The biopsychosocial model of pain regards the maintenance of chronic pain as a dynamic interaction among biological, psychological, behavioural and social-cultural factors. This study demonstrates that the content of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), which is based on biopsychosocial theory, can be largely captured by three well-distributed and relatively independent summary scales. A cluster analysis of these scales yields a taxonomy similar to the original MPI taxonomy. The authors argue that summary scales are less prone to skew, are more stable than individual MPI subscales, and may have greater usefulness when assessing individuals who suffer from chronic pain. A new method of predicting the likelihood of change among MPI psychosocial profiles is introduced. Based on this method, the authors demonstrate how summary scales enhance profile stability across time.
Several models of scoliosis were developed in the past 10 years. In most of them, deformations are induced in old animals and required long time observation period and a chest wall ligation ± resection. The purpose of the study was to create a scoliosis model with a size similar to an early onset scoliosis and an important growth potential without chest wall injuring. An original offset implant was fixed posteriorly and connected with a cable in seven (6 + 1 control) one-month-old Landrace pigs. The mean initial spinal length (T1-S1) was 25 cm and the mean weight was 9 kg. After 2 months observation, spinal deformities were assessed with a three dimension stereographic analysis. In four animals, the cable was sectioned and the deformities followed-up for next 2 months. No post-operative complication was observed. Mean weight growth was 10 kg/month and mean spine lengthening (T1-S1) was 7 cm/month. In 2 months, we obtained structural scoliotic curves with vertebral and disk wedging which were maximal at the apex of the curve. Mean frontal and sagittal Cobb angles was 45°. Chest wall associated deformities were similar to those observed in scoliotic deformities and were correlated to spinal deformities (p = 0.03). The cable section resulted in a partial curve regression influenced by disk elasticity and could probably be influenced by gravity loads (Decrease of the Cobb angle of 30% in the sagittal plane and 45% in the frontal plane). According to the results...
In this paper, in order to obtain some industrial strains with high yield of l-(+)-lactic acid, the wild type strain Lactobacillus casei CICC6028 was mutated by nitrogen ions implantation. By study, it was found that the high positive mutation rate was obtained when the output power was 10 keV and the dose of N+ implantation was 50 × 2.6 × 1013 ions/cm2. In addition, the initial screening methods were also studied, and it was found that the transparent halos method was unavailable, for some high yield strains of l-(+)-lactic acid were missed. Then a mutant strain which was named as N-2 was isolated, its optimum fermentation temperature was 40°C and the l-(+)-lactic acid yield was 136 g/l compared to the original strain whose optimum fermentation temperature was 34°C and l-(+)-lactic acid production was 98 g/l. Finally, High Performance Liquid Chromatography method was used to analyze the purity of l-(+)-lactic acid that was produced by the mutant N-2, and the result showed the main production of N-2 was l-(+)-lactic acid.
An isolated ductus deferens preparation together with the sympathetic hypogastric nerve of the guinea-pig is described. While the preparation showed no spontaneous contractions, nerve stimulation produced longitudinal contractions. The responses to successive periods of nerve stimulation remained constant for several hours. After noradrenaline had been added to the bath fluid for 30 min and then the fluid repeatedly changed to wash out the noradrenaline, the effect of nerve stimulation was greatly increased but declined in the course of 1 hr to the original height. Cocaine also increased the response to stimulation. Preparations made from guinea-pigs which had previously received reserpine responded to nerve stimulation with progressively diminishing contractions. In these circumstances, the administration of noradrenaline restored the response to nerve stimulation to that seen originally.
