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Heterogeneity among Isolates of Vibrio vulnificus Recovered from Eels (Anguilla anguilla) in Denmark

Høi, Lise; Dalsgaard, Inger; DePaola, Angelo; Siebeling, Ronald J.; Dalsgaard, Anders
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1998 EN
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The findings of this study demonstrate that Vibrio vulnificus isolates recovered from diseased eels in Denmark are heterogeneous as shown by O serovars, capsule types, ribotyping, phage typing, and plasmid profiling. The study includes 85 V. vulnificus isolates isolated from the gills, intestinal contents, mucus, spleen, and kidneys of eels during five disease outbreaks on two Danish eel farms from 1995 to 1997, along with a collection of 12 V. vulnificus reference strains. The results showed that more than one serovar may be capable of causing disease in eels and that these isolates are genetically heterogenous as shown by ribotyping. Ribotyping also showed that the same isolates may persist in an eel farm and cause recurrent outbreaks. Phage typing did not correlate with ribotyping or serotyping. However, we observed that 26 of 28 isolates, which were not susceptible to any of the phages, showed the same ribotype, O serovar, and capsule type. This suggests that these isolates may possess features that make them resistant to lysis by the phages used in this study. Ninety-three of 97 isolates harbored between one and three high-molecular-weight plasmids which previously had been suggested to be associated with eel virulence. The subdivision of V. vulnificus into two biotypes based on the indole reaction can no longer be supported...

The Mitochondrial Toxin Produced by Streptomyces griseus Strains Isolated from an Indoor Environment Is Valinomycin

Andersson, M. A.; Mikkola, R.; Kroppenstedt, R. M.; Rainey, F. A.; Peltola, J.; Helin, J.; Sivonen, K.; Salkinoja-Salonen, M. S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1998 EN
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Actinomycete isolates from indoor air and dust in water-damaged schools and children’s day care centers were tested for toxicity by using boar spermatozoa as an indicator. Toxicity was detected in extracts of four strains which caused a loss of sperm motility, and the 50% effective concentrations (EC50) were 10 to 63 ng (dry weight) ml of extended boar semen−1. The four strains were identified as Streptomyces griseus strains by 16S ribosomal DNA and chemotaxonomic methods. The four S. griseus strains had similar effects on sperm cells, including loss of motility and swelling of mitochondria, but we observed no loss of plasma membrane integrity or depletion of cellular ATP. None of the effects was observed with sperm cells exposed to extracts of other indoor actinomycete isolates at concentrations of ≥5,000 to 72,000 ng ml−1. The toxin was purified from all four strains and was identified as a dodecadepsipeptide, and the fragmentation pattern obtained by tandem mass spectrometry was identical to that of valinomycin. Commercial valinomycin had effects in sperm cells that were identical to the effects of the four indoor isolates of S. griseus. The EC50 of purified toxin from the S. griseus strains were 1 to 3 ng ml of extended boar semen−1...

Degradation of Starch–Poly(β-Hydroxybutyrate-Co-β-Hydroxyvalerate) Bioplastic in Tropical Coastal Waters

Imam, S. H.; Gordon, S. H.; Shogren, R. L.; Tosteson, T. R.; Govind, N. S.; Greene, R. V.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1999 EN
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Extruded bioplastic was prepared from cornstarch or poly(β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) or blends of cornstarch and PHBV. The blended formulations contained 30 or 50% starch in the presence or absence of polyethylene oxide (PEO), which enhances adherence of starch granules to PHBV. Degradation of these formulations was monitored for 1 year at four stations in coastal water southwest of Puerto Rico. Two stations were within a mangrove stand. The other two were offshore; one of these stations was on a shallow shoulder of a reef, and the other was at a location in deeper water. Microbial enumeration at the four stations revealed considerable flux in the populations over the course of the year. However, in general, the overall population densities were 1 order of magnitude less at the deeper-water station than at the other stations. Starch degraders were 10- to 50-fold more prevalent than PHBV degraders at all of the stations. Accordingly, degradation of the bioplastic, as determined by weight loss and deterioration of tensile properties, correlated with the amount of starch present (100% starch >50% starch > 30% starch > 100% PHBV). Incorporation of PEO into blends slightly retarded the rate of degradation. The rate of loss of starch from the 100% starch samples was about 2%/day...

