The effects of ammonium application on nitrate utilization were studied in N-limited cultures of Lemna gibba L. G3. Addition of ammonium instantaneously inhibited net nitrate uptake by at least 60%, followed by a slight recovery. The inhibition was equally clear after near-complete inactivation of glutamine synthetase by application of l-methionine-d,l-sulfoximine. Experiments where 13N-labeled nitrate was used as an influx tracer revealed that ammonium specifically inhibited influx, but did not promote nitrate efflux. Nitrate accumulation was relatively more inhibited than nitrate reduction and net uptake. Nitrate reductase, extracted and assayed in vitro in the presence of the thiol proteinase inhibitor leupeptin, was unaffected by short-term treatment of the plants with either nitrate, ammonium, or ammonium nitrate. Nitrate reductase activity recovered in the absence of leupeptin was considerably lower; however, it was enhanced by all the nitrogen sources, with ammonium as the most potent. It is argued that the effect of ammonium on nitrate utilization in Lemna is due to inhibition of nitrate influx, and that the effect should be attributed to ammonium itself, not to a newly formed nitrogen derivative. The decreased nitrate flux caused a decrease in nitrate reduction...
Simultaneous measurements have been made of inorganic carbon accumulation (by mass spectrometry) and chlorophyll a fluorescence yield of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625. The accumulation of inorganic carbon by the cells was accompanied by a substantial quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence. The quenching occurred even when CO2 fixation was inhibited by iodoacetamide and whether the accumulation of inorganic carbon resulted from either active CO2 or HCO3− transport. Measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence yield of cyanobacteria may prove to be a rapid and convenient means of screening for mutants of inorganic carbon accumulation.
Light-induced acidification by the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis is biphasic (a fast phase I and slow phase II) and shown to be sodium-dependent with an optimum concentration of 40 to 60 millimolar Na+. Cells grown under low CO2 concentrations at pH 9 (i.e. mainly HCO3− present in the medium) exhibited the slow phase II of proton efflux only, while cells grown under low CO2 concentrations at pH 6.3 (i.e. CO2 and HCO3− present) exhibited both phases. Light-induced proton release of phase I was dependent on inorganic carbon available in the bathing medium with an apparent Km for CO2 of 20 to 70 micromolar. As was concluded from the CO2 dependence of acidification measured at different pH of the bathing medium, bicarbonate inhibited phase-I acidification noncompetetively. Acidification was inhibited by acetazolamide, an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase. Apparently, acidification of phase I is due to a light-dependent uptake of CO2 being converted to HCO3− by a carbonic anhydrase-like function of the HCO3−-transport system (M Volokita, D Zenvirth, A Kaplan, L Reinhold 1984 Plant Physiol 76: 599-602) before or during entering the cell, thus releasing one proton per CO2 converted to HCO3−.
The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase from red beet storage tissue were determined using N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and a H+-ATPase antibody. When plasma membrane vesicles were incubated with 20 micromolar [14C]-DCCD at 0°C, a single 97,000 dalton protein was visualized on a fluorograph of a sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel. A close correlation between [14C]DCCD labeling of the 97,000 dalton protein and the extent of ATPase inhibition over a range of DCCD concentration suggests that this 97,000 dalton protein is a component of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. An antibody raised against the plasma membrane H+-ATPase of Neurospora crassa cross-reacted with the 97,000 dalton DCCD-binding protein, further supporting the identity of this protein. Immunoblots of two-dimensional gels of red beet plasma membrane vesicles indicated the isoelectric point of the H+-ATPase to be 6.5.
Guard cells are a valuable model system for the study of photoreception, ion transport, and osmoregulation in plant cells. Changes in stomatal apertures occur when sensing mechanisms within the guard cells transduce environmental stimull into the ion fluxes and biosynthesis of organic solutes that regulate turgor. The electrical events mediating sensory transduction in guard cells can be characterized with a variety of electrophysiological recording techniques. Recent experiments applying the patch clamp method to guard cell protoplasts have demonstrated activation of electrogenic pumps by blue and red light as well as the presence of potassium channels in guard cell plasmalemma. Light activation of electrogenic proton pumping and the ensuing gating of voltage-dependent ion channels appear to be components of sensory transduction of the stomatal response to light. Mechanisms underlying stomatal control by environmental signals can be understood by studying electrical events associated with ion transport.
