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Proton-Pumping-ATPase-Targeted Antifungal Activity of a Novel Conjugated Styryl Ketone

Manavathu, Elias K.; Dimmock, Jonathan R.; Vashishtha, Sarvesh C.; Chandrasekar, Pranatharthi H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1999 EN
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NC1175 (3-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propenoyl]-4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)vinylene]-1-ethyl-4-piperidinol hydrochloride) is a novel thiol-blocking conjugated styryl ketone that exhibits activity against a wide spectrum of pathogenic fungi. Incubation of NC1175 with various concentrations of cysteine and glutathione eliminated its antifungal activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. Since NC1175 is a lipophilic compound that has the potential to interact with cytoplasmic membrane components, we examined its effect on the membrane-located proton-translocating ATPase (H+-ATPase) of yeast (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida glabrata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Aspergillus (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus nidulans) species. The glucose-induced acidification of external medium due to H+-ATPase-mediated expulsion of intracellular protons by these fungi was measured in the presence of several concentrations of the drug. NC1175 (12.5 to 50 μM) inhibited acidification of external medium by Candida, Saccharomyces, and Aspergillus species in a concentration-dependent manner. Vanadate-inhibited hydrolysis of ATP by membrane fractions of C. albicans was completely inhibited by 50 μM NC1175...

Photoaffinity Analog of the Semisynthetic Echinocandin LY303366: Identification of Echinocandin Targets in Candida albicans

Radding, Jeffrey A.; Heidler, Steven A.; Turner, William W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1998 EN
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The echinocandins are a family of cyclic lipopeptides with potent antifungal activity. These compounds inhibit the synthesis of β-1,3-glucan in fungi. The new semisynthetic echinocandin LY303366 was derivatized to produce a photoactivatable cross-linking echinocandin analog with antifungal activity. This analog was radioiodinated and used as a probe in microsomal membrane preparations of Candida albicans which contain glucan synthase activity. The photoaffinity probe identified two major proteins of 40 and 18 kDa in both membrane preparations. Labeling of these proteins was specific in that it required irradiation with UV light and was effectively competed against with unlabeled echinocandin analogs. In addition, the abilities of echinocandin analogs to compete with the photoaffinity probe correlated to their relative antifungal potencies and glucan synthase inhibition. The 40-kDa protein was isolated, and partial sequences were obtained from internal peptide fragments of the protein. Analysis of the sequences of these internal peptides of the 40-kDa protein revealed that it was a new protein not previously described as being involved in glucan synthesis or the mode of action of echinocandins.

Stress-Based Identification and Classification of Antibacterial Agents: Second-Generation Escherichia coli Reporter Strains and Optimization of Detection

Shapiro, Elyse; Baneyx, François
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2002 EN
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Escherichia coli strains bearing single-copy fusions between the lacZ reporter gene and the cspA, ibp, or P3rpoH stress promoters offer a simple means to detect sublethal concentrations of antibacterial agents interfering with prokaryotic translation or cell envelope integrity while simultaneously providing information on the mechanism of action of the test compound (A. A. Bianchi and F. Baneyx, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:5023-5027, 1999). Here, we expand the usefulness of this system by (i) demonstrating that a fusion between the SOS-inducible sulA promoter and lacZ is a highly specific probe for the detection of antimicrobial agents that ultimately interfere with DNA replication, (ii) showing that inactivation of the tolC gene allows efficient detection of very low concentrations of model antibiotics (including aminoglycosides) whereas polymyxin B-mediated outer membrane permeabilization facilitates the identification of intermediate concentrations of hydrophobic compounds, and (iii) validating the potential of detector strains and sensitization strategies for high-throughput screening using a reproducible and internally consistent 96-well microplate assay.