Given the well-established links between diabetes and elevated rates of pancreatic cancer, there are reasons to anticipate that other markers of metabolic abnormality (raised body mass index, plasma cholesterol, and blood pressure) and their correlates (physical activity and socio-economic status) may also confer increased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, to date, the results of a series of population-based cohort studies are inconclusive. We examined these associations in the original Whitehall cohort study of 17,898 men. A maximum of thirty-eight years of follow-up gave rise to 163 deaths due to carcinoma of the pancreas. While Poisson regression analyses confirmed established risk factor disease associations for increasing age, smoking and type II diabetes, there was essentially no evidence that body mass index (rate ratio; 95% confidence interval per one SD increase: 1.01; 0.86, 1.18), plasma cholesterol (per one SD increase: 0.91; 0.78, 1.07), diastolic blood pressure (per one SD increase: 0.93; 0.78, 1.09), systolic blood pressure (per one SD increase: 0.98; 0.83, 1.15), physical activity (sedentary vs. high: 1.37; 0.89, 2.12), or socio-economic status (clerical[low] vs. professional/executive: 0.95; 0.59, 1.51) offered any predictive value for pancreatic cancer mortality. These results were unchanged following control for a range of covariates.
The management of patients with subaxial cervical injuries lacks consensus, particularly in regard to the decision which surgical approach or combination of approaches to use and which approach yields the best clinical outcome in the distinct injury. The trauma literature is replete with reports of surgical techniques, complications and gross outcome assessment in heterogeneous samples. However, data on functional and clinical outcome using validated outcome measures are scanty. Therefore, the authors performed a study on plated anterior cervical decompression and fusion for unstable subaxial injuries with focus on clinical outcome. For the purpose of a strongly homogenous subgroup of patients with subaxial injuries without spinal cord injuries, robust criteria were applied that were fulfilled by 28 patients out of an original series of 131 subaxial injuries. Twenty-six patients subjected to 1- and 2-level fusions without having spinal cord injury could be surveyed after a mean of 5.5 years (range 16–128 months). The cervical spine injury severity score averaged 9.6. Cross-sectional outcome assessment included validated outcome measures (Neck pain disability index, Cervical Spine Outcome Questionnaire, SF-36), the investigation of construct failure and successful surgical outcome were defined by strict criteria...
In this retrospective cohort study, two surgical methods of conventional open-door laminoplasty and deep extensor muscle-preserving laminoplasty were allocated for the treatment of cervical myelopathy, and were specifically compared in terms of axial pain, cervical spine function, and quality of life (QOL) with a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. Eighty-four patients were divided into two groups and received either a conventional open-door laminoplasty (CL group) or laminoplasty using a deep extensor muscle-preserving approach (MP group). The latter approach was performed by preserving multifidus and semispinalis cervicis attachments followed by open-door laminoplasty and re-suture of the bisected spinous processes at each decompression level. The average follow-up period was 38 months (25–53 months). The preoperative and follow-up evaluations included the original Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, the new tentative JOA score including cervical spine function and QOL, and the visual analogue scale (VAS) of axial pain. Radiological analyses included cervical lordosis and flexion–extension range of motion (flex–ext ROM) (C2–7), and deep extensor muscle areas on MR axial images. The JOA recovery rates were statistically equivalent between two groups. The MP group demonstrated a statistically superior cervical spine function (84% vs 63%) and QOL (61% vs 45%) when compared to the CL group at final follow-up (P < 0.05). The average VAS scores at final follow-up were 2.3 and 4.9 in MP and CL groups (P < 0.05). The cervical lordosis and flex–ext ROM were statistically equivalent. The percent deep muscle area on MRI demonstrated a significant atrophy in CL group compared to that in MP group (56% vs 88%; P < 0.01). Laminoplasty employing the deep extensor muscle-preserving approach appeared to be effective in reducing the axial pain and deep muscle atrophy as well as improving cervical spine function and QOL when compared to conventional open-door laminoplasty.
