Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe

A Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (CEPAL) foi criada em 1948 pelo Conselho Econômico e Social das Nações Unidas com o objetivo de incentivar a cooperação econômica entre os seus membros. Ela é uma das cinco comissões econômicas da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) e possui 44 estados e oito territórios não independentes como membros.

Página 17 dos resultados de 37166 itens digitais encontrados em 0.015 segundos

The return of "vulnerability" and Raul Prebisch's early thinking on the "Argentine business cycle"

O'Connell, Arturo
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; Ensayo presentado en homenaje a Raúl Prebisch

The ideas of young Prebisch

Gurrieri, Adolfo
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; Ensayo presentado en homenaje a Raúl Prebisch; Prebisch arrived at ECLA for the first time in 1949, to write a report in which he set out his views on the main problems then facing the economic development of Latin America (Prebisch, 1949);. As he had been hired as an outside consultant, he did not receive the support of other members of the institution in its preparation, nor did he have much time at his disposal, so that the report was a reflection of the ideas he already held prior to joining ECLA. As the content of that work made a great impact on academic and political circles in the region and came to be considered one of the basic pillars of structuralist thinking, it has often been wondered when and why Prebisch incorporated those ideas into his thinking. In 1949 Prebisch already had a lengthy career as an academic and public official behind him and was, according to Furtado, "the only Latin American economist with an international reputation" (Furtado, 1985, p. 58);. His first works date from the1920s, and the general opinion is that in those years he was a firm supporter of neoclassical ideas, but there is very little in them that could have served as a basis for the 1949 report, and only as a result of the crisis that began in 1929 does he appear to have begun to abandon his neoclassical views and to look for new interpretations of the economic process and heterodox policies for reshaping it. The fact that Prebisch often confirmed this simple division of his thinking into two periods must have been one of the main reasons why this was accepted without question and a deeper study was not made of his thinking in the 1920s (Prebisch...

Markets and the State in the evolution of the "Prebisch manifesto"

Dosman, Edgar
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; Ensayo presentado en homenaje a Raúl Prebisch; Introduction (first paragraph); When Raúl Prebisch died in 1986 his ideas were out of fashion in Ronald Reagan's Washington and Latin American capitals, dismissed by most Western economists as passé -or even dangerously misguided in the new crusade for globalization. Only United Nations circles and a narrowing band of supporters insisted on his permanent contribution. It was as if his life had merely reflected the turbulence of the "short, violent century" (as Hobsbawn termed it);; now that it was over, with the Cold War consigned to history, so too (it appeared); was Prebisch's legacy. Exactly the reverse has occurred. Prebisch's life and work retains a remarkable contemporary significance. Instead of diminishing, his stature as economist and policy-maker has grown, and the recognition of the magnitude of Prebisch's contribution continues to expand as previously unpublished sources and unpublished manuscripts are assembled by scholars. Prebisch, it turns out, wears very well. The central theme which preoccupied him from the 1920s to the North-South Dialogue was the relationship between markets and the State; today globalization and its unpopular aspects (or "civilizing globalization" as some authors have termed it); remains the central challenge for both Latin America and most of humanity. For this reason...

The motive ideas behind three industrialization processes

González, Norberto
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; Ensayo presentado en homenaje a Raúl Prebisch; In its most orthodox version, neoclassical economic theory has occupied a leading place in Latin American economic policy discussions in recent years. According to this doctrine, the market mechanisms -if allowed to operate in complete freedom- allocate production resources in the most efficient manner possible. Any interference by State policy with this allocation will lead to loss of efficiency and a reduction in the growth rate of the economy compared with the optimum level that could be obtained through the free play of the market forces. The virtues of the main body of this economic theory for interpreting reality have been proved over more than two centuries. But this does not justify overlooking the serious limitations affecting the operation of the market or the differences observed in that operation in the different stages of countries' development. In the historical period in which they began their industrialization processes, the countries which are now developed applied policies of active State participation in combination with the free functioning of the market, and formulated theories which gave technical backing to those policies. Although these facts have been studied and are well known in academic circles...

La estructura de la economía y el flujo circular: notas de clase

García D'Acuña, Eduardo
Fonte: ILPES Publicador: ILPES
ES

Do private schools in Argentina perform better because they are private?

Formichella, María Marta
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; The objective of this study is to analyse the determinants of thequality of education in Argentina and, in particular, to look at what influencea school's ownership structure has. A multilevel regression model and2006 data from the Programme for International Student Assessment(PISA); were used for this purpose. One of the main findings is that thecorrelation between a school's administrative structure (public or private);and its students' scholastic performance fades when the socioeconomicschool environment is taken into consideration.