Simocyclinone D8, an Inhibitor of DNA Gyrase with a Novel Mode of Action

Flatman, Ruth H.; Howells, Alison J.; Heide, Lutz; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Maxwell, Anthony
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2005 EN
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We have characterized the interaction of a new class of antibiotics, simocyclinones, with bacterial DNA gyrase. Even though their structures include an aminocoumarin moiety, a key feature of novobiocin, coumermycin A1, and clorobiocin, which also target gyrase, simocyclinones behave strikingly differently from these compounds. Simocyclinone D8 is a potent inhibitor of gyrase supercoiling, with a 50% inhibitory concentration lower than that of novobiocin. However, it does not competitively inhibit the DNA-independent ATPase reaction of GyrB, which is characteristic of other aminocoumarins. Simocyclinone D8 also inhibits DNA relaxation by gyrase but does not stimulate cleavage complex formation, unlike quinolones, the other major class of gyrase inhibitors; instead, it abrogates both Ca2+- and quinolone-induced cleavage complex formation. Binding studies suggest that simocyclinone D8 interacts with the N-terminal domain of GyrA. Taken together, our results demonstrate that simocyclinones inhibit an early step of the gyrase catalytic cycle by preventing binding of the enzyme to DNA. This is a novel mechanism for a gyrase inhibitor and presents new possibilities for antibacterial drug development.

Targeting Fatty Acid Biosynthesis for the Development of Novel Chemotherapeutics against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Evaluation of A-Ring-Modified Diphenyl Ethers as High-Affinity InhA Inhibitors▿ †

Boyne, Melissa E.; Sullivan, Todd J.; amEnde, Christopher W.; Lu, Hao; Gruppo, Veronica; Heaslip, Darragh; Amin, Anita G.; Chatterjee, Delphi; Lenaerts, Anne; Tonge, Peter J.; Slayden, Richard A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Structure-based design was used to develop a focused library of A-ring-modified diphenyl ether InhA inhibitors. From this library of analogs, two high-affinity alkyl-substituted diphenyl ethers, 6PP and 8PP, were selected for advanced study into their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, their in vivo properties, and their signature response mode of action. 6PP and 8PP demonstrated enhanced activity against whole bacteria and showed activity in a rapid macrophage model of infection. In addition, transcriptional profiling revealed that the A-ring modifications of 6PP and 8PP increased the specificity of each analog for InhA. Both analogs had substantially longer half-lives in serum than did the parent compound, exhibited a fivefold reduction in cytotoxicity compared to the parent compound, and were well tolerated when administered orally at 300 mg/kg of body weight in animal models. Thus, the A-ring modifications increased the affinity and whole-cell specificity of the compounds for InhA and increased their bioavailability. The next step in optimization of the pharmacophore for preclinical evaluation is modification of the B ring to increase the bioavailability to that required for oral delivery.

Mechanism of Action of the Antibiotic NXL101, a Novel Nonfluoroquinolone Inhibitor of Bacterial Type II Topoisomerases ▿

Black, Michael T.; Stachyra, Thérèse; Platel, Denis; Girard, Anne-Marie; Claudon, Monique; Bruneau, Jean-Michel; Miossec, Christine
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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NXL101 is one of a new class of quinoline antibacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV inhibitors showing potent activity against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. NXL101 inhibited topoisomerase IV more effectively than gyrase from Escherichia coli, whereas the converse is true of enzymes from Staphylococcus aureus. This apparent target preference is opposite to that which is associated with most fluoroquinolone antibiotics. In vitro isolation of S. aureus mutants resistant to NXL101 followed by cloning and sequencing of the genes encoding gyrase and topoisomerase IV led to the identification of several different point mutations within, or close to, the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of GyrA. However, the mutations were not those that are most frequently associated with decreased sensitivity to quinolones. A fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant variant of gyrase generated in vitro was highly resistant to inhibition by the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin but remained fully susceptible to inhibition by NXL101. Two mutant gyrases constructed in vitro, with mutations in gyrA engineered according to those most frequently found in S. aureus strains resistant to NXL101...

