodies.

Characterization of physicochemical forces involved in adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to surfaces.

Mafu, A A; Roy, D; Goulet, J; Savoie, L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
This study investigated the physicochemical forces involving the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to surfaces. A total of 22 strains of L. monocytogenes were compared for relative surface hydrophobicity with the salt aggregation test. Cell surface charges and hydrophobicity of L. monocytogenes Scott A were also determined by electrophoretic mobility, hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, and contact angle measurements. Electrokinetic measurements indicated that the strain Scott A has a negative electrophoretic mobility. Physicochemical characterization of L. monocytogenes by various methods indicates that this microorganism is hydrophilic. All L. monocytogenes strains tested with the salt aggregation test method aggregated a at very high ammonium sulfate molarities. The hydrophobicity-interaction chromatography results show that L. monocytogenes Scott A cells do not adhere to octyl-Sepharose unless the pH is low. Results from contact angle measurements showed that the surface free energy of strain Scott A was 65.9 mJ.m-2, classifying this microorganism as a hydrophilic bacterium. In addition, the interfacial free energy of adhesion of L. monocytogenes Scott A estimated for polypropylene and rubber was lower than that for glass and stainless steel. However...

Production of the siderophore aerobactin by a halophilic pseudomonad.

Buyer, J S; de Lorenzo, V; Neilands, J B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
A bacterial strain, isolated from a cyanobacterial culture, was identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain X40. Under iron-limiting conditions, the Pseudomonas sp. produced aerobactin, a dihydroxamate siderophore previously found only in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Aerobactin was identified by electrophoretic mobility, spectrophotometric titration, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, acid hydrolysis, and biological activity. Aerobactin was used as a siderophore in the Pseudomonas sp. and Escherichia coli. Two iron-repressed outer membrane proteins were observed in the Pseudomonas sp., neither of which had electrophoretic mobility identical to that of the aerobactin outer membrane receptor protein from E. coli. DNA hybridization assays showed no hybridization to the aerobactin genes from the E. coli plasmid pColV, indicating that the genetic determinants for aerobactin production by Pseudomonas strain X40 differ substantially from those found in the archetypic enteric plasmid pColV-K30.

Contribution of conserved amino acids in mediating the interaction between EBNA2 and CBF1/RBPJk.

Ling, P D; Hayward, S D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
The Epstein-Barr virus EBNA2 protein is a transcriptional activator that achieves promoter specificity through interaction with the cellular DNA-binding protein CBF1/RBPJk. Within the amino acid 252-to-425 EBNA2 domain that targets CBF1/RBPJk lie three amino acid clusters, conserved regions (CR) 5, 6, and 7, that are retained in the Epstein-Barr virus type A and type B and herpesvirus papio proteins. To further define the important features of the targeting domain, we constructed EBNA2 polypeptides containing deletions in the targeting domain and double or triple point mutations in the conserved motifs. The ability of these polypeptides and the type B and herpesvirus papio domains to interact with CBF1/RBPJk was examined by performing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and correlated with the effect of the mutations on EBNA2 transactivation. Both human type B EBNA2 and herpesvirus papio EBNA2 bound CBF1/RBPJk efficiently. Mutation of hydrophobic residues in CR6 severely impaired CBF1/RBPJk interaction and transactivation, while mutation of CR5 led to a moderate decrease in both activities. Mutation of CR7 had only a minor effect. Synthetic peptides corresponding to each of the conserved motifs were also used as competitors in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Only the peptide representing CR6 (amino acids 318 to 327)...

Regulation of a human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene (US3) by a silencer-enhancer combination.

