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Heritabilities of Facial Measurements and Their Latent Factors in Korean Families

Kim, Hyun-Jin; Im, Sun-Wha; Jargal, Ganchimeg; Lee, Siwoo; Yi, Jae-Hyuk; Park, Jeong-Yeon; Sung, Joohon; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Jong-Yeol; Kim, Jong-Il; Seo, Jeong-Sun
Fonte: Korea Genome Organization Publicador: Korea Genome Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Genetic studies on facial morphology targeting healthy populations are fundamental in understanding the specific genetic influences involved; yet, most studies to date, if not all, have been focused on congenital diseases accompanied by facial anomalies. To study the specific genetic cues determining facial morphology, we estimated familial correlations and heritabilities of 14 facial measurements and 3 latent factors inferred from a factor analysis in a subset of the Korean population. The study included a total of 229 individuals from 38 families. We evaluated a total of 14 facial measurements using 2D digital photographs. We performed factor analysis to infer common latent variables. The heritabilities of 13 facial measurements were statistically significant (p < 0.05) and ranged from 0.25 to 0.61. Of these, the heritability of intercanthal width in the orbital region was found to be the highest (h2 = 0.61, SE = 0.14). Three factors (lower face portion, orbital region, and vertical length) were obtained through factor analysis, where the heritability values ranged from 0.45 to 0.55. The heritability values for each factor were higher than the mean heritability value of individual original measurements. We have confirmed the genetic influence on facial anthropometric traits and suggest a potential way to categorize and analyze the facial portions into different groups.

Balibalosides, an Original Family of Glucosylated Sesterterpenes Produced by the Mediterranean Sponge Oscarella balibaloi

Audoin, Coralie; Bonhomme, Dominique; Ivanisevic, Julijana; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Cautain, Bastien; Monteiro, Maria Cândida; Reyes, Fernando; Rios, Laurent; Perez, Thierry; Thomas, Olivier P.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2013 EN
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The chemical investigation of the recently described Mediterranean Homoscleromorpha sponge Oscarella balibaloi revealed an original family of five closely related glucosylated sesterterpenes 1–4, named balibalosides. Their structure elucidation was mainly inferred from NMR and HRMS data analyses. Balibalosides differ by the pattern of acetyl substitutions on the three sugar residues linked to the same aglycone sesterterpenoid core. From a biosynthetic perspective, these compounds may represent intermediates in the pathways leading to more complex sesterterpenes frequently found in Dictyoceratida, a sponge Order belonging to Demospongiae, a clade which is phylogenetically distinct from the Homoscleromorpha. While steroid and triterpenoid saponins were already well known from marine sponges, balibalosides are the first examples of glycosilated sesterterpenes.

A Comparative Analysis on the Efficacy and Safety of Intaxel® and Taxol® in Advanced Metastatic Breast Cancer

Lang, Istvan; Rubovszky, Gabor; Horvath, Zsolt; Ganofszky, Erna; Szabo, Eszter; Dank, Magdolna; Boer, Katalin; Hitre, Erika
Fonte: JCDR Research and Publications (P) Limited Publicador: JCDR Research and Publications (P) Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Among the presently available cytotoxic drugs, paclitaxel, in combination with doxorubicin and carboplatin, come under the highly active therapy for metastatic breast cancer. Between the two brands of paclitaxel (Intaxel, which is marketed by Fresenius Kabi and Taxol, the original paclitaxel which is manufactured by BMS) the similarity has not been evaluated in clinical trial settings till date. This prospective, controlled, randomized, multicentre, open-label phase IV study was planned to compare the safety and efficacy of Intaxel with Taxol, when they were used in combination with carboplatin or doxorubicin, as a second line treatment for metastatic breast cancer.