Characterization of Two Novel Propachlor Degradation Pathways in Two Species of Soil Bacteria

Martin, Margarita; Mengs, Gerardo; Allende, Jose Luis; Fernandez, Javier; Alonso, Ramon; Ferrer, Estrella
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1999 EN
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Propachlor (2-chloro-N-isopropylacetanilide) is an acetamide herbicide used in preemergence. In this study, we isolated and characterized a soil bacterium, Acinetobacter strain BEM2, that was able to utilize this herbicide as the sole and limiting carbon source. Identification of the intermediates of propachlor degradation by this strain and characterization of new metabolites in the degradation of propachlor by a previously reported strain of Pseudomonas (PEM1) support two different propachlor degradation pathways. Washed-cell suspensions of strain PEM1 with propachlor accumulated N-isopropylacetanilide, acetanilide, acetamide, and catechol. Pseudomonas strain PEM1 grew on propachlor with a generation time of 3.4 h and a Ks of 0.17 ± 0.04 mM. Acinetobacter strain BEM2 grew on propachlor with a generation time of 3.1 h and a Ks of 0.3 ± 0.07 mM. Incubations with strain BEM2 resulted in accumulation of N-isopropylacetanilide, N-isopropylaniline, isopropylamine, and catechol. Both degradative pathways were inducible, and the principal product of the carbon atoms in the propachlor ring was carbon dioxide. These results and biodegradation experiments with the identified metabolites indicate that metabolism of propachlor by Pseudomonas sp. strain PEM1 proceeds through a different pathway from metabolism by Acinetobacter sp. strain BEM2.

Isolation from Estuarine Sediments of a Desulfovibrio Strain Which Can Grow on Lactate Coupled to the Reductive Dehalogenation of 2,4,6-Tribromophenol

Boyle, Alfred W.; Phelps, Craig D.; Young, L. Y.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1999 EN
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Strain TBP-1, an anaerobic bacterium capable of reductively dehalogenating 2,4,6-tribromophenol to phenol, was isolated from estuarine sediments of the Arthur Kill in the New York/New Jersey harbor. It is a gram-negative, motile, vibrio-shaped, obligate anaerobe which grows on lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen, and fumarate when provided sulfate as an electron acceptor. The organism accumulates acetate when grown on lactate and sulfate, contains desulfoviridin, and will not grow in the absence of NaCl. It will not utilize acetate, succinate, propionate, or butyrate for growth via sulfate reduction. When supplied with lactate as an electron donor, strain TBP-1 will utilize sulfate, sulfite, sulfur, and thiosulfate for growth but not nitrate, fumarate, or acrylate. This organism debrominates 2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 2,4,6-bromophenol but not 3- or 2,3-bromophenol or monobrominated benzoates. It will not dehalogenate monochlorinated, fluorinated, or iodinated phenols or chlorinated benzoates. Together with its physiological characteristics, its 16S rRNA gene sequence places it in the genus Desulfovibrio. The average growth yield of strain TBP-1 grown on a defined medium supplemented with lactate and 2,4,6-bromophenol is 3.71 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced...

The Role of Benzoate in Anaerobic Degradation of Terephthalate

Kleerebezem, Robbert; Pol, Look W. Hulshoff; Lettinga, Gatze
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1999 EN
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The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1,4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate...

Bacteriophage Inactivation at the Air-Water-Solid Interface in Dynamic Batch Systems

Thompson, Shawn S.; Yates, Marylynn V.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1999 EN
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Bacteriophages have been widely used as surrogates for human enteric viruses in many studies on virus transport and fate. In this investigation, the fates of three bacteriophages, MS2, R17, and φX174, were studied in a series of dynamic batch experiments. Both MS2 and R17 readily underwent inactivation in batch experiments where solutions of each phage were percolated through tubes packed with varying ratios of glass and Teflon beads. MS2 and R17 inactivation was the result of exposure to destructive forces at the dynamic air-water-solid interface. φX174, however, did not undergo inactivation in similar studies, suggesting that this phage does not accumulate at air-water interfaces or is not affected by interfacial forces in the same manner. Other batch experiments showed that MS2 and R17 were increasingly inactivated during mixing in polypropylene tubes as the ionic strength of the solution was raised (φX174 was not affected). By the addition of Tween 80 to suspensions of MS2 and R17, phage inactivation was prevented. Our data suggest that viral inactivation in simple dynamic batch experiments is dependent upon (i) the presence of a dynamic air-water-solid interface (where the solid is a hydrophobic surface), (ii) the ionic strength of the solution...

