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Blog en caja

Fonte: Universidad Europea de Madrid Publicador: Universidad Europea de Madrid
Tipo: Livro
SPA
Catálogo de exposición final de carrera de los estudiantes del Área de Arte de la Universidad Europea de Madrid, celebrada en el Centro de Arte Joven, Sala de Exposiciones de la Comunidad de Madrid, septiembre 2008.

Blog 2014: enhebrados

Fonte: Universidad Europea de Madrid Publicador: Universidad Europea de Madrid
Tipo: Livro
SPA
Catálogo de exposición final de carrera de los estudiantes del Área de Arte de la Universidad Europea de Madrid, celebrada en la Sala de Arte Joven, Sala de Exposiciones de la Comunidad de Madrid.

Calidad de vida y grado de preocupación por las hipoglucemias en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2

Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Álvarez Guisasola, F.; Ávila Lachica, L.; Palomares Ortega, R.; Roldán Suárez, C.; Lizán Tudela, L.
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
Las hipoglucemias pueden tener un impacto negativo en diferentes aspectos del manejo de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). El objetivo fue determinar el impacto que las hipoglucemias y la preocupación que generan tienen en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) de los pacientes con DM2 en España, así como explorar las actitudes y conocimientos de los médicos respecto a estos aspectos. Estudio observacional, transversal, con reclutamiento consecutivo de pacientes con DM2 en 661 centros sanitarios, entre septiembre/2010 y mayo/2011. Se recogieron variables sociodemográficas y clínicas de los pacientes, evaluando su CVRS (cuestionario ADDQoL) y preocupación por las hipoglucemias (subescala HFS-II). Se compararon 2 grupos: con y sin hipoglucemias reportadas en los últimos 6 meses. Los médicos respondieron 4 cuestiones (escalas visuales analógicas).

Diabetes in older people: new insights and remaining challenges

Sinclair, Alan; Dunning, Trisha; Rodríguez Mañas, Leocadio
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Diabetes in ageing communities imposes a substantial personal and public health burden by virtue of its high prevalence, its capacity to cause disabling vascular complications, the emergence of new non-vascular complications, and the effects of frailty. In this Review, we examine the current state of knowledge about diabetes in older people (aged ≥75 years) and discuss how recognition of the effect of frailty and disability is beginning to lead to new management approaches. A multidimensional and multidisciplinary assessment process is essential to obtain information on medical, psychosocial, and functional capabilities, and also on how impairments of these functions could limit activities. Major aims of diabetes care include maintenance of independence, functional status, and quality of life by reduction of symptom and medicine burden, and active identification of risks. Linking of therapeutic targets to individual functional status is mandatory and very tight glucose control is often not necessary. Hypoglycaemia remains an important avoidable iatrogenic event. Quality diabetes care in older people remains an important challenge for health professionals.

Spanish guidelines for the management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Ars, E.; Bernis, C.; Fraga, G.; Martinez, V.; Martins Muñoz, Judith Fátima; Ortiz, A.; Torra, R.; Pérez, M. V.; Antón Pérez, G.; Furlano, M.; Ayasreh, N.
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent cause of genetic renal disease and accounts for 6-10% of patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT). Very few prospective, randomized trials or clinical studies address the diagnosis and management of this relatively frequent disorder. No clinical guidelines are available to date. This is a consensus statement presenting the recommendations of the Spanish Working Group on Inherited Kidney Diseases, which were agreed to following a literature search and discussions. Levels of evidence found were C and D according to the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (University of Oxford). The recommendations relate to, among other topics, the use of imaging and genetic diagnosis, management of hypertension, pain, cyst infections and bleeding, extra-renal involvement including polycystic liver disease and cranial aneurysms, management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and RRT and management of children with ADPKD. Recommendations on specific ADPKD therapies are not provided since no drug has regulatory approval for this indication.

Resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos: una crisis global

Alós Cortés, Juan Ignacio
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
La introducción de los antibióticos en la práctica clínica supuso una de las intervenciones más importantes para el control de las enfermedades infecciosas. Los antibióticos han salvado millones de vidas, y además han supuesto una revolución en la medicina. Sin embargo, una amenaza creciente deteriora la eficacia de estos fármacos: la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos, que se define en este trabajo como la capacidad de una bacteria para sobrevivir en concentraciones de antibiótico que inhiben/matan a otras de la misma especie. En esta revisión se mencionan algunos ejemplos recientes e importantes de resistencia en patógenos de interés para el hombre. Se explica, según los conocimientos actuales, el proceso que ha llevado a la presente situación en poco tiempo, evolutivamente hablando. Se parte de los genes de resistencia, se continúa con los elementos genéticos y clones implicados en su mantenimiento y diseminación, y se termina con otros factores que contribuyen a la extensión. Asimismo se repasan las posibles respuestas al problema, con especial mención al desarrollo continuo de nuevos antibióticos.

Shigelosis, la importancia de la higiene en la prevención

González Torralba, Ana; Alós Cortés, Juan Ignacio
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
Shigella es un bacilo gramnegativo, pequeño, inmóvil, no capsulado, que pertenece a la familia Enterobacteriaceae. Se clasifica en 4 grupos, A, B, C y D que corresponden a Shigella dysenteriae (S. dysenteriae), Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri), Shigella boydii y Shigella sonnei (S. sonnei), respectivamente. Más del 75% de las infecciones en países industrializados se atribuyen a S. sonnei. Sin embargo, S. flexneri es la predominante en Asia, África y Sudamérica. Los cuadros más graves de shigelosis se deben a S. dysenteriae del serotipo, endémica y epidémica en la India. Su principal reservorio es el intestino del ser humano. En países desarrollados, el modo de transmisión más frecuente es de persona a persona. Se considera el enteropatógeno bacteriano más transmisible por esta vía. De forma esporádica se describen brotes asociados al consumo de agua o alimentos contaminados. La dosis infectiva de Shigella es muy baja, ya que menos de 100 microorganismos viables son suficientes para producir la enfermedad, lo que facilita enormemente la diseminación en ausencia de medidas adecuadas de control, como se demuestra en el brote ocurrido en un centro escolar del País Vasco descrito en este número de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica por Artieda et al.. En fase aguda la excreción fecal es máxima. Además...

Sensibilidad a azitromicina y otros antibióticos en aislados recientes de Salmonella, Shigella y Yersinia

Martín Pozo, Ángeles; Arana, David M.; Fuentes, Miriam; Alós Cortés, Juan Ignacio
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
La azitromicina constituye una alternativa antibiótica en la diarrea bacteriana. Existen pocos datos en España de sensibilidad a azitromicina de enteropatógenos. Se determinaron las CMI de azitromicina por E-test en aislados de Salmonella no typhi (SNT), Shigella y Yersinia de los últimos 3 años (2010-2012). También se estudió la sensibilidad a los antibióticos habitualmente utilizados en la clínica diarreica mediante un método de microdilución. De las 139 cepas de SNT, Shigella y Yersinia, 138 tuvieron una CMI ≤ 16 mg/l de azitromicina. En adultos, el 14,7 y el 40,6% de las cepas de SNT y Shigella, respectivamente, mostraron resistencia al menos a 2 de los siguientes antibióticos: amoxicilina, cotrimoxazol y ciprofloxacino. En población pediátrica, el 10% de los aislados de SNT y el 28,6% (2/7) de Shigella presentaron resistencia combinada a amoxicilina y cotrimoxazol. La azitromicina sería una elección antibiótica útil en el tratamiento de diarrea bacteriana en nuestro medio.

Los polifenoles del vino ejercen su efecto antineoplásico sobre la línea celular PC-3 andrógeno resistente a través de la inhibición de la actividad transcripcional del promotor de COX-2 mediada por NF-kβ

Ferruelo, Antonio; Las Heras Alonso, Marta Mireya; Redondo, C.; Fata Chillón, Fernando Ramón De; Romero Cagigal, Ignacio; Angulo Cuesta, Javier
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
La dieta mediterránea puede tener un papel en la prevención del desarrollo y progresión del cáncer de próstata (CaP). La expresión de ciclooxigenasa-2 (COX-2) se asocia con proliferación celular aumentada, previene la apoptosis y favorece la invasión tumoral. Se intenta clarificar si el resveratrol y otros polifenoles del vino inhiben de forma efectiva la actividad de COX-2 e inducen apoptosis en la línea celular PC-3 de cáncer hormonorrefractario. Células PC-3 fueron cultivadas y tratadas con diferentes concentraciones de ácido gálico, ácido tánico, quercetina y resveratrol en presencia del éster de forbol PMA (50 μg/ml) que induce la expresión de COX-2. Se extrajo ARN total y se analizó la expresión de COX-2 mediante cuantificación relativa por PCR a tiempo real (método ΔΔCt). La actividad COX-2 se determinó mediante detección de PGE-2 por ELISA. Se empleó ensayo de luminiscencia Caspasa 3/7 para evaluar la apoptosis. La transfección transitoria con plásmidos short human COX-2 (phPES2 –327/+59) y p5xNF-kβ-Luc determinó la actividad del promotor de COX-2 y de forma particular la dependiente de NF-kβ.