Low Incidence of Miscarriage Induced by the Scent of Male Littermates of Original Mates: Male Kinship Reduces the Bruce Effect in Female Mice, Mus musculus

Wang, Yuting; Liu, Dingzhen
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/07/2013 EN
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The scent of a novel male can elicit pregnancy block in recently mated female mice (Mus musculus), a phenomenon known as the Bruce effect. Despite abundant literature on the Bruce effect in rodents, it remains unclear whether males related to a female’s original mate can induce the Bruce effect in out-bred, communally living mice. We investigated this question using Kunming (KM) male mice of varying genetic relatedness. Recently mated females were subjected to three treatments: exposure to the urine of the mate, urine of the mate’s male littermate, and urine of a male unrelated to the mate. It was found that the urine of male littermates of the females’ mates did not elicit more pregnancy block than that of the females’ mates. However, the urine of novel males caused a higher rate of female miscarriage than that of the females’ mates. By using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we found that unmated females could discriminate the urine scents of two male littermates from those of a novel male unrelated to the littermates. To understand how females use urinary cues to discriminate between males with different genetic relationships, we used gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to examine the volatile composition of urine from males with varying relatedness. It was found that KM male littermates shared similar volatile compositions in their urine. Our results suggest that male kinship reduces the Bruce effect in female KM mice...

An improvement on the maximum likelihood reconstruction of pedigrees from marker data

Wang, J
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Many methods have been proposed to reconstruct the pedigree of a sample of individuals from their multilocus marker genotypes. These methods, like those in other fields of statistical inferences, may suffer from both type I (falsely related) and type II (falsely unrelated) errors. In sibship reconstruction, type I errors come from the spurious fusion of two or more small sibships into a single sibship, and type II errors originate from the spurious splitting of a large sibship into two or more small sibships. In this study I investigate the tendencies of both types of errors made by the likelihood methods in sibship reconstruction, using both analytical and simulation approaches. I propose an improvement on the likelihood methods to reduce sibship splitting, and thus type II errors by downscaling the number of inferred siblings sharing the same genotype at a locus. Simulations are then conducted to compare the accuracy of the original and improved likelihood methods in sibship reconstruction of a large sample of individuals in full-sib families of the same small size, the same large size and highly variable sizes, using a variable number of loci with a variable number of alleles per locus. The methods were also applied to the analysis of a salmon data set. I show that my scaling scheme prevents effectively the splitting of large sibships...

Genetic diversity of Phytophthora colocasiae isolates in India based on AFLP analysis

Nath, Vishnu Sukumari; Senthil, Muthukrishnan; Hegde, Vinayaka Mahabaleswar; Jeeva, Muthulekshmi Lajapathy; Misra, Raj Shekhar; Veena, Syamala Swayamvaran; Raj, Mithun
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Phytophthora colocasiae that causes taro leaf blight is one of the most devastating diseases of taro which is widely distributed in India. Inter and intra-specific genetic diversity among P. colocasiae isolates collected from same field was assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker. Seven primer pairs produced 431 markers, of which 428 (99.2 %) were polymorphic. Considerable genetic variability was displayed by the isolates. The average value of the number of observed alleles, the number of effective alleles, mean Nei’s genetic diversity, and Shannon’s information index were 1.993, 1.385, 0.261, and 0.420, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the majority (85 %) of the diversity were present within populations of P. colocasiae. Dendrogram based on AFLP molecular data using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) classified the P. colocasiae isolates into two major clusters irrespective of their geographical origin. Clustering was further supported by principle coordinate analysis. Cophenetic correlation coefficient between dendrogram and original similarity matrix was significant (r = 0.816). The results of this study displayed a high level of genetic variation among the isolates irrespective of the geographical origin. The possible mechanisms and implications of this genetic variation are discussed.

Effects of cryoprotectant treatments on bovine sperm function and osmolyte content

Setyawan, Erif E. M.; Cooper, Trevor G.; Widiasih, Dyah A.; Junaidi, Aris; Yeung, Ching-Hei
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The hypothesis that addition and removal of cryoprotectants to and from spermatozoa would initiate regulatory volume decrease, and lead to osmolyte loss and reduced sperm function, was tested. Common cryoprotectants, in the absence of freezing and thawing, affected bovine ejaculated spermatozoa by lowering their total and progressive motility in medium, reducing their migration through surrogate cervical mucus, damaging sperm head membranes and inducing sperm tail coiling. Sperm function was slightly better maintained after cryoprotectants were added and removed in multiple small steps rather than in a single step. The intracellular content of the polyol osmolytes, D-sorbitol and myo-inositol, exceeded that of the zwitterion osmolytes, L-carnitine and L-glutamate. Certain cryoprotectants reduced intracellular L-carnitine and L-glutamate concentration but not that of myo-inositol or D-sorbitol. Multistep treatments with some cryoprotectants had advantages over one-step treatments in mucus penetration depending on the original amount of intracellular carnitine and glutamate in the spermatozoa. Overall, sperm quality was best maintained by multistep treatment with glycerol and propanediols that were associated with decreased intracellular glutamate concentration. Bovine spermatozoa seem to use glutamate to regulate cryoprotectant-induced cell swelling.