β-Tubulin mRNA as a Marker of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Viability

Widmer, Giovanni; Orbacz, Elizabeth A.; Tzipori, Saul
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1999 EN
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Determining the viability of waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts remains a technical challenge. rRNA and mRNA were evaluated in a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay as potential markers of oocyst viability. The rationale for this approach is the rapid turnover and postmortem decay of cellular RNA. The β-tubulin mRNA and an anonymous mRNA transcript were chosen as potential markers because they are the only mRNA species in C. parvum known to possess introns. This feature facilitated the distinction between genuine RT-PCR products and PCR products originating from copurifying DNA. Prolonged incubation at room temperature of initially viable oocysts resulted in a gradual decrease in mRNA levels, which correlated with the loss of oocyst infectivity to neonatal mice. In contrast, oocysts stored at 4°C for over 39 weeks maintained their infectivity and displayed no decrease in the level of β-tubulin RT-PCR product. The postmortem decay of two mRNA species demonstrates that RT-PCR analysis can provide information on the viability of C. parvum oocysts. The methodological similarity between PCR detection and RT-PCR viability analysis could facilitate the development of a combined detection and viability assay.

Formation of Bound Residues during Microbial Degradation of [14C]Anthracene in Soil

Kästner, M.; Streibich, S.; Beyrer, M.; Richnow, H. H.; Fritsche, W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1999 EN
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Carbon partitioning and residue formation during microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil and soil-compost mixtures were examined by using [14C]anthracenes labeled at different positions. In native soil 43.8% of [9-14C]anthracene was mineralized by the autochthonous microflora and 45.4% was transformed into bound residues within 176 days. Addition of compost increased the metabolism (67.2% of the anthracene was mineralized) and decreased the residue formation (20.7% of the anthracene was transformed). Thus, the higher organic carbon content after compost was added did not increase the level of residue formation. [14C]anthracene labeled at position 1,2,3,4,4a,5a was metabolized more rapidly and resulted in formation of higher levels of residues (28.5%) by the soil-compost mixture than [14C]anthracene radiolabeled at position C-9 (20.7%). Two phases of residue formation were observed in the experiments. In the first phase the original compound was sequestered in the soil, as indicated by its limited extractability. In the second phase metabolites were incorporated into humic substances after microbial degradation of the PAH (biogenic residue formation). PAH metabolites undergo oxidative coupling to phenolic compounds to form nonhydrolyzable humic substance-like macromolecules. We found indications that monomeric educts are coupled by C-C- or either bonds. Hydrolyzable ester bonds or sorption of the parent compounds plays a minor role in residue formation. Moreover...

Microbial Communities Associated with Anaerobic Benzene Degradation in a Petroleum-Contaminated Aquifer

Rooney-Varga, Juliette N.; Anderson, Robert T.; Fraga, Jocelyn L.; Ringelberg, David; Lovley, Derek R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1999 EN
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Microbial community composition associated with benzene oxidation under in situ Fe(III)-reducing conditions in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer located in Bemidji, Minn., was investigated. Community structure associated with benzene degradation was compared to sediment communities that did not anaerobically oxidize benzene which were obtained from two adjacent Fe(III)-reducing sites and from methanogenic and uncontaminated zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA sequences amplified with bacterial or Geobacteraceae-specific primers indicated significant differences in the composition of the microbial communities at the different sites. Most notable was a selective enrichment of microorganisms in the Geobacter cluster seen in the benzene-degrading sediments. This finding was in accordance with phospholipid fatty acid analysis and most-probable-number–PCR enumeration, which indicated that members of the family Geobacteraceae were more numerous in these sediments. A benzene-oxidizing Fe(III)-reducing enrichment culture was established from benzene-degrading sediments and contained an organism closely related to the uncultivated Geobacter spp. This genus contains the only known organisms that can oxidize aromatic compounds with the reduction of Fe(III). Sequences closely related to the Fe(III) reducer Geothrix fermentans and the aerobe Variovorax paradoxus were also amplified from the benzene-degrading enrichment and were present in the benzene-degrading sediments. However...