In mammals, birds, snakes and many lizards and fish, sex is determined genetically (either male XY heterogamy or female ZW heterogamy), whereas in alligators, and in many reptiles and turtles, the temperature at which eggs are incubated determines sex. Evidently, different sex-determining systems (and sex chromosome pairs) have evolved independently in different vertebrate lineages. Homology shared by Xs and Ys (and Zs and Ws) within species demonstrates that differentiated sex chromosomes were once homologous, and that the sex-specific non-recombining Y (or W) was progressively degraded. Consequently, genes are left in single copy in the heterogametic sex, which results in an imbalance of the dosage of genes on the sex chromosomes between the sexes, and also relative to the autosomes. Dosage compensation has evolved in diverse species to compensate for these dose differences, with the stringency of compensation apparently differing greatly between lineages, perhaps reflecting the concentration of genes on the original autosome pair that required dosage compensation. We discuss the organization and evolution of amniote sex chromosomes, and hypothesize that dosage insensitivity might predispose an autosome to evolving function as a sex chromosome.
Six p53 wild-type cancer cell lines from infrequently p53-mutated entities (neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and melanoma) were continuously exposed to increasing concentrations of the murine double minute 2 inhibitor nutlin-3, resulting in the emergence of nutlin-3-resistant, p53-mutated sublines displaying a multi-drug resistance phenotype. Only 2 out of 28 sublines adapted to various cytotoxic drugs harboured p53 mutations. Nutlin-3-adapted UKF-NB-3 cells (UKF-NB-3rNutlin10 μM, harbouring a G245C mutation) were also radiation resistant. Analysis of UKF-NB-3 and UKF-NB-3rNutlin10 μM cells by RNA interference experiments and lentiviral transduction of wild-type p53 into p53-mutated UKF-NB-3rNutlin10 μM cells revealed that the loss of p53 function contributes to the multi-drug resistance of UKF-NB-3rNutlin10 μM cells. Bioinformatics PANTHER pathway analysis based on microarray measurements of mRNA abundance indicated a substantial overlap in the signalling pathways differentially regulated between UKF-NB-3rNutlin10 μM and UKF-NB-3 and between UKF-NB-3 and its cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, or vincristine-resistant sublines. Repeated nutlin-3 adaptation of neuroblastoma cells resulted in sublines harbouring various p53 mutations with high frequency. A p53 wild-type single cell-derived UKF-NB-3 clone was adapted to nutlin-3 in independent experiments. Eight out of ten resulting sublines were p53-mutated harbouring six different p53 mutations. This indicates that nutlin-3 induces de novo p53 mutations not initially present in the original cell population. Therefore...
Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae) plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/ v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C). At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL) bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.
This study was done to observe the accuracy of references in articles published in Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. There were 63 references randomly selected from different issues of Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS). It includes: Volume 61, Number 4, December 2009 and Volume 62, Number 1, January 2010. References were examined in details by dividing them into six elements and they were compared with the original for accuracy. References not cited from indexed journals were excluded. Statistical analysis was done by using frequency and percentage. Results show that 30.1% references in Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery were incorrect. Most common errors were author’s name and journal name. Author’s names were found to be incorrect in 11.1% references while journal name were found to be incorrect in 6.3%. Errors in citing the references are also found in the Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. The quoted error in this study is comparable to other international literatures. The majority of errors are avoidable. So, the authors, editors and the reviewers have to check for any errors seriously before publication in the journal.
The aim of this study was to describe the cause of the recent improvement in the outcomes of patients who experienced in-hospital cardiac arrest. We retrospectively analyzed the in-hospital arrest registry of a tertiary care university hospital in Korea between 2005 and 2009. Major changes to the in-hospital resuscitation policies occurred during the study period, which included the requirement of extensive education of basic life support and advanced cardiac life support, the reformation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) team with trained physicians, and the activation of a medical emergency team. A total of 958 patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest were enrolled. A significant annual trend in in-hospital survival improvement (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.65-0.90) was observed in a multivariate model. The adjusted trend analysis of the return of spontaneous circulation, six-month survival, and survival with minimal neurologic impairment upon discharge and six-months afterward revealed similar results to the original analysis. These trends in outcome improvement throughout the study were apparent in non-ICU (Intensive Care Unit) areas. We report that the in-hospital survival of cardiac arrest patients gradually improved. Multidisciplinary hospital-based efforts that reinforce the Chain of Survival concept may have contributed to this improvement.