The use of Ca2+-selective microelectrodes is difficult because of some basic problems: (a) electrodes with submicron tips may display non-Nernstian slopes; (b) liquid membrane microelectrodes respond only slowly (within seconds) to changes in ion activity; (c) turgid plant cells with tough walls damage the sensitive tip. This article describes concisely recent advances in fabricating Ca2+-selective single and double-barreled microelectrodes and their intracellular applications to different plant cell materials. Beveling the electrodes, mixing the sensor components with polyvinylchloride, insulation of the hydrated glass, and stabilization of the tips with inert materials are considered the basic concepts to circumvent most difficulties. It is concluded that the Ca2+-electrode can be a useful tool in plant physiology, but in spite of recent progress this technique remains experimentally demanding.
Temperature and cations modified the reaction of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Conguest) root plasma membrane protein sulfhydryl groups with N-4-(7-diethylamino-4-methylcoumarin-3-yl)-phenyl maleimide (CPM). The pseudo-first-order rate constants for the formation of fluorescent CPM-protein adducts increased as the temperature was raised above 30°C, suggesting changes in protein conformation. Monovalent [K(I), Na(I), L(I)] and certain divalent cations [Ba(II), Mg(II)] increased the reaction rates. Other divalent cations [Ca(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Sr(II), Cd(II), Hg(II)] decreased the rate of fluorescent adduct formation. Na(I) promoted and Ca(II) delayed the onset of the temperature-dependent increases in reaction rates. The results are discussed in terms of lipid-mediated, temperature-dependent changes in membrane protein conformation and ion-protein interactions.
Plantago media L. and Plantago maritima L. differ in their strategy toward salt stress, a major difference being the uptake and distribution of ions. Patch clamp techniques were applied to root cell vacuoles to study the tonoplast channel characteristics. In both species the major channel found was a 60 to 70 picosiemens channel with a low ion selectivity. The conductance of this channel for Na+ was the same as for K+, PK+/PNa+ = 1, whereas the cation/anion selectivity (PK+/Pc1−) was about 5. Gating characteristics were voltage and calcium dependent. An additional smaller channel of 25 picosiemens was present in P. maritima. In the whole vacuole configuration, the summation of the single channel currents resulted in slowly activated inward currents (t½ = 1.2 second). Inwardly directed, ATP-dependent currents could be measured against a ΔpH gradient of 1.5 units over the tonoplast. This observation strongly indicated the physiological intactness of the used vacuoles. The open probability of the tonoplast channels dramatically decreased when plants were grown on NaCl, although single channel conductance and selectivity were not altered.
Extracellular and intracellular electric potentials in bean roots are known to show electric oscillations along the longitudinal axis with a period of several minutes. The relationship between growth and the electric oscillations was studied using roots of adzuki (Phaseolus chrysanthos). We measured surface electric potentials with a multielectrode apparatus while simultaneously measuring elongation using a CCD camera and monitor. Roots having an electric oscillation grew faster than roots with no oscillation. Furthermore, elongation rate was higher in roots with higher oscillation frequency. Oscillation frequency had a strong dependence on temperature; i.e. Q10 was estimated at 1.7. These results suggest a correlation between electric oscillation and elongation.
The stimulation by K+ of the initial rate of H+-pumping by ATPase was studied in native plasmalemma (Zea mays L. var Mona) vesicles and in reconstituted vesicles with enzyme purified on a glycerol gradient. In reconstituted vesicles, a very high H+-pumping rate (200,000% quenching per minute per milligram protein) was obtained with 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxyacridine provided that the pump was short-circuited by K+-valinomycin. A constant ionic strength was used to prevent indirect stimulation by the electrostatic effects of K+ salts. Indirect stimulation of H+-pumping by the short-circuiting effect of internal K+, could be abolished by using the permeant anions NO3− and Br− in native, but not in reconstituted vesicles. In both materials, half-stimulation of the H+-pumping by K+ was observed at about 5 millimolar. The same stimulation was obtained when K+ was present only in the external solution or when it was present both outside and inside the vesicles. It was concluded that the stimulating effect of K+ on the H+-pumping evidenced in these experiments on both native and reconstituted vesicles was due to a direct effect of the cation on the cytoplasmic face of the ATPase. These results are discussed within the context of the hypothesis of an active K+ transport driven by the ATPase through a direct H+/K+ exchange mechanism.
Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida [Hook] Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines.