Microbial Population Changes during Bioremediation of an Experimental Oil Spill

MacNaughton, Sarah J.; Stephen, John R.; Venosa, Albert D.; Davis, Gregory A.; Chang, Yun-Juan; White, David C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1999 EN
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Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil plus nutrients, and oil plus nutrients plus an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In situ microbial community structures were monitored by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and 16S rDNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to (i) identify the bacterial community members responsible for the decontamination of the site and (ii) define an end point for the removal of the hydrocarbon substrate. The results of PLFA analysis demonstrated a community shift in all plots from primarily eukaryotic biomass to gram-negative bacterial biomass with time. PLFA profiles from the oiled plots suggested increased gram-negative biomass and adaptation to metabolic stress compared to unoiled controls. DGGE analysis of untreated control plots revealed a simple, dynamic dominant population structure throughout the experiment. This banding pattern disappeared in all oiled plots, indicating that the structure and diversity of the dominant bacterial community changed substantially. No consistent differences were detected between nutrient-amended and indigenous inoculum-treated plots...

Initial Reactions in Anaerobic Alkane Degradation by a Sulfate Reducer, Strain AK-01

So, Chi Ming; Young, L. Y.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1999 EN
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An alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, AK-01, isolated from a petroleum-contaminated sediment was studied to elucidate its mechanism of alkane metabolism. Total cellular fatty acids of AK-01 were predominantly C even when it was grown on C-even alkanes and were predominantly C odd when grown on C-odd alkanes, suggesting that the bacterium anaerobically oxidizes alkanes to fatty acids. Among these fatty acids, some 2-, 4-, and 6-methylated fatty acids were specifically found only when AK-01 was grown on alkanes, and their chain lengths always correlated with those of the alkanes. When [1,2-13C2]hexadecane or perdeuterated pentadecane was used as the growth substrate, 13C-labeled 2-Me-16:0, 4-Me-18:0, and 6-Me-20:0 fatty acids or deuterated 2-Me-15:0, 4-Me-17:0, and 6-Me-19:0 fatty acids were recovered, respectively, confirming that these monomethylated fatty acids were alkane derived. Examination of the 13C-labeled 2-, 4-, and 6-methylated fatty acids by mass spectrometry showed that each of them contained two 13C atoms, located at the methyl group and the adjacent carbon, thus indicating that the methyl group was the original terminal carbon of the [1,2-13C2]hexadecane. For perdeuterated pentadecane, the presence of three deuterium atoms...

Molecular Characterization of a Toluene-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium

Ficker, Monica; Krastel, Kirsten; Orlicky, Stephen; Edwards, Elizabeth
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1999 EN
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A toluene-degrading methanogenic consortium enriched from creosote-contaminated aquifer material was maintained on toluene as the sole carbon and energy source for 10 years. The species in the consortium were characterized by using a molecular approach. Total genomic DNA was isolated, and 16S rRNA genes were amplified by using PCR performed with kingdom-specific primers that were specific for 16S rRNA genes from either members of the kingdom Bacteria or members of the kingdom Archaea. A total of 90 eubacterial clones and 75 archaeal clones were grouped by performing a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Six eubacterial sequences and two archaeal sequences were found in the greatest abundance (in six or more clones) based on the RFLP analysis. The relative abundance of each putative species was estimated by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and the presence of putative species was determined qualitatively by performing slot blot hybridization with consortium DNA. Both archaeal species and two of the six eubacterial species were detected in the DNA and FISH hybridization experiments. A phylogenetic analysis of these four dominant organisms suggested that the two archaeal species are related to the genera Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum. One of the eubacterial species is related to the genus Desulfotomaculum...