We recently published a description of the molecular mechanism involved in “progressive hemorrhagic necrosis”, a pathological process that evolves during several hours after spinal cord injury, that is attributable to progressive capillary fragmentation, and that is due to upregulation and activation of SUR1-regulated channels in microvascular endothelium. In this commentary, we reflect on the independent replication of our original experiment by Dr. Phillip Popovich and colleagues, and how their initial attempt at replication led to the unexpected finding that anisotropy of spinal cord tissues strongly influences the patterns of both primary and secondary hemorrhage that are observed after impact injury to the spinal cord.
Two new sulfoxide-containing metabolites, aplisulfamines A (1) and B (2), have been isolated from an Aplidium sp. collected in the Bay of Naples. Their planar structure and geometry of a double bond were readily determined by using standard methods, mainly NMR spectroscopy. An original approach was used to assign the absolute configuration at the three contiguous chiral centers present in the structures of both aplisulfamines, two at carbon and one at sulfur. This involved Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) studies, J-based configuration analysis and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and represents an interesting integration of modern techniques in stereoanalysis, which could contribute to the enhancement of theoretical protocols recently applied to solve stereochemical aspects in structure elucidation.
Transmission ratio distortion (TRD), in which one allele is transmitted more frequently than the opposite allele, is presumed to act as a driving force in the emergence of a reproductive barrier. TRD acting in a sex-specific manner has been frequently observed in interspecific and intraspecific hybrids across a broad range of organisms. In contrast, sex-independent TRD (siTRD), which results from preferential transmission of one of the two alleles in the heterozygote through both sexes, has been detected in only a few plant species. We previously reported an S6 locus-mediated siTRD, in which the S6 allele from an Asian wild rice strain (Oryza rufipogon) was transmitted more frequently than the S6a allele from an Asian cultivated rice strain (O. sativa) through both male and female gametes in heterozygous plants. Here, we report on the effect of a difference in genetic background on S6 locus-mediated siTRD, based on the analysis using near-isogenic lines and the original wild strain as a parental strain for crossing. We found that the degree of TRD through the male gametes varied depending on the genetic background of the female (pistil) plants. Despite the occurrence of TRD through both male and female gametes, abnormality was detected in ovules...
The offspring of older fathers have an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. In light of the evidence implicating copy number variants (CNVs) with schizophrenia and autism, we used a mouse model to explore the hypothesis that the offspring of older males have an increased risk of de novo CNVs. C57BL/6J sires that were 3- and 12–16-months old were mated with 3-month-old dams to create control offspring and offspring of old sires, respectively. Applying genome-wide microarray screening technology, 7 distinct CNVs were identified in a set of 12 offspring and their parents. Competitive quantitative PCR confirmed these CNVs in the original set and also established their frequency in an independent set of 77 offspring and their parents. On the basis of the combined samples, six de novo CNVs were detected in the offspring of older sires, whereas none were detected in the control group. Two of the CNVs were associated with behavioral and/or neuroanatomical phenotypic features. One of the de novo CNVs involved Auts2 (autism susceptibility candidate 2), and other CNVs included genes linked to schizophrenia, autism and brain development. This is the first experimental demonstration that the offspring of older males have an increased risk of de novo CNVs. Our results support the hypothesis that the offspring of older fathers have an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism by generation of de novo CNVs in the male germline.
Saraca asoca commonly known as asoka, which is considered as a sacred tree by Hindus and Buddhists possesses various medicinal uses. The stem bark of the tree is the principal constituent of several ayurvedic preparations which are widely prescribed in leucorrhoea, haematuria, menorrhagia and other diseases of the female genitourinary system. Because of destructive extraction and the absence of an organized cultivation programme, the avilbility of the crude drug is diminishing and this has resulted in the sale of adulterants. The commonly used adulterant is the bark of Polyalthia longifolia which shows some similarity with that of asoka. Studies were conducted at Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research station, Odakkali (Kerala Agricultural University) during 2001-2002 to evolve methods for differentiating the original drug from the adulterant species by anatomical biochemical and chromatographic techniques.