Project based engineering school: evaluation of its implementation

Gallego Ceide, Adrián; Terrón López, María José; Velasco Quintana, Paloma julia; García García, María José
Fonte: Aalborg University Press Publicador: Aalborg University Press
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
The School of Engineering at Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM) implemented, starting at the 2012-2013 period, a unified academic model based on project-based learning (PBL) as the methodology used throughout the entire School. This model expects that every year, in each grade, all the students should participate in a capstone project integrating the contents and competencies of several courses. This paper presents an evaluation of its implantation from the students point of view. The results are encouraging as students are more motivated and the initial set objectives were accomplished

A model for predicting mortality among critically ill burn victims

Galeiras, R.; Lorente Balanza, José Ángel; Pértega, S.; Vallejo, A.; Tomicic, V.; Cal, M. A. de la; Pita, S.; Cerdá, E.; Esteban, A.
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
All casualties admitted to our intensive care burn unit (ICBU) with a diagnosis of thermal or inhalation injury were studied. Age, total and full-thickness body surface area (BSA) burned, presence of inhalation injury, gender, mechanism of injury, delay to ICBU admission and mechanical ventilation during the first 72 h were recorded. The 851 participants were randomly divided into derivation (671) and validation (180) sets. From univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses a mortality predictive equation was derived. Mortality was 17.6%. In univariate analysis, all variables were significantly associated with mortality except mechanism of injury and delay to ICBU admission. In multivariate analysis, age, total and full-thickness BSA burned, female gender and early mechanical ventilation were independently associated with mortality.

Role of free radicals in vascular dysfunction induced by high tidal volume ventilation

Martínez Caro, Leticia; Lorente Balanza, José Ángel; Marín Corral, J.; Sánchez Rodríguez, Carolina; Sánchez Ferrer, A.; Nin, N.; Ferruelo, A.; Paula, M. de; Fernández Segoviano, P.; Barreiro, E.; Esteban, A.
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
The objective is to demonstrate that increased formation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) is involved in VILI-induced vascular dysfunction. Male Sprague-Dawley anesthetized rats were ventilated for 60 min using low V(T) ventilation [V(T) 9 ml/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 5 cmH(2)O, n = 18], and high V(T) ventilation (V(T) 35 ml/kg, zero PEEP, n = 18). Arterial pressure and respiratory system mechanics were monitored. Blood samples for the determination of arterial blood gases and lactate concentration were drawn. Vascular rings from the thoracic aortae were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension recording. We studied endothelium-dependent relaxation in norepinephrine-precontracted rings (acetylcholine, 10 nM-10 microM) and contraction induced by norepinephrine (1 nM-10 microM) in resting vessels. Vascular rings were preincubated for 30 min with Zn-Mn-SOD (100 u/ml) or tempol (10(-4) M) (extracellular and intracellular superoxide scavengers, respectively) or MnTMPyP (10(-5) M) (a superoxide and peroxynitrite scavenger).

High-tidal volume ventilation aggravates sepsis-induced multiorgan dysfunction in a dexamethasone-inhibitable manner

Nin, N.; Lorente Balanza, José Ángel; Fernández Segoviano, P.; Paula, M. de; Ferruelo, A.; Esteban, A.
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
High-tidal volume (Vt) ventilation induces lung injury and systemic inflammation, and small doses of endotoxin have been shown to increase the susceptibility to ventilation-induced lung injury. We studied whether high-Vt ventilation increases organ injury in a model of bacterial sepsis and whether an anti-inflammatory treatment averts those changes. Anesthetized rats, monitored with an arterial catheter and a blood flow probe in the aorta, were assigned to one of four different groups: nonseptic low-Vt group (Vt = 9 mL/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure = 8 cm H2O, control group), septic low-Vt group, septic overventilated group (Vt = 35 mL/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure = 0), and septic overventiled group pretreated with dexamethasone (6 mg/kg i.p., 30 min before mechanical ventilation).