A Most-Probable-Number Assay for Enumeration of Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts

Slifko, Theresa R.; Huffman, Debra E.; Rose, Joan B.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1999 EN
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Cryptosporidium is globally established as a contaminant of drinking and recreational waters. A previously described cell culture infectivity assay capable of detecting infectious oocysts was adapted to quantify viable oocysts through sporozoite invasion and clustering of foci. Eight experiments were performed by using oocysts less than 4 months of age to inoculate host HCT-8 cell monolayers. Oocysts were diluted in a standard 5- or 10-fold multiple dilution format, levels of infection and clustering were determined, and the most probable number (MPN) of infectious oocysts in the stock suspension was calculated. The MPN was compared to the initial oocyst inoculum to determine the level of correlation. For oocysts less than 30 days of age, the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9726 (0.9306 to 0.9893; n = 20). A two-tailed P value (alpha = 0.05) indicated that P was less than 0.0001. This strong correlation suggests that the MPN can be used to effectively enumerate infectious oocysts in a cell culture system. Age affected the degree of oocyst infectivity. Oocyst infectivity was tested by the focus detection method (FDM)-MPN assay and in BALB/c mice before and after treatment with pulsed white light (PureBrite). The FDM-MPN assay and animal infectivity assays both demonstrated more than a 4 log10 inactivation. Municipal water systems and a host of other water testing organizations could utilize the FDM-MPN assay for routine survival and disinfection studies.

Recovery of Waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts by Freshwater Benthic Clams (Corbicula fluminea)

Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Fayer, Ronald; Cranfield, Michael R.; Conn, David Bruce
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1998 EN
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Asian freshwater clams, Corbicula fluminea, exposed for 24 h to 38 liters of water contaminated with infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (1.00 × 106 oocysts/liter; approximately 1.9 × 105 oocysts/clam) were examined (hemolymph, gills, gastrointestinal [GI] tract, and feces) on days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 postexposure (PE). No oocysts were detected in the water 24 h after the contamination event. The percentage of oocyst-containing clams varied from 20 to 100%, depending on the type of tissue examined and the technique used—acid-fast stain (AFS) or immunofluorescent antibody (IFA). The oocysts were found in clam tissues and feces on days 1 through 14 PE; the oocysts extracted from the tissues on day 7 PE were infectious for neonatal BALB/c mice. Overall, the highest number of positive samples was obtained when gills and GI tracts were processed with IFA (prevalence, 97.5%). A comparison of the relative oocyst numbers indicated that overall, 58.3% of the oocysts were found in clam tissues and 41.7% were found in feces when IFA was used; when AFS was used, the values were 51.9 and 48.1%, respectively. Clam-released oocysts were always surrounded by feces; no free oocysts or oocysts disassociated from fecal matter were observed. The results indicate that these benthic freshwater clams are capable of recovery and sedimentation of waterborne C. parvum oocysts. To optimize the detection of C. parvum oocysts in C. fluminea tissue...

Characteristics of Airborne Actinomycete Spores

Reponen, T. A.; Gazenko, S. V.; Grinshpun, S. A.; Willeke, K.; Cole, E. C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1998 EN
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Airborne actinomycete spores, important contaminants in occupational and residential environments, were studied with respect to their (i) release into the air, (ii) aerodynamic and physical size while airborne, and (iii) survival after collection onto agar with an impactor. Three actinomycete species were selected for the tests to exemplify the three main spore types: Streptomyces albus for arthrospores, Micromonospora halophytica for aleuriospores, and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris for endospores. The results show that the incubation conditions (temperature, time, and nutrients) needed for the development of spores for their release into air are different from the conditions that are needed for colony growth only. Additional drying of M. halophytica and T. vulgaris cultures was needed before spores could be released from the culture. The aerodynamic sizes of the spores, measured with an aerodynamic particle sizer, ranged from 0.57 (T. vulgaris) to 1.28 μm (M. halophytica). The physical sizes of the spores, when measured with a microscope and an image analysis system, were found to be smaller than previously reported in the literature. The relative recovery of the spores on agar media ranged from 0.5 (T. vulgaris) to 35% (S. albus). The results indicate that the culturability of the collected airborne actinomycete spores varies widely and is affected by several variables...