Measurements were made of 45Ca influx into isolated internodal cells of Chara corallina and also into internodal cells of intact plants. 45Ca influx was closely related to growth. In rapidly expanding internodal cells, the influx was approximately 1.4 nmol m−2 s−1 compared to the influx in mature cells from slow-growing cultures of 0.2 nmol m−2 s−1. Isolated internodal cells had influxes in the range 0.2 to 0.7 nmol m−2 s−1, but this increased to approximately 2 nmol m−2 s−1 in high calcium solutions and to 4 nmol m−2 s−1 in high potassium solutions. No significant effects on calcium influx were observed for changes in external pH or for treatments that changed internal pH, except that NH4 was slightly inhibitory. Severe metabolic inhibition by carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone stimulated influx, whereas dicyclohexylcarbodiimide had no effect and darkness inhibited influx. La3+ also inhibited influx, but the organic channel blockers nifedipine and bepridil stimulated influx. Verapamil had no effect. The results are generally consistent with voltage regulation of calcium channels as in animal cells.
Putrescine metabolism, uptake, and compartmentation were studied in roots of hydroponically grown intact maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. In vivo analysis of exogenously applied putrescine indicated that the diamine is primarily metabolized by a cell wall-localized diamine oxidase. Time-dependent kinetics for putrescine uptake could be resolved into a rapid phase of uptake and binding within the root apoplasm, followed by transport across the plasma membrane that was linear for 30 to 40 minutes. Concentration-dependent kinetics for putrescine uptake (between 0.05 and 1.0 millimolar putrescine) appeared to be nonsaturating but could be resolved into a saturable (Vmax 0.397 micromoles per gram fresh weight per hour; Km 120 micromolar) and a linear component. The linear component was determined to be cell wall-bound putrescine that was not removed during the desorption period following uptake of [3H]putrescine. These results suggest that a portion of the exogenously applied putrescine can be metabolized in maize root cell walls by diamine oxidase activity, but the bulk of the putrescine is transported across the plasmalemma by a carrier-mediated process, similar to that proposed for animal systems.
The hypothesis is tested that acidification of the bulk medium during transplasmalemma electron transport to ferricyanide is due solely to a requirement for charge balance. According to this hypothesis, reduction of the trivalent anion, ferricyanide, to the tetravalent anion, ferrocyanide, results in a charge difference that is balanced by protons. A coulometric device is used that rapidly and efficiently reoxidizes ferrocyanide to ferricyanide, thus maintaining a constant charge in the bulk medium. Oat (Avena sativa L. cv Garry) mesophyll protoplasts are chosen as experimental material to facilitate ferricyanide reduction and the concomitant ferrocyanide reoxidation by the coulometric device. The kinetics of ferricyanide reduction and proton excretion by protoplasts are similar to those of other cell types and tissues. Rates of net proton excretion are identical regardless of whether the ferrocyanide is simultaneously reoxidized. We conclude that acidification may occur during transplasmalemma electron transport when there is no change in negative charge of the bulk medium.
The specificity and regulation of putrescine transport was investigated in roots of intact maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. In concentration-dependent transport studies, the kinetics for putrescine uptake could be resolved into a single saturable component that was noncompetitively inhibited by increasing concentrations of Ca2+ (50 micromolar to 5 millimolar). Similarly, other polyvalent cations, including Mg2+ (1.8 millimolar) and La3+ (200 micromolar), almost completely abolished the saturable component for putrescine uptake. This suggests that putrescine does not share a common transport system with other divalent or polyvalent inorganic cations. Further characterization of the putrescine transport system indicated that 0.3 millimolar N-ethyl-maleimide had no effect on putrescine uptake, and 2 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid only partially inhibited transport of the diamine (39% inhibition). Metabolic inhibitors, including carbonylcyanide-m-chlorphenylhydrazone (20 micromolar) and KCN (0.5 millimolar), also partially inhibited the saturable component for putrescine uptake (Vmax reduced 48-60%). Increasing the time of exposure to carbonylcyanide-m-chlorphenylhydrazone from 30 minutes to 2 hours did not significantly increase the inhibition of putrescine uptake. Electrophysiological evidence indicates that the inhibitory effect on putrescine uptake by these inhibitors is correlated to a depolarization of the membrane potential...
The functional interaction between the externally located NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and the Q-pool acceptor site(s) in Percoll-purified mitochondria from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv OB1) mitochondria has been investigated. Oxidation of exogenous NADH is stimulated by ubiquinone (UQ1) with a parallel decrease of the apparent Km for NADH. In the presence of saturating amounts of UQ1 as electron acceptor, the Km (NADH) is not affected by variations of the ionic strength. Conversely, the Km for UQ1 is decreased by the screening effect of negative charges on the outer membrane surface. Under low-ionic strength, the hydroxyflavone platanetin progressively inhibits NADH oxidation with a mean inhibition dose of approximately 3 nanomoles of inhibitor per milligram of protein. Interestingly, under high-ionic strength, oxidation of NADH proceeds through two platanetin binding sites, one of which has a lower affinity for the inhibitor (mean inhibition dose = 20 nanomoles per milligram protein), because it is located near the outer surface of the membrane. This latter site is the one involved in the oxidation of external NADPH and, possibly, also affected by spermine and spermidine. Similarly to NADH, oxidation of NADPH is fully sensitive to micromolar concentrations of free Ca2+ ions; in addition...
The plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PM-H+-ATPase) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Klondike) roots was assayed by cross-reaction on western blots and cryosections with an antibody against the PM-H+-ATPase from corn roots. Under conditions of reduced K availability, which have previously been shown to increase K influx by greater than 25-fold, there were only minor changes detected in PM-H+-ATPase levels. Antibody labeling of cryosections showed the relative distribution of PM-H+-ATPase among cell types in root tips and mature roots. Epidermal cells, both protoderm and mature root epidermis, including root hairs, had high levels of antibody binding. In mature roots, the stelar tissue showing the highest antibody binding was the companion cells of the phloem, followed by pericycle, xylem parenchyma, and endodermis.
Incubation of amyloplasts isolated from cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) with [γ-32P]ATP resulted in the rapid phosphorylation (half-time of 40 seconds at 25 degrees Celcius) of organellar polypeptides. The preferred substrate for amyloplast protein kinases was Mg2+. ATP, and recovery of only [32P]serine after partial acid hydrolysis indicated the predominance of protein serine kinases in the organelle. These activities were located in the envelope and stromal fractions of the plastid, which showed different specificities toward exogenous protein substrates and distinct patterns of phosphorylation of endogenous polypeptides. A 66-kilodalton polypeptide, inaccessible to an exogenously added protease, was one of the major phosphorylated products found in intact amyloplasts at low [γ-32P] adenosine triphosphate concentrations. This polypeptide represented the major phosphoprotein observed with the isolated envelope fraction. The patterns of polypeptide phosphorylation found in intact amyloplasts and chloroplasts from cultured cell lines of sycamore were clearly distinguishable. The overall results indicate the presence of protein phosphorylation systems unique to this reserve plastid present in nonphotosynthetic tissues.
The characteristics of cation outward rectifier channels were studied in protoplasts from wheat root (Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum turgidum L.) cells using the patch clamp technique. The cation outward rectifier channels were voltage-dependent with a single channel conductance of 32 ± 1 picosiemens in 100 millimolar KCl. Whole-cell currents were dominated by the activity of the cation outward rectifiers. The time- and voltage-dependence of these currents was accounted for by the summed behavior of individual channels recorded from outside-out detached patches. The K+/Na+ permeability ratio of these channels was measured in a salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant genotype of wheat that differ in rates of Na+ accumulation, using a voltage ramp protocol on protoplasts in the whole-cell configuration. Permeability ratios were calculated from shifts in reversal potentials following ion substitutions. There were no significant differences in the K+/Na+ permeability ratios of these channels in root cells from either of the two genotypes tested. The permeability ratio for K+/Cl− was greater than 50:1. The K+/Na+ permeability ratio averaged 30:1, which is two to four times more selective than the same type of channel in guard cells and suspension culture cells. Lowering the Ca2+ concentration in the bath solution to 0.1 millimolar in the presence of 100 millimolar Na+ had no significant effect on the K+/Na+ permeability ratios of the channel. It seems unlikely that the mechanism of salt tolerance in wheat is based on differences in the K+/Na+ selectivity of these channels.
Ion transport, measured using double-barreled micropipettes to obtain current-voltage relations, was examined in Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs that continued tip growth and cytoplasmic streaming after impalement with the micropipette. To do this required in situ measurements with no handling of the seedlings to avoid wounding responses, and conditions allowing good resolution microscopy in tandem with the electrophysiological measurements. Two ion transport processes were demonstrated. One was a tetraethylammonium-sensitive potassium ion current, inward at hyperpolarized potentials and outward at depolarized potentials. The addition of tetraethylammonium (a potassium channel blocker) caused the potential to hyperpolarize, indicating the presence of a net inward potassium current through the ion channels at the resting potential. The potassium influx was sufficient to “drive” cellular expansion based upon growth rates. Indeed, tetraethylammonium caused transient inhibition of tip growth. The other electrogenic process was the plasma membrane proton pump, measured by indirect inhibition with cyanide or direct inhibition by vanadate. The proton pump was the dominant contribution to the resting potential, with a very high current density of about 250 microamperes per square centimeter (seen only in young growing root hairs). The membrane potential generated by the proton pump presumably drives the potassium influx required for cellular expansion. The pump appears to be a constant current source over the voltage range −200 to 0 millivolts. With this system...