Human sperm pattern of movement during chemotactic re-orientation towards a progesterone source

Blengini, Cecilia Soledad; Teves, Maria Eugenia; Uñates, Diego Rafael; Guidobaldi, Héctor Alejandro; Gatica, Laura Virginia; Giojalas, Laura Cecilia
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Human spermatozoa may chemotactically find out the egg by following an increasing gradient of attractant molecules. Although human spermatozoa have been observed to show several of the physiological characteristics of chemotaxis, the chemotactic pattern of movement has not been easy to describe. However, it is apparent that chemotactic cells may be identified while returning to the attractant source. This study characterizes the pattern of movement of human spermatozoa during chemotactic re-orientation towards a progesterone source, which is a physiological attractant candidate. By means of videomicroscopy and image analysis, a chemotactic pattern of movement was identified as the spermatozoon returned towards the source of a chemotactic concentration of progesterone (10 pmol l−1). First, as a continuation of its original path, the spermatozoon swims away from the progesterone source with linear movement and then turns back with a transitional movement that can be characterized by an increased velocity and decreased linearity. This sperm behaviour may help the spermatozoon to re-orient itself towards a progesterone source and may be used to identify the few cells that are undergoing chemotaxis at a given time.

Antennapedia is involved in the development of thoracic legs and segmentation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

Chen, P; Tong, X L; Li, D D; Fu, M Y; He, S Z; Hu, H; Xiang, Z H; Lu, C; Dai, F Y
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Homeotic genes, which are associated closely with body patterning of various species, specify segment identity. The Wedge eye-spot (Wes) is a new homeotic mutant located on the sixth linkage group. Homozygous Wes/Wes embryos are lethal and display a pair of antenna-like appendages under the mouthparts as well as fused thoracic segments. These mutants also exhibit a narrower eye-spot at the larval stage compared with the wild type. By positional cloning, we identified the candidate gene of the Wes locus, Bombyx mori Antennapedia (BmAntp). Two BmAntp transcripts were identified in the homozygote of the Wes mutant, including a normal form and an abnormal form with a 1570-bp insertion. Our data showed that the insertion element was a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)-like transposon that destroyed the original open reading frame of BmAntp. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of normal BmAntp transcripts were increased markedly in the Wes heterozygous larvae compared with the wild type. Furthermore, we performed RNAi of BmAntp and observed fused thoracic segments and defective thoracic legs in the developing embryos. Our results indicated that BmAntp is responsible for the Wes mutant and has an important role in determining the proper development of the thoracic segments. Our identification of a homeotic mutation in the silkworm is an important contribution to our understanding of the regulation of Hox genes at different levels of expression.

Production of 2,3-butanediol from cellulose and Jatropha hulls after ionic liquid pretreatment and dilute-acid hydrolysis

Jiang, Li-qun; Fang, Zhen; Li, Xing-Kang; Luo, Jia
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/08/2013 EN
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Abundant Jatropha waste is a promising renewable feedstock for the production of sugars and 2,3-butanediol fermentation. To obtain high yield of water-soluble products and high concentration of reducing-sugars, ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment and dilute acid hydrolysis at 150°C were combined in this work. The destruction of crystalline structure and increase surface area of biomasses after IL-pretreatment, made their hydrolysis more efficient. Compared with original cellulose, after IL-pretreatment, both the yield and concentration of reducing-sugars increased by 139%, and the water-soluble products yield increased by 128% after hydrolysis. Compared with water-washed Jatropha hulls, after IL-pretreatment, the yield and concentration of reducing-sugars increased by 80% and 76%, respectively, and the water-soluble products yield increased by 70% after hydrolysis. IL-pretreatment benefited the fermentation of Jatropha hull hydrolysate with 66.58% diol yield and its productivity increased from 0.35 to 0.40 g/(L · h).