Thrower, A R; Bullock, G C; Bissell, J E; Stinski, M F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
The US3 open reading frame of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is transcribed at immediate-early (IE) times after infection. Upstream of the US3 promoter, between -84 and -259 bp relative to the transcription start site, there are five copies of an 18-bp repeat, referred to as 5R2. Between -340 and -560 bp there are seven copies of a 10-bp dyad repeat, referred to as 7R1. We investigated the roles of these repeats in transcription from the US3 promoter in human foreskin fibroblast or HeLa cells. In transient transfection assays, the region containing 5R2 up-regulated transcription and was responsive to the p65 subunit of NF-kappa B. The DNA region containing 7R1 down-regulated transcription from either the US3 promoter or a heterologous promoter in a position- and orientation-independent manner. Mutational analysis and transient transfections indicated that DNA containing the 10-bp dyad or one-half of the dyad was sufficient to cause repression of downstream gene expression. DNA probes containing one or more copies of the pentanucleotide sequence TGTCG specifically bound cellular proteins, as demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and cold-competition electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Two different DNA-protein complexes were detected with DNA probes containing one or two copies of the pentanucleotide. In HCMV-infected cell nuclear extracts...

Interaction of wild-type and mutant adeno-associated virus (AAV) Rep proteins on AAV hairpin DNA.

Weitzman, M D; Kyöstiö, S R; Carter, B J; Owens, R A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
Both the Rep68 and Rep78 proteins of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) bind to AAV terminal repeat hairpin DNA and can mediate site-specific nicking in vitro at the terminal resolution site (trs) within the terminal repeats. To define the regions of the Rep proteins required for these functions, a series of truncated Rep78 derivatives was created. Wild-type and mutant proteins were synthesized by in vitro translation and analyzed for AAV hairpin DNA binding, trs endonuclease activity, and interaction on hairpin DNA. Amino-terminal deletion mutants which lacked the first 29 or 79 amino acid residues of Rep78 did not bind hairpin DNA, which is consistent with our previous identification of a DNA-binding domain in this region. Progressive truncation of the carboxyl-terminal region of Rep78 did not eliminate hairpin DNA binding until the deletion reached amino acid 443. The electrophoretic mobility of the Rep-specific protein-DNA complexes was inversely related to the molecular weight of the Rep derivative. Analysis of the C-terminal deletion mutants by the trs endonuclease assay identified a region (amino acids 467 to 476) that is essential for nicking but is not necessary for DNA binding. When endonuclease-positive, truncated Rep proteins that bound hairpin DNA were mixed with full-length Rep78 or Rep68 protein in electrophoretic mobility shift assays...

Stoichiometry of binding of CysB to the cysJIH, cysK, and cysP promoter regions of Salmonella typhimurium.

Hryniewicz, M M; Kredich, N M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
CysB is a member of the LysR family of transcriptional activators and regulates genes of the cysteine regulon in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. CysB binds to specific sites just upstream of the -35 regions of the cysJIH, cysK, and cysP promoters, where, in the presence of N-acetyl-L-serine, it stimulates transcription initiation. The cysK and cysP promoters contain additional binding sites, and we have proposed that CysB bends these promoters by binding to adjacent sites. N-Acetyl-L-serine is thought to decrease the magnitude of such bending. Since stoichiometric data bearing on this model have been lacking, we analyzed complexes in gel mobility shift experiments with 35S-labeled CysB and 32P-labeled promoter fragments. CysB was found to bind as a tetramer, and N-acetyl-L-serine increased the electrophoretic mobilities of one-protein complexes of the multibinding site cysK and cysP promoters without changing their stoichiometry, indicating that a single CysB tetramer can bend these promoters and that N-acetyl-L-serine diminishes such bending. Bend angles for both promoters were calculated to be 100 and 50 degrees in the absence and presence of N-acetyl-L-serine. N-Acetyl-L-serine affected neither the stoichiometry nor the electrophoretic mobility of cysJIH promoter complexes...

Two highly related insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki possess different host range specificities.