Portrait of the economist as a young man: Raúl Prebisch's evolving views on the business cycle and money, 1919-1949

Pérez Caldentey, Esteban; Vernengo, Matías
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; This paper analyses Raúl Prebisch's lesser-known contributions to economic theory, related to the business cycle and heavily informed by the Argentine experience. His views of the cycle emphasize the common nature of the cycle in the centre and the periphery as one unified phenomenon. While his rejection of orthodoxy is less than complete, some elements of what would become a more Keynesian position are developed. In particular, there is a preoccupation with the management of the balance of payments and the need for capital controls as a macroeconomic management tool, well before Keynes and White's plans led to the Bretton Woods agreement. In the process it is clear that Prebisch developed several ideas that are still relevant for understanding cyclical fluctuations in the periphery and that he became more concerned with the ability to take advantage of cyclical booms to maintain sustained economic growth.

The performance of Chinese and Brazilian exports to Latin America, 1994-2009

Gomes de Lima, Manuela; Lélis, Marcos Tadeo Caputi; Cunha, André Moreira
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; This article analyses the structure of Brazilian and Chinese exports to Latin American markets, for the purpose of evaluating the repercussions of China's emergence as a global power and major trading partner of the countries of the region. An estimation of several international trade and competitiveness indicators shows that Chinese exports, particularly manufactured goods, are displacing Brazilian products on the regional market; and this poses a potential threat to Brazil.

Peru: integration, sectoral specialization and synchronization with international gross domestic product cycles

Tello, Mario D.
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; This paper analyses the way the integration of trade, finance and sectoral specialization relates to the degree of synchronization between the gross domestic product (GDP) cycles of Peru and those of the 31 countries with which it trades most. The analysis is based on estimation of a system of simultaneous equations with panel data in which account is also taken of the repercussions of preferential trade agreements (PTAS). The findings reveal robust two-way relationships between synchronization and financial integration, between the latter and trade integration, and between trade integration and sectoral specialization. ptas did not influence the different variables considered. This evidence suggests that greater trade integration in Peru would intensify the effects of partner countries' GDP cycles on Peruvian output in contexts like the 2008 and 2010 crises.

The economics of demand-led growth: theory and evidence for Brazil

Nabakashi, Luciano; Costa da Silva, Guilherme Jonas; Oreiro, José Luis; Guimarães e Souza, Gustavo José
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; This article describes the theory of demand-led growth and provides evidence that a demand-led growth regime exists in the Brazilian economy. Based on the methodology developed by Atesoglu (2002), econometric tests of this hypothesis show that almost 85% of the growth rate of real GDP in the period 1990-2005 is explained by demand-side variables, mainly exports and government consumption. As the current fiscal crisis rules out fiscal expansion, Brazil's only option is to adopt an export-led growth model. The article also shows that the maintenance of undervalued real exchange rate is a major determinant of export growth in developing countries such as Brazil.

Overcoming the empty box syndrome": eterminants of income distribution in Latin America"

Martner Fanta, Ricardo; González, Ivonne
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; Latin America's persistent inequality seem to reflect the lack of specific policies to reduce income disparities. The present study uses econometric techniques to estimate the determinants of the income distribution in the region, in a context in which economic growth seems to coexist with the reduction of inequalities - thereby overcoming the "empty box syndrome" that characterized the region in the 1980s and 1990s. Using cross-section studies of a sample of member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Latin America, along with panel estimations for 18 Latin American countries in the period 1990-2010, the article reveals the key role played by educational, institutional and macroeconomic variables in the recent improvements. It also identifies the importance of fiscal action, through variables such as social spending, expenditure on education, capital expenditure and an indicator of the progressiveness of the tax system.

Free trade agreements in Latin America since 1990: an evaluation of export diversification

Dingemans, Alfonso; Ross, César
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; This article explores the previously uncontested claim that the free trade agreements (FTAs) signed by Latin American countries -the cornerstone of their international economic integration strategies since 1990- have led to export diversification in terms of variety of goods and number of trading partners. Using data from the United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database (COMTRADE), we show that the bulk of export growth in the region has been in the intensive rather than the extensive margin. Concentration indices support the finding that the expansion of exports into new products and new trading partners has been limited. Latin America's bid to diversify its exports using FTAs (based on a static concept of comparative advantages) instead of more comprehensive strategies has had a negligible impact. Governments should therefore adopt a more dynamic approach to comparative advantages and introduce more active policies. Finally, we pose some open questions for future research.

The biodiesel market and public policy: a comparative analysis of Argentina and Brazil

Kato, Karina Yoshie Martins; Flexor, Georges Gérard; Recalde, Marína Yesica
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; This article presents a comparative case study of the institutional aspects of policymaking and the impacts that this has had on the development of the biodiesel market in Argentina and Brazil. The study draws upon an analysis of the policymaking process and, based on the available statistical evidence, discusses how this has influenced the market's development. Its findings underscore the differences between the two countries' policy objectives. In Argentina, issues relating to the supply of petrodiesel have been a crucial factor, whereas, in Brazil, the promotion of family farming has been a major objective. In Brazil, Petrobras has played a significant role, but some of the country's policy objectives in this area have not been fully met. In Argentina, the external market continues to be the driving force behind this industry.