Characterization of a Defined 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorobiphenyl-ortho-Dechlorinating Microbial Community by Comparative Sequence Analysis of Genes Coding for 16S rRNA

Pulliam Holoman, Tracey R.; Elberson, Margaret A.; Cutter, Leah A.; May, Harold D.; Sowers, Kevin R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1998 EN
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Defined microbial communities were developed by combining selective enrichment with molecular monitoring of total community genes coding for 16S rRNAs (16S rDNAs) to identify potential polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-dechlorinating anaerobes that ortho dechlorinate 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl. In enrichment cultures that contained a defined estuarine medium, three fatty acids, and sterile sediment, a Clostridium sp. was predominant in the absence of added PCB, but undescribed species in the δ subgroup of the class Proteobacteria, the low-G+C gram-positive subgroup, the Thermotogales subgroup, and a single species with sequence similarity to the deeply branching species Dehalococcoides ethenogenes were more predominant during active dechlorination of the PCB. Species with high sequence similarities to Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales archaeal subgroups were predominant in both dechlorinating and nondechlorinating enrichment cultures. Deletion of sediment from PCB-dechlorinating enrichment cultures reduced the rate of dechlorination and the diversity of the community. Substitution of sodium acetate for the mixture of three fatty acids increased the rate of dechlorination, further reduced the community diversity, and caused a shift in the predominant species that included restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns not previously detected. Although PCB-dechlorinating cultures were methanogenic...

Degradation of 1,3-Dichloropropene by Pseudomonas cichorii 170

Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Wilkens, Marga; Larkin, Michael J.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Janssen, Dick B.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1998 EN
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The gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas cichorii 170, isolated from soil that was repeatedly treated with the nematocide 1,3-dichloropropene, could utilize low concentrations of 1,3-dichloropropene as a sole carbon and energy source. Strain 170 was also able to grow on 3-chloroallyl alcohol, 3-chloroacrylic acid, and several 1-halo-n-alkanes. This organism produced at least three different dehalogenases: a hydrolytic haloalkane dehalogenase specific for haloalkanes and two 3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenases, one specific for cis-3-chloroacrylic acid and the other specific for trans-3-chloroacrylic acid. The haloalkane dehalogenase and the trans-3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase were expressed constitutively, whereas the cis-3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase was inducible. The presence of these enzymes indicates that 1,3-dichloropropene is hydrolyzed to 3-chloroallyl alcohol, which is oxidized in two steps to 3-chloroacrylic acid. The latter compound is then dehalogenated, probably forming malonic acid semialdehyde. The haloalkane dehalogenase gene, which is involved in the conversion of 1,3-dichloropropene to 3-chloroallyl alcohol, was cloned and sequenced, and this gene turned out to be identical to the previously studied dhaA gene of the gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB13064. Mutants resistant to the suicide substrate 1...

Variability of Temperature, pH, and Moisture in an Aerobic Composting Process

Atchley, Steven H.; Clark, J. B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1979 EN
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This study measured the environmental variability which exists in a commercial aerobic composting process. The specific process studied is carried out in six decomposition cells which present six different phases of the process. Temperature, pH, and moisture content were determined in several randomly chosen sample sites in each cell, both at the beginning and at the end of the time the material was left in the cell. Temperature and pH varied greatly from one sample site to another in each cell, whereas moisture content was less varied. A significant rise in both temperature and pH was observed at two stages of degradation.

First Detection and Genotyping of Human-Associated Microsporidia in Pigeons from Urban Parks

Haro, M.; Izquierdo, F.; Henriques-Gil, N.; Andrés, I.; Alonso, F.; Fenoy, S.; del Águila, C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2005 EN
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Microsporidia are ubiquitous opportunistic parasites in nature infecting all animal phyla, and the zoonotic potential of this parasitosis is under discussion. Fecal samples from 124 pigeons from seven parks of Murcia (Spain) were analyzed. Thirty-six of them (29.0%) showed structures compatible with microsporidia spores by staining methods. The DNA isolated from 26 fecal samples (20.9%) of microsporidia-positive pigeons was amplified with specific primers for the four most frequent human microsporidia. Twelve pigeons were positive for only Enterocytozoon bieneusi (9.7%), 5 for Encephalitozoon intestinalis (4%), and one for Encephalitozoon hellem (0.8%). Coinfections were detected in eight additional pigeons: E. bieneusi and E. hellem were detected in six animals (4.8%); E. bieneusi was associated with E. intestinalis in one case (0.8%); and E. hellem and E. intestinalis coexisted in one pigeon. No positive samples for Encephalitozoon cuniculi were detected. The internally transcribed spacer genotype could be completed for one E. hellem-positive pigeon; the result was identical to the genotype A1 previously characterized in an E. hellem Spanish strain of human origin. To our knowledge, this is the first time that human-related microsporidia have been identified in urban park pigeons. Moreover...