Role of peroxynitrite in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in an experimental model of sepsis in rats

Seijas, M.; Baccino, C.; Nin, N.; Sánchez Rodríguez, C.; Granados Carreño, Rosario; Ferruelo, A.; Martínez Caro, Leticia; Ruíz Cabello, J.; Paula, M. de; Noboa, O.; Esteban, A.; Lorente Balanza, José Ángel
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
The mechanisms involved in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) are unknown. We investigated the role of nitrosative stress in sepsis-induced AKI by studying the effects of manganese (III) tetrakis-(1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin pentachloride (MnTMPyP), a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, and aminoguanidine (AG), a selective nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) inhibitor and peroxynitrite scavenger, on kidney function of rats subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 350 [SD, 50] g) were treated with MnTMPyP (6 mg/kg i.p.) or AG (50 mg/kg i.p.) at t = 12 and 24 h after CLP or sham procedure. At t = 36 h, mean arterial pressure and aortic blood flow were measured, and blood and urine samples were obtained for biochemical determinations, including creatinine clearance, fractional excretion of sodium, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentration in the urine. Kidney tissue samples were obtained for (i) light microscopy, (ii) immunofluorescence and Western blot for 3-nitrotyrosine and NOS2, (iii) gene expression (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) studies (NOS1, NOS2, NOS3, and superoxide dismutase 1), and (iv) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Update in acute lung injury and mechanical ventilation 2013

Beloncle, F.; Lorente Balanza, José Ángel; Esteban, A.; Brochard, L.
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
In the field of lung injury, the term “acute lung injury” (ALI) has been dropped from the new Berlin definition of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The term will remain in use in experimental settings. The issue of having an appropriate definition for this syndrome has been discussed this year in a few excellent studies but will remain debated for a long time in the absence of any gold standard for defining ARDS. This will also continue to make it difficult to define one unique pathogenesis or one biomarker because of the variety of causes, circumstances, and individual responses to aggression, as discussed below. More significant results may be obtained in more homogeneous populations.

ARDS: A Clinical Syndrome or a Pathological Entity?

Cardinal Fernández, P.; Ballén Barragán, A.; Lorente Balanza, José Ángel
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Parte de Livro
ENG
Despite substantial advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), no specific pharmacologic treatment has been shown to affect outcome. This failure has been attributed in part to a lack of a reliable definition for ARDS. Indeed, how the target population is defined for a clinical trial affects the results and their generalizability. Studies including patients with a low probability of responding to the treatment under study (because they are unlikely to have the diagnosis or because of other reasons) are likely to yield false-negative results. Thus a reliable definition of ARDS is essential for research (clinical trials, epidemiologic studies, and studies on pathogenesis) and for clinical practice (to reliably make a diagnosis of ARDS and provide appropriate treatment). In this context several relevant questions arise: What are the different diagnostic criteria for the definition of ARDS? What are the diagnostic test characteristics of these different criteria considering diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) as the histological reference for the diagnosis of ARDS? Does the clinical phenotype of ARDS correlate with one or with more histological entities? Is DAD the sole histological manifestation of ARDS?

RPAS from cradle to flight: a project based learning experience

Gallego Ceide, Adrián; Terrón López, María José; Rocco, Lagioia; Valleni, Carmine
Fonte: Aalborg University Press Publicador: Aalborg University Press
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Aerospace engineers face multidisciplinary problems. These require integrating technical knowledge from different subjects, balancing it with skills and competences. Third-year Aerospace Engineering students from the Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM) have been asked to develop a project as if they were working for a company. They present their work here. It was done following the Project Based Learning (PBL) methodology implemented at the Project-Based Engineering School (PBES) of the UEM. The project was aimed to design, build and test a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) by involving four different subjects. A team of 10 students was involved in the project. It was not just an educational project but a real engineering project. Therefore, it has allowed the students to know, understand and practice the process through which a real product is made. The project has led the students to perform in a professional environment, getting them closer to their future jobs and thus motivating them. They have achieved deeper learning and developed key skills such as teamwork, decision-taking, planning and time management. It has also fostered entrepreneurial spirit by transforming the project into the seed of a Start-up company. It has been presented to the first “HUB Emprende” call of the Universidad Europea and it has been distinguished as one of the ten winners...