Genetic modification of dividing cells using episomally maintained S/MAR DNA vectors

Wong, Suet-Ping; Harbottle, Richard Paul
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The development of episomally maintained DNA vectors to genetically modify dividing cells efficiently and stably, without the risk of integration-mediated genotoxicity, should prove to be a valuable tool in genetic research. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Region (S/MAR) DNA vectors to model the restoration of a functional wild-type copy of the gene folliculin (FLCN) implicated in the renal cancer Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD). Inactivation of FLCN has been shown to be involved in the development of sporadic renal neoplasia in BHD. S/MAR-modified BHD tumor cells (named UOK257-FS) show restored stable FLCN expression and have normalized downstream TGFβ signals. We demonstrate that UOK257-FS cells show a reduced growth rate in vitro and suppression of xenograft tumor development in vivo, compared with the original FLCN-null UOK257 cell line. In addition, we demonstrate that mTOR signaling in serum-starved FLCN-restored cells is differentially regulated compared with the FLCN-deficient cell. The novel UOK257-FS cell line will be useful for studying the signaling pathways affected in BHD pathogenesis. Significantly, this study demonstrates the suitability of S/MAR vectors to successfully model the functional expression of a therapeutic gene in a cancer cell line and will aid the identification of novel cancer markers for diagnosis and therapy.

Integrase-defective Lentiviral Vectors as a Delivery Platform for Targeted Modification of Adenosine Deaminase Locus

Joglekar, Alok V; Hollis, Roger P; Kuftinec, Gabriela; Senadheera, Shantha; Chan, Rebecca; Kohn, Donald B
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We investigated the use of integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) for transient delivery of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and donor templates for site-specific modification of the human adenosine deaminase (hADA) gene. Initially, we constructed IDLVs carrying ZFN monomers (Single-IDLVs) and found them to be able to deliver their gene-editing payload to K562 cells successfully upon cotransduction, with minimal cytotoxicity. To simplify delivery, we designed an IDLV construct to deliver both ZFN monomers from the same vector (Double-IDLV). However, this construct in its original state was prone to rearrangements of the vector genome, resulting in greatly reduced functionality; this was due to recombination between highly similar ZFN monomers arranged in tandem. We modified the Double-IDLV constructs to reduce recombination and restored simultaneous delivery of both ZFNs. We also tested an IDLV construct for delivery of donor templates and demonstrated its efficacy for gene modification. In summary, we highlighted the importance of modifying vector design for co-delivery of highly similar sequences inherent to genome-editing nucleases, and demonstrated significant improvement in the use of IDLVs for delivery of ZFNs and donor templates for genome modification.

Discovery of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in sediment from a Lake Michigan waterway and original commercial Aroclors

Marek, Rachel F.; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in surficial sediment from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC), East Chicago, IN and five original Monsanto Aroclors. These compounds were measured using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and certified standards that allowed us to identify 65 individual or co-eluting congeners. Concentrations in the sediment ranged from 0.20 to 26 ng/g dry weight. Profiles of most samples were similar and were dominated by mono- to penta-chlorinated OH-PCBs. Interestingly, most of the samples strongly resembled the OH-PCB profiles of Aroclors 1221, 1242, 1248 and 1254, yet 25% of OH-PCBs measured in the sediment were not detected in Aroclors. A strong positive correlation was found between ΣOH-PCB and ΣPCB (p < 0.0001) and also between many individual OH-PCB:PCB pairs (p < 0.05). Analysis of OH-PCB:PCB pairs suggest PCB degradation is unlikely as a source of OH-PCBs in IHSC sediment. We are the first to report levels of OH-PCBs in sediment and Aroclors, and our discovery is significant because it is likely that OH-PCB contamination exists in sediment anywhere that PCB contamination from Aroclors is present.