Discovery of a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of β-1,6-Glucan Synthesis▿

Kitamura, Akihiro; Someya, Kazuhiko; Hata, Masato; Nakajima, Ryohei; Takemura, Makoto
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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It is possible that antifungal drugs with novel modes of action will provide favorable options to treat fungal infections. In the course of our screening for antifungal compounds acting on the cell wall, a pyridobenzimidazole derivative with unique activities, named D75-4590, was discovered. During treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with D75-4590, (i) incorporation of [14C]glucose into the β-1,6-glucan component was selectively reduced, (ii) proteins released from the cell had lost the β-1,6-glucan moiety, and (iii) cells tended to clump, resulting in impaired cell growth. Genetic analysis of a D75-4590-resistant mutant of S. cerevisiae indicated that its primary target was Kre6p, which is considered to be one of the β-1,6-glucan synthases. These results strongly suggest that D75-4590 is a specific inhibitor of β-1,6-glucan synthesis. D75-4590 showed potent activities against various Candida species. It inhibited hyphal elongation of C. albicans as well. KRE6 is conserved in various fungi, but no homologue has been found in mammalian cells. These lines of evidence indicate that D75-4590 is a promising lead compound for novel antifungal drugs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a β-1,6-glucan inhibitor.

Probing the Antimalarial Mechanism of Artemisinin and OZ277 (Arterolane) with Nonperoxidic Isosteres and Nitroxyl Radicals ▿

Fügi, Matthias A.; Wittlin, Sergio; Dong, Yuxiang; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Peroxidic antimalarials such as the semisynthetic artemisinins are critically important in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria. Nevertheless, their peroxide bond-dependent mode of action is still not well understood. Using combination experiments with cultured Plasmodium falciparum cells, we investigated the interactions of the nitroxide radical spin trap, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO), and four of its analogs with artemisinin and the ozonide drug development candidate OZ277. The antagonism observed for combinations of artemisinin or OZ277 with the TEMPO analogs supports the hypothesis that the formation of carbon-centered radicals is critical for the activity of these two antimalarial peroxides. The TEMPO analogs showed a trend toward greater antagonism with artemisinin than they did with OZ277, an observation that can be explained by the greater tendency of artemisinin-derived carbon-centered radicals to undergo internal self-quenching reactions, resulting in a lower proportion of radicals available for subsequent chemical reactions such as the alkylation of heme and parasite proteins. In a further mechanistic experiment, we tested both artemisinin and OZ277 in combination with their nonperoxidic analogs. The latter had no effect on the antimalarial activities of the former. These data indicate that the antimalarial properties of peroxides do not derive from reversible interactions with parasite targets.

Synergy with Rifampin and Kanamycin Enhances Potency, Kill Kinetics, and Selectivity of De Novo-Designed Antimicrobial Peptides▿

Anantharaman, Aparna; Rizvi, Meryam Sardar; Sahal, Dinkar
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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By choosing membranes as targets of action, antibacterial peptides offer the promise of providing antibiotics to which bacteria would not become resistant. However, there is a need to increase their potency against bacteria along with achieving a reduction in toxicity to host cells. Here, we report that three de novo-designed antibacterial peptides (ΔFm, ΔFmscr, and Ud) with poor to moderate antibacterial potencies and kill kinetics improved significantly in all of these aspects when synergized with rifampin and kanamycin against Escherichia coli. (ΔFm and ΔFmscr [a scrambled-sequence version of ΔFm] are isomeric, monomeric decapeptides containing the nonproteinogenic amino acid α,β-didehydrophenylalanine [ΔF] in their sequences. Ud is a lysine-branched dimeric peptide containing the helicogenic amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid [Aib].) In synergy with rifampin, the MIC of ΔFmscr showed a 34-fold decrease (67.9 μg/ml alone, compared to 2 μg/ml in combination). A 20-fold improvement in the minimum bactericidal concentration of Ud was observed when the peptide was used in combination with rifampin (369.9 μg/ml alone, compared to 18.5 μg/ml in combination). Synergy with kanamycin resulted in an enhancement in kill kinetics for ΔFmscr (no killing until 60 min for ΔFmscr alone...