Widner, W R; Whiteley, H R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1989 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
Two genes encoding insecticidal crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 were cloned and sequenced. Both genes, designated cryB1 and cryB2, encode polypeptides of 633 amino acids having a molecular mass of ca. 71 kilodaltons (kDa). Despite the fact that these two proteins display 87% identity in amino acid sequence, they exhibit different toxin specificities. The cryB1 gene product is toxic to both dipteran (Aedes aegypti) and lepidopteran (Manduca sexta) larvae, whereas the cryB2 gene product is toxic only to the latter. DNA sequence analysis indicates that cryB1 is the distal gene of an operon which is comprised of three open reading frames (designated orf1, orf2, and cryB1). The proteins encoded by cryB1 and orf2 are components of small cuboidal crystals found in several subspecies and strains of B. thuringiensis; it is not known whether the orf1 or cryB2 gene products are present in cuboidal crystals. The protein encoded by orf2 has an electrophoretic mobility corresponding to a molecular mass of ca. 50 kDa, although the gene has a coding capacity for a polypeptide of ca. 29 kDa. Examination of the deduced amino acid sequence for this protein reveals an unusual structure which may account for its aberrant electrophoretic mobility: it contains a 15-amino-acid motif repeated 11 times in tandem. Escherichia coli extracts prepared from cells expressing only orf1 and orf2 are not toxic to either test insect.

Structure-function relationships in the alpha subunit of Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase MoFe protein from analysis of nifD mutants.

Govezensky, D; Zamir, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1989 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
Crude extracts of wild-type, nitrogenase-derepressed Klebsiella pneumoniae fractionated by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis contain, in addition to the major form of the MoFe protein, two minor variants of lower electrophoretic mobility. Of seven Nif- mutants of K. pneumoniae with nonpolar point mutations in nifD (encoding the alpha subunit of Kp1), three exhibit a wild-type-like electrophoretic pattern, whereas in the remaining four, the slowest-migrating form becomes the predominant species. Amino acid substitutions in mutants of the first type are located in the N terminus of NifD and include Gly-85 to Arg (UN1661), Glu-121 to Lys (UN1649), and Gly-161 to Asp (UN1683). Mutations of the second type are Gly-186 to Asp (UN1648), Gly-195 to Glu (UN1680), Ser-443 to Pro (UN1793), and Gly-455 to Asp (UN1650). Six of the mutated residues show interspecies conservation, three are close to conserved cysteines, and two are located next to conserved histidines. Based on evidence pointing to the possibility that the lowest-mobility form lacks the iron-molybdenum cofactor, these results provide insights into the functional significance of specific sites in the alpha subunit of the MoFe protein.

Gfi-1 encodes a nuclear zinc finger protein that binds DNA and functions as a transcriptional repressor.

Zweidler-Mckay, P A; Grimes, H L; Flubacher, M M; Tsichlis, P N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
The Gfi-1 proto-oncogene encodes a zinc finger protein with six C2H2-type, C-terminal zinc finger motifs and is activated by provirus integration in T-cell lymphoma lines selected for interleukin-2 independence in culture and in primary retrovirus-induced thymomas. Gfi-1 expression in adult animals is restricted to the thymus, spleen, and testis and is enhanced in mitogen-stimulated splenocytes. In this report, we show that Gfi-1 is a 55-kDa nuclear protein that binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner. The Gfi-1 binding site, TAAATCAC(A/T)GCA, was defined via random oligonucleotide selection utilizing a bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase-Gfi-1 fusion protein. Binding to this site was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting. Methylation interference analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays with mutant oliginucleotides defined the relative importance of specific bases at the consensus binding site. Deletion of individual zinc fingers demonstrated that only zinc fingers 3, 4, and 5 are required for sequence-specific DNA binding. Potential Gfi-1 binding sites were detected in a large number of eukaryotic promoter-enhancers, including the enhancers of several proto-oncogenes and cytokine genes and the enhancer of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early promoter...

An essential E box in the promoter of the gene encoding the mRNA cap-binding protein (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E) is a target for activation by c-myc.