Ureidoglycolate hydrolase, amidohydrolase, lyase: how errors in biological databases are incorporated in scientific papers and vice versa

Percudani, Riccardo; Carnevali, Davide; Puggioni, Vincenzo
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/10/2013 EN
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An opaque biochemical definition, an insufficient functional characterization, an interpolated database description, and a beautiful 3D structure with a wrong reaction. All these are elements of an exemplar case of misannotation in biological databases and confusion in the scientific literature concerning genes and enzymes acting on ureidoglycolate, an intermediate of purine catabolism. Here we show biochemical evidence for the relocation of genes assigned to EC 3.5.3.19 (ureidoglycolate hydrolase, releasing ammonia), such as allA of Escherichia coli or DAL3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to EC 4.3.2.3 (ureidoglycolate lyase, releasing urea). The EC 3.5.3.19 should be more appropriately named ureidoglycolate amidohydrolase and include genes equivalent to UAH of Arabidopsis thaliana. The distinction between ammonia- or urea-releasing activities from ureidoglycolate is relevant for the understanding of nitrogen metabolism in various organisms and of virulence factors in certain pathogens rather than a nomenclature problem. We trace the original fault in database annotation and provide a rationale for its incorporation and persistence in the scientific literature. Notwithstanding the technological distance, yet not surprising for the constancy of human nature...

Powerful GC-TOF-MS Techniques for Screening, Identification and Quantification of Halogenated Natural Products

S. Haglund, Peter; Löfstrand, Karin; Siek, Kevin; Asplund, Lillemor
Fonte: The Mass Spectrometry Society of Japan Publicador: The Mass Spectrometry Society of Japan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC TOFMS) and gas chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-HRT) were used to detect and identify halogenated natural products (HNPs) in tissue homogenate, in this case brominated analytes present in a marine snail. Two classes of brominated anthropogenic compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and brominated dibenzofurans, were analyzed for comparison. Following conventional preparation, the sample was analyzed using GC×GC-TOF-MS. Isotope ratio scripts were used to compile a list of putatively brominated analytes from amongst the thousands of features resolved in the two-dimensional chromatogram. The structured nature of the chromatogram was exploited to propose identifications for several classes of brominated compounds, and include additional candidates that fell marginally outside the script tolerances. The sample was subsequently analyzed by GC-HRT. The high-resolution mass spectral data confirmed many formula assignments, facilitated confident assignment of an alternate formula when an original proposal did not hold, and enabled unknown identification. Identified HNPs include hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDE analogs...

Cranioplasty with polymethylmethacrylate prostheses fabricated by hand using original bone flaps: Technical note and surgical outcomes

Caro-Osorio, Enrique; De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Martínez-Sánchez, Sergio R.; Olazarán-Salinas, Félix
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/10/2013 EN
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Publication trends in noninvasive cardiovascular imaging: 1991-2011: a retrospective observational study

Mujtaba, Sobia; Peña, Jessica M; Pamerla, Mohan; Taub, Cynthia C
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/11/2013 EN
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The last twenty years have seen an explosive growth in cardiovascular disease research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the characteristics of published research in the field of non-invasive cardiovascular imaging research from 1991-2011. Our aims were to determine: (1) the origin of the studies (international or from the U.S.) (2) differences in funding sources for U.S. publications and (3) if there has been an evolving trend pertaining to the mode of imaging. We evaluated characteristics of original research articles from Circulation, Circulation cardiovascular imaging, Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC), Journal of the American College of Cardiology cardiovascular imaging, Journal of the American Medical Association and the New England Journal of Medicine for the years 1991-91, 2001-02 and 2010-11. To establish trends for contributions for U.S. based studies and proportions of U.S. based studies receiving NIH funding in the study period, data was compared using a chi-square test. A two sided p value of less than or equal to 0.05 was used as the threshold for significance. Differences in modes of imaging under study were made by comparing average number of publications between the data sets in the study period using a t-test analysis. A total of 5431 studies were reviewed; 594 studies were selected as per the standardized abstraction criteria. U.S. based publications outnumbered international publications; its’ share declined from 77% in 1991-92 to 57% in 2010-2011 (p<0.0001). Funding for U.S. publications by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) remained static (1991-92: 40%; 2001-02: 49%; 2010-11: 42%). A decline was seen in the investigation of echocardiography (47%...