Mechanism of Bactericidal Activity of Microcin L in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica▿

Morin, Natacha; Lanneluc, Isabelle; Connil, Nathalie; Cottenceau, Marie; Pons, Anne Marie; Sablé, Sophie
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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For the first time, the mechanism of action of microcin L (MccL) was investigated in live bacteria. MccL is a gene-encoded peptide produced by Escherichia coli LR05 that exhibits a strong antibacterial activity against related Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. We first subcloned the MccL genetic system to remove the sequences not involved in MccL production. We then optimized the MccL purification procedure to obtain large amounts of purified microcin to investigate its antimicrobial and membrane properties. We showed that MccL did not induce outer membrane permeabilization, which indicated that MccL did not use this way to kill the sensitive cell or to enter into it. Using a set of E. coli and Salmonella enterica mutants lacking iron-siderophore receptors, we demonstrated that the MccL uptake required the outer membrane receptor Cir. Moreover, the MccL bactericidal activity was shown to depend on the TonB protein that transduces the proton-motive force of the cytoplasmic membrane to transport iron-siderophore complexes across the outer membrane. Using carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone, which is known to fully dissipate the proton-motive force, we proved that the proton-motive force was required for the bactericidal activity of MccL on E. coli. In addition...

Genetic Organization and Mode of Action of a Novel Bacteriocin, Bacteriocin 51: Determinant of VanA-Type Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium▿†

Yamashita, Hitoshi; Tomita, Haruyoshi; Inoue, Takako; Ike, Yasuyoshi
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 EN
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Bacteriocin 51 (Bac 51) is encoded on the mobile plasmid pHY (6,037 bp), which was isolated from vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium VRE38. Bacteriocin 51 is active against E. faecium, E. hirae, and E. durans. Sequence analysis of pHY showed that it encodes nine open reading frames (ORFs) from ORF1 to ORF9 (in that order). Genetic analysis suggested that ORF1 and ORF2, which were designated bacA and bacB, respectively, are the bacteriocin and immunity genes. bacA encodes a 144-amino-acid protein. The deduced BacA protein has a typical signal sequence at its amino terminus, and a potential signal peptidase-processing site corresponding to the V-E-A sequence is located between the 37th and 39th amino acids. The predicted mature BacA protein consists of 105 amino acids. A potential promoter sequence was identified upstream of the start codon. bacB encodes a 55-amino-acid protein. No obvious promoter or terminator sequence was identified between bacA and bacB. Northern blot analysis of bacA and bacB with a bacA RNA probe produced a transcript of approximately 700 nucleotides, which corresponded to the combined nucleotide sizes of bacA and bacB, indicating that transcription was initiated from the promoter upstream of bacA, continued through bacB...

An Integrated Approach for Identification and Target Validation of Antifungal Compounds Active against Erg11p

Hoepfner, Dominic; Karkare, Shantanu; Helliwell, Stephen B.; Pfeifer, Martin; Trunzer, Markus; De Bonnechose, Sophie; Zimmerlin, Alfred; Tao, Jianshi; Richie, Daryl; Hofmann, Andreas; Reinker, Stefan; Frederiksen, Mathias; Movva, N. Rao; Porter, Jeffrey A
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2012 EN
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Systemic life-threatening fungal infections represent a significant unmet medical need. Cell-based, phenotypic screening can be an effective means of discovering potential novel antifungal compounds, but it does not address target identification, normally required for compound optimization by medicinal chemistry. Here, we demonstrate a combination of screening, genetic, and biochemical approaches to identify and characterize novel antifungal compounds. We isolated a set of novel non-azole antifungal compounds for which no target or mechanism of action is known, using a screen for inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae proliferation. Haploinsufficiency profiling of these compounds in S. cerevisiae suggests that they target Erg11p, a cytochrome P450 family member, which is the target of azoles. Consistent with this, metabolic profiling in S. cerevisiae revealed a buildup of the metabolic intermediates prior to Erg11p activity, following compound treatment. Further, human cytochrome P450 is also inhibited in in vitro assays by these compounds. We modeled the Erg11p protein based on the human CYP51 crystal structure, and in silico docking of these compounds suggests that they interact with the heme center in a manner similar to that of azoles. Consistent with these docking observations...