Keynesian economic policies: reflections on the Brazilian economy, 1995-2009

Filho, Fernando Ferrari; Terra, Fábio Henrique Bittes
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; As is well known, Keynes proposed deliberate government action, particularly the implementation of economic policies, to coordinate and stabilize the dynamic of monetary economies. In that context, this article aims to retrieve and describe the Keynes' economic-policy prescriptions, specifically monetary, fiscal and exchangerate policies, and to analyse the Brazilian economy's performance in terms of the operating rationale of Keynesian economic policy in the period 1995-2009. The study's findings show that the economic policies implemented following the Real Plan did not keep the Brazilian economy on a sustained and stable growth path in the face of the endogenous and exogenous economic crises that occurred throughout the period. Moreover, its conclusions question the Keynesian credentials of the countercyclical policies implemented by the Brazilian economic authorities since the 2007-2008 international crisis.

La deuda externa y la reforma del Sistema Monetario Internacional

O'Connell, Arturo
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
ES
Incluye Bibliografía; Analiza los factores que incidieron en el aumento del peso de la deuda externa en la decada de los anos 80. Sostiene que el alivio de la carga de la deuda implica necesariamente una reforma del sistema monetario internacional basada en una intervencion coordinada de los paises desarrollados en los mercados monetarios, y en la expansion economica de esos mismos paises.

Chile's new middle classes: a cohort analysis

Mac-Clure, Oscar
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; A cohort analysis methodology is used in this article to study Chile's "new" middle classes. It describes the members of these cohorts and compares them with older cohorts that are still economically active. The relative size as of the 1990s and 2000s of these occupationally determined middle classes or strata are analysed, and a distinction is drawn between "new" and "old" cohorts. The question as to whether or not the emergence of new occupational cohorts correlates with differences in income is also explored. This analysis leads to the conclusion that a new middle class has taken shape that is composed of people who became full-fledged members of the labour force during the economic growth surge of the 1990s and 2000s. The upper stratum of these new middle classes occupies a preeminent position, and social class influences income levels.

Productive structure and the functional distribution of income: an application of the input-output model

Araujo, Pedro Quaresma de
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; The ECLAC tradition views structural heterogeneity as one of the main causes of Latin America's unequal income distribution. Accordingly, industrial policy should aim to change the productive structure, while incorporating technical progress and raising productivity levels. Simulations performed using Brazilian input-output tables make it possible to discover and evaluate the effects of changes in the productive structure on the functional distribution of income and employment levels over the most recent business cycle. These simulations are an important tool for formulating industrial policies that simultaneously promote higher growth rates and a reduction in inequalities. The estimations made revealed that increasing the proportion of engineering-intensive sectors could help to improve distributive results, expand the share of wages in output, and create more jobs.

Income polarization, the middle class and informal employment in Greater Buenos Aires, 1974-2010

Groisman, Fernando
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; This article examines the social structure of Argentina's main conurbation, Greater Buenos Aires, over the past four decades. The research focused on identifying changes in society by stratifying it into three social classes: high, middle and low. Contributions are made in three areas. First, the article engages with the renewed debates about methodology on the issue of which criteria are best suited to achieving an adequate demarcation of social classes, especially the middle class. Second, it uses a variety of approaches to document changes in the social structure with a view to identifying common trends. Lastly, it highlights certain dominant features of the workings of the labour market that appear to have left their mark on the social morphology of Argentina.

Inequality and academic achievement in Chile

Redondo S., Amaia; Muñoz H., Pablo
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; This work uses a set of panel data to contribute new evidence on the impacts of socioeconomic determinants on academic achievement in Chile. Socioeconomic determinants are found to have a statistically significant effect, which rises over time, on academic achievement. The evidence shows that two individuals of different socioeconomic levels (SEL) who achieve the same score in Chile's Educational Quality Measurement System (simce) in eighth grade, are separated by a gap of over 70 points on average four years later, when they sit the University Selection Test (PSU). It is concluded that in a context of great income inequality and high returns on tertiary education, academic achievement indexes throw up barriers to access to tertiary education, principally for the population of low socioeconomic level, thereby perpetuating poor income distribution.

Mexico: value added in exports of manufactures

Fujii Gambero, Gerardo; Cervantes M., Rosario
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Includes bibliography; In the last few decades, Mexico's export sector has seen extraordinarily robust growth and has undergone sweeping changes, with exports of manufactures, especially intermediate- and high-technology products, leading the way. At the same time, however, the gap between exports and GDP has been widening, which indicates that the export sector is underperforming as a driver of economic growth. This study is based on the idea that the ability of exports to galvanize the economy will be heightened if export activity leads to an expansion of the domestic market. Whether or not it will do so depends on the amount of national income that is incorporated into exports. The authors estimate how much national value added is contained in exports of manufactures, by sector and by category (direct income, i.e., income generated directly by export activity, and indirect income, i.e., income incorporated into the inputs used to produce export goods). This information is provided for total exports of manufactures, exports of the maquila industry and non-maquila exports.