Jones, R M; Branda, J; Johnston, K A; Polymenis, M; Gadd, M; Rustgi, A; Callanan, L; Schmidt, E V
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
The mRNA cap-binding protein (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E [eIF4E]) binds the m7 GpppN cap on mRNA, thereby initiating translation. eIF4E is essential and rate limiting for protein synthesis. Overexpression of eIF4E transforms cells, and mutations in eIF4E arrest cells in G, in cdc33 mutants. In this work, we identified the promoter region of the gene encoding eIF4E, because we previously identified eIF4E as a potential myc-regulated gene. In support of our previous data, a minimal, functional, 403-nucleotide promoter region of eIF4E was found to contain CACGTG E box repeats, and this core eIF4E promoter was myc responsive in cotransfections with c-myc. A direct role for myc in activating the eIF4E promoter was demonstrated by cotransfections with two dominant negative mutants of c-myc (MycdeltaTAD and MycdeltaBR) which equally suppressed promoter function. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated quantitative binding to the E box motifs that correlated with myc levels in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay extracts; supershift assays demonstrated max and USF binding to the same motif. cis mutations in the core or flank of the eIF4E E box simultaneously altered myc-max and USF binding and inactivated the promoter. Indeed...

DNA-binding specificity of the cut repeats from the human cut-like protein.

Harada, R; Bérubé, G; Tamplin, O J; Denis-Larose, C; Nepveu, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
The Drosophila Cut and mammalian Cut-like proteins contain, in addition to the homeodomain, three other DNA-binding regions called Cut repeats. Cut-like proteins, therefore, belong to a distinct class of homeodomain proteins with multiple DNA-binding domains. In this study, we assessed the DNA-binding specificity of the human Cut repeats by performing PCR-mediated random oligonucleotide selection with glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. Cut repeat 1, Cut repeat 3, and Cut repeat 3 plus the homeodomain selected related yet distinct sequences. Therefore, sequences selected by one of the fusion proteins were often, but not always, recognized by the other proteins. Consensus binding sites were derived for each fusion protein. In each case, however, some selected sequences diverged from the consensus but were confirmed to be high-affinity recognition sites by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We conclude that Cut DNA-binding domains have broad, overlapping DNA-binding specificities. Determination of dissociation constants indicated that in addition to the core consensus, flanking sequences have a moderate but significant effect on sequence recognition. Evidence from electrophoretic mobility shift assay, DNase footprinting, and dissociation constant analyses strongly suggested that glutathione S-transferase/Cut fusion proteins bind to DNA as dimers. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the DNA-binding capabilities of Cut repeats. In contrast to other studies...

Mapping and characterization of antigenic epitopes and the nucleic acid-binding domains of the VP6 protein of bluetongue viruses.

Hayama, E; Li, J K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
277.04283%
Heterologously expressed VP6 and truncated VP6 proteins of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 11 purified to near homogeneity were used for structure and function analyses. The yield of the expressed VP6 was host cell dependent. Six antigenic epitopes of VP6 of BTV were identified and mapped by immunoblot analyses and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with oligoclonal antibodies. These determinants were surface accessible and conserved among the cognate VP6 proteins of five U.S. BTV serotypes. The amino acid sequences and sizes of these six antigenic epitopes were determined, and their precise locations were also mapped and confirmed by deletion analyses. The nucleic acid binding activities of VP6, confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, were concentration dependent. The binding activities and affinities of the purified expressed VP6 protein towards double-stranded RNA and double-stranded DNA were similar. Two domains of VP6, corresponding to three of the six antigenic epitopes, were responsible for the nucleic acid binding activities and have been mapped within 28 amino acids near the middle and 11 residues near the carboxyl terminus of VP6 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and deletion mutant analyses. Synthetic oligopeptides corresponding to these three regions also exhibited similar concentration-dependent nucleic acid binding activities.