Solithromycin Inhibition of Protein Synthesis and Ribosome Biogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae

Rodgers, Ward; Frazier, Ashley D.; Champney, W. Scott
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 EN
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The continuing increase in antibiotic-resistant microorganisms is driving the search for new antibiotic targets and improved antimicrobial agents. Ketolides are semisynthetic derivatives of macrolide antibiotics, which are effective against certain resistant organisms. Solithromycin (CEM-101) is a novel fluoroketolide with improved antimicrobial effectiveness. This compound binds to the large 50S subunit of the ribosome and inhibits protein biosynthesis. Like other ketolides, it should impair bacterial ribosomal subunit formation. This mechanism of action was examined in strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae. The mean 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for solithromycin inhibition of cell viability, protein synthesis, and growth rate were 7.5, 40, and 125 ng/ml for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae, respectively. The net formation of the 50S subunit was reduced in all three organisms, with IC50s similar to those given above. The rates of 50S subunit formation measured by a pulse-chase labeling procedure were reduced by 75% in cells growing at the IC50 of solithromycin. Turnover of 23S rRNA was stimulated by solithromycin as well. Solithromycin was found to be a particularly effective antimicrobial agent...

Identification and Evaluation of Novel Acetolactate Synthase Inhibitors as Antifungal Agents

Richie, Daryl L.; Thompson, Katherine V.; Studer, Christian; Prindle, Vivian C.; Aust, Thomas; Riedl, Ralph; Estoppey, David; Tao, Jianshi; Sexton, Jessica A.; Zabawa, Thomas; Drumm, Joseph; Cotesta, Simona; Eichenberger, Jürg; Schuierer, Sven; Hartmann,
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2013 EN
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High-throughput phenotypic screening against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a series of triazolopyrimidine-sulfonamide compounds with broad-spectrum antifungal activity, no significant cytotoxicity, and low protein binding. To elucidate the target of this series, we have applied a chemogenomic profiling approach using the S. cerevisiae deletion collection. All compounds of the series yielded highly similar profiles that suggested acetolactate synthase (Ilv2p, which catalyzes the first common step in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis) as a possible target. The high correlation with profiles of known Ilv2p inhibitors like chlorimuron-ethyl provided further evidence for a similar mechanism of action. Genome-wide mutagenesis in S. cerevisiae identified 13 resistant clones with 3 different mutations in the catalytic subunit of acetolactate synthase that also conferred cross-resistance to established Ilv2p inhibitors. Mapping of the mutations into the published Ilv2p crystal structure outlined the chlorimuron-ethyl binding cavity, and it was possible to dock the triazolopyrimidine-sulfonamide compound into this pocket in silico. However, fungal growth inhibition could be bypassed through supplementation with exogenous branched-chain amino acids or by the addition of serum to the medium in all of the fungal organisms tested except for Aspergillus fumigatus. Thus...