3D Brain Atlas Reconstructor Service—Online Repository of Three-Dimensional Models of Brain Structures

Majka, Piotr; Kowalski, Jakub M.; Chlodzinska, Natalia; Wójcik, Daniel K.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Brain atlases are important tools of neuroscience. Traditionally prepared in paper book format, more and more commonly they take digital form which extends their utility. To simplify work with different atlases, to lay the ground for developing universal tools which could abstract from the origin of the atlas, efforts are being made to provide common interfaces to these atlases. 3D Brain Atlas Reconstructor service (3dBARs) described here is a repository of digital representations of different brain atlases in CAF format which we recently proposed and a repository of 3D models of brain structures. A graphical front-end is provided for creating and viewing the reconstructed models as well as the underlying 2D atlas data. An application programming interface (API) facilitates programmatic access to the service contents from other websites. From a typical user’s point of view, 3dBARs offers an accessible way to mine publicly available atlasing data with a convenient browser based interface, without the need to install extra software. For a developer of services related to brain atlases, 3dBARs supplies mechanisms for enhancing functionality of other software. The policy of the service is to accept new datasets as delivered by interested parties and we work with the researchers who obtain original data to make them available to the neuroscience community at large. The functionality offered by the 3dBARs situates it at the core of present and future general atlasing services tying it strongly to the global atlasing neuroinformatics infrastructure.

Original Nerve Growth Factor Mimetic Dipeptide GK-2 Restores Impaired Cognitive Functions in Rat Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

Povarnina, P.Yu.; Vorontsova, O.N.; Gudasheva, T.A.; Ostrovskaya, R.U.; Seredenin, S.B.
Fonte: A.I. Gordeyev Publicador: A.I. Gordeyev
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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Dipeptide mimetic of the nerve growth factor (NGF) loop 4, hexamethylenediamide bis-(N-monosuccinyl- glutamyl-lysine) (GK-2), was synthesized at the V.V. Zakusov Scientific Research Institute of Pharmacology of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. GK-2 exhibited in vitro neuroprotective activity at nanomolar concentrations, was efficient in animal models of the Parkinson’s disease, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and global cerebral ischemia at doses of 0.01–5 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) and 10 mg/kg (per os). The mnemotropic effects of subchronic intraperitoneal administration of GK-2 on rat models of the Alzheimer’s disease are described in this paper. Dipeptide GK-2 at a dose of 1 mg/kg is found to decrease the habituation deficit induced by the septo-hippocampal pathway transsection and, at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, to significantly prevent spatial memory impairment in Morris water maze induced by intracerebral injection of streptozotocin. Thus, GK-2, an original dipeptide mimetic of NGF, acts on models of the Alzheimer’s disease upon systemic administration.

Intrafamilial spread of hepatitis B virus in Guilan Province-North of Iran

Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Yaseri, Maryam; Soati, Fatemeh; Atrkar-Roushan, Zahra
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/11/2013 EN
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The aim of the present study was to determine the intrafamilial spread of HBV in the family members of patients with Hepatitis B in Guilan Province, North of Iran. In a descriptive-comparative study, 156 patients with Hepatitis B, 415 family members of the index cases and 599 age and gender matched people as a control group were enrolled. Blood samples were taken from the participants and were checked for HBs Ag, HBC Ab, HBs Ab, and HBV DNA. Totally 44 (10.6%) of family members and only 1 (0.2%) of control group were HBs Ag positive (P=0.0001, OR=70.92). The overall prevalence in members of the original family was 5.3% (1.2% of the mothers, 2.2% of the brothers, 1.9% of the sisters), in sexual partners it was 1.4%, in offsprings it was 2.4% and in other households it was 1.4%. The mean age of HBs Ag positive family members was 35.3 ± 12.9 years old. Among them 27 (61.4%) were female. Only 8 (18.2%) of all HBsAg-positive reported previous HBV vaccination but just one person had the vaccine titer checked. The present survey indicates that there is a significant difference in the prevalence of Hepatitis B in the general population and family members of Hepatitis B patients and this is an evidence for horizontal transmission of HBV in household contacts.