Identification and validation of a mirna as a diagnostic biomarker of diffuse alveolar damage in an animal model of acute lung injury and adult respiratory distress syndrome in mechanically ventilated patients

Cardinal Fernández, P.; Ferruelo, A.; Rego, N.; Rojas, Y.; Ballén Barragán, A.; Granados Carreño, Rosario; Jaramillo, C.; López Hernández, E.; Martínez Caro, L.; Nin, N.; Herrero, R.; Cal, M. A. de la; Esteban, A.; Lorente Balanza, José Ángel
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
The objective is to discover a miRNA with diagnostic characteristics for diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) in an animal of acute lung injury (ALI) and in patients with the ARDS. Male rats (325-372 gr) underwent mechanical ventilation for 2.5 h with VT=9 ml/kg + PEEP=5 cm H2O (low VT, LV, n=10); or VT=25 ml/kg + PEEP=0 cm H2O (high VT, HV, n=19) (11 of 19 developed DAD at histological examination). Whole miRNA expression (RNA-seq-Single Read, 72 cycles, Illumina GaIIx) was analyzed in lung parenchyma. miRNA expression in LV vs. HV and in HV-DAD vs. HV-no-DAD was compared. We used a data mining strategy to prioritize the most relevant miRNA within the miRNAs differentially expressed. Prioritized miRNAs were validated in (1) serum from the same group of rats (RT-PCR); (2) human lung tissue (preserved at -80º after sampling) from autopsies of patients with ARDS (RT-PCR and in situ hybridization) (n=20); (3) human serum from mechanically ventilated patients obtained during the first 24 hours of ICU admission (n=66, 14 nonsurvivors). A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results are median (IQR), and odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]). RT-PCR results were expressed x10-4. Categorical and continuous variables were compared with χ2 and Mann-Whitney...

Acute respiratory distress syndrome sub-phenotypes according to histological findings

Cardinal Fernández, P.; Muñoz Rincón, D.A.; Thille, A. W.; Jaramillo, C.; Ballén Barragán, A.; Herrero, R.; Nin, N.; Cal, M. A. de la; Esteban, A.; Lorente Balanza, José Ángel
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
The objective is to demonstrate that among patients with the clinical diagnosis of ARDS, the presence of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) at histological examination, as compared to its absence, defines a clinical sub-phenotype. We studied patients that died in our ICU from 2000 to 2012 with the diagnosis of ARDS according to the Berlin definition and had autopsy. We excluded patients dying [14 days after the diagnosis of ARDS. The diagnosis of DAD required the presence of hyaline membranes plus at least one of the following: intra-alveolar edema, alveolar type I cell necrosis, alveolar type II cell proliferation, interstitial proliferation of fibroblasts or organizing interstitial fibrosis.

Influence of mechanical ventilation and sepsis on redox balance in diaphragm, myocardium, limb muscles, and lungs

Chacón Cabrera, Alba; Rojas, Yeny; Martínez Caro, Leticia; Vila Ubach, Mónica; Nin, Nicolás; Ferruelo, Antonio; Esteban, Andrés; Lorente Balanza, José Ángel; Barreiro, Esther
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
Mechanical ventilation (MV), using high tidal volumes (VT), causes lung (ventilator-induced lung injury [VILI]) and distant organ injury. Additionally, sepsis is characterized by increased oxidative stress. We tested whether MV is associated with enhanced oxidative stress in sepsis, the commonest underlying condition in clinical acute lung injury. Protein carbonylation and nitration, antioxidants, and inflammation (immunoblotting) were evaluated in diaphragm, gastrocnemius, soleus, myocardium, and lungs of nonseptic and septic (cecal ligation and puncture 24 hours before MV) rats undergoing MV (n = 7 per group) for 150 minutes using 3 different strategies (low VT [VT = 9 mL/kg], moderate VT [VT = 15 mL/kg], and high VT [VT = 25 mL/kg]) and in nonventilated control animals.