Crystal Structures of Bifunctional Penicillin-Binding Protein 4 from Listeria monocytogenes

Jeong, Jae-Hee; Kim, Yi-Seul; Rojviriya, Catleya; Ha, Sung-Chul; Kang, Beom Sik; Kim, Yeon-Gil
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2013 EN
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Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan chain of the bacterial cell wall, are the major molecular target of bacterial antibiotics. Here, we present the crystal structures of the bifunctional peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (GT)/transpeptidase (TP) PBP4 from Listeria monocytogenes in the apo-form and covalently linked to two β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin and carbenicillin. The orientation of the TP domain with respect to the GT domain is distinct from that observed in the previously reported structures of bifunctional PBPs, suggesting interdomain flexibility. In this structure, the active site of the GT domain is occluded by the close apposition of the linker domain, which supports the hypothesis that interdomain flexibility is related to the regulation of GT activity. The acylated structures reveal the mode of action of β-lactam antibiotics toward the class A PBP4 from the human pathogen L. monocytogenes. Ampicillin and carbenicillin can access the active site and be acylated without requiring a structural rearrangement. In addition, the active site of the TP domain in the apo-form is occupied by the tartrate molecule via extensive hydrogen bond interactions with the catalytically important residues; thus...

Discovery of Novel Cell Wall-Active Compounds Using PywaC, a Sensitive Reporter of Cell Wall Stress, in the Model Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus subtilis

Czarny, T. L.; Perri, A. L.; French, S.; Brown, E. D.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2014 EN
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The emergence of antibiotic resistance in recent years has radically reduced the clinical efficacy of many antibacterial treatments and now poses a significant threat to public health. One of the earliest studied well-validated targets for antimicrobial discovery is the bacterial cell wall. The essential nature of this pathway, its conservation among bacterial pathogens, and its absence in human biology have made cell wall synthesis an attractive pathway for new antibiotic drug discovery. Herein, we describe a highly sensitive screening methodology for identifying chemical agents that perturb cell wall synthesis, using the model of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We report on a cell-based pilot screen of 26,000 small molecules to look for cell wall-active chemicals in real time using an autonomous luminescence gene cluster driven by the promoter of ywaC, which encodes a guanosine tetra(penta)phosphate synthetase that is expressed under cell wall stress. The promoter-reporter system was generally much more sensitive than growth inhibition testing and responded almost exclusively to cell wall-active antibiotics. Follow-up testing of the compounds from the pilot screen with secondary assays to verify the mechanism of action led to the discovery of 9 novel cell wall-active compounds.

New Insight into the Mechanism of Accumulation and Intraerythrocytic Compartmentation of Albitiazolium, a New Type of Antimalarial

Wein, Sharon; Tran Van Ba, Christophe; Maynadier, Marjorie; Bordat, Yann; Perez, Julie; Peyrottes, Suzanne; Fraisse, Laurent; Vial, Henri J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2014 EN
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Bis-thiazolium salts constitute a new class of antihematozoan drugs that inhibit parasite phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. They specifically accumulate in Plasmodium- and Babesia-infected red blood cells (IRBC). Here, we provide new insight into the choline analogue albitiazolium, which is currently being clinically tested against severe malaria. Concentration-dependent accumulation in P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes reached steady state after 90 to 120 min and was massive throughout the blood cycle, with cellular accumulation ratios of up to 1,000. This could not occur through a lysosomotropic effect, and the extent did not depend on the food vacuole pH, which was the case for the weak base chloroquine. Analysis of albitiazolium accumulation in P. falciparum IRBC revealed a high-affinity component that was restricted to mature stages and suppressed by pepstatin A treatment, and thus likely related to drug accumulation in the parasite food vacuole. Albitiazolium also accumulated in a second high-capacity component present throughout the blood cycle that was likely not related to the food vacuole and also observed with Babesia divergens-infected erythrocytes. Accumulation was strictly glucose dependent, drastically inhibited by H+/K+ and Na+ ionophores upon collapse of ionic gradients...

Functional, Biophysical, and Structural Bases for Antibacterial Activity of Tigecycline

Olson, Matthew W.; Ruzin, Alexey; Feyfant, Eric; Rush, Thomas S.; O'Connell, John; Bradford, Patricia A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2006 EN
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Tigecycline is a novel glycylcycline antibiotic that possesses broad-spectrum activity against many clinically relevant species of bacterial pathogens. The mechanism of action of tigecycline was delineated using functional, biophysical, and molecular modeling experiments in this study. Functional assays showed that tigecycline specifically inhibits bacterial protein synthesis with potency 3- and 20-fold greater than that of minocycline and tetracycline, respectively. Biophysical analyses demonstrated that isolated ribosomes bind tigecycline, minocycline, and tetracycline with dissociation constant values of 10−8, 10−7, and >10−6 M, respectively. A molecular model of tigecycline bound to the ribosome was generated with the aid of a 3.40-angstrom resolution X-ray diffraction structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus. This model places tigecycline in the A site of the 30S subunit and involves substantial interactions with residues of H34 of the ribosomal subunit. These interactions were not observed in a model of tetracycline binding. Modeling data were consistent with the biochemical and biophysical data generated in this and other recent studies and suggested that tigecycline binds to bacterial ribosomes in a novel way that allows it to overcome tetracycline resistance due to ribosomal protection.

Sequential Actions of the Two Component Peptides of the Lantibiotic Lacticin 3147 Explain Its Antimicrobial Activity at Nanomolar Concentrations

Morgan, Sheila M.; O'Connor, Paula M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2005 EN
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Lacticin 3147 is a two-peptide (LtnA1 and LtnA2) lantibiotic produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DPC3147 and has inhibitory activity against all gram-positive microorganisms tested. In this study the specific activities of the component peptides (alone or in combination) were determined by using L. lactis subsp. cremoris HP as the target strain. Lacticin 3147 exhibited an MIC50 of 7 nM for each component peptide (in combination), suggesting a peptide stoichiometry of 1:1. Interestingly, the LtnA1 peptide demonstrated independent inhibitory activity, with an MIC50 of 200 nM against L. lactis HP. In parallel studies, the single peptide bacteriocin nisin exhibited an MIC50 of 50 nM against the same target strain. Sequential peptide addition (with an intermediate washing step) demonstrated that LtnA1 must be added before LtnA2 rather than vice versa to observe inhibitory activity. The nanomolar activity of the lacticin peptides suggests the involvement of a docking molecule, speculated to be lipid II. Taken together with the recently determined structure of lacticin 3147 (N. I. Martin, T. Sprules, M. R. Carpenter, P. D. Cotter, C. Hill, R. P. Ross, and J. C. Vederas, Biochemistry, 43:3049-3056, 2004), these data support the hypothesis that the mode of action for lacticin 3147 involves a lipid II binding step (by the mersacidin-like LtnA1 peptide...

Susceptibility of Candida dubliniensis to Salivary Histatin 3

Fitzgerald, Deirdre H.; Coleman, David C.; O'Connell, Brian C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2003 EN
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Candida dubliniensis is a recently described Candida species associated with oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and patients with AIDS. The majority of C. dubliniensis clinical isolates tested to date are susceptible to the commonly used antifungal drugs, including fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B. However, the appearance of fluconazole-resistant C. dubliniensis strains in this patient group is increasing. Histatins are a family of basic histidine-rich proteins present in human saliva which have therapeutic potential in the treatment of oral candidiasis. The mechanism of action of histatin is distinct from that of commonly used azole and polyene drugs. Characterization of the antifungal activity of histatin has mainly been carried out using C. albicans but it is also effective in killing C. glabrata and C. krusei. Here we report that C. dubliniensis is also susceptible to killing by histatin 3. The concentration of histatin 3 giving 50% killing (the IC50 value) ranged from 0.043 to 0.196 mg/ml among different strains of C. dubliniensis. The least-susceptible C. dubliniensis strain, P9224, was found to internalize histatin at a lower rate than the C. albicans reference strain CA132A. The dissociation constant (Kd) for the least-susceptible strain (C. dubliniensis 9224) was ninefold higher than that for the C. albicans reference strain. These results suggest that histatin 3 may have potential as an effective antifungal agent...