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Evaluation of Immunomagnetic Separation for Recovery of Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts from Environmental Samples

Rochelle, Paul A.; De Leon, Ricardo; Johnson, Anne; Stewart, Mic H.; Wolfe, Roy L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1999 EN
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87.86505%
Two commercial immunomagnetic separation (IMS) kits for Cryptosporidium were compared for recovery of oocysts from environmental samples. Oocyst recovery efficiencies with the Dynal and Crypto-Scan kits ranged from 62 to 100% and 34 to 74%, respectively, for seeded environmental water concentrates (turbidity of 210 to 11,480 nephelometric turbidity units). Recovery efficiencies were dependent on the mechanism of agitation during the magnetic capture procedure. An assay combining in vitro cell culture and reverse transcriptase PCR demonstrated that oocysts recovered by IMS retained their infectivity.

Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Vibrio vulnificus and Other Vibrio Species

Warner, Jennifer M.; Oliver, James D.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.7989%
Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium that is capable of causing a rapidly fatal infection in humans. A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR protocol was developed for use in detecting V. vulnificus, as well as other members of the genus Vibrio. The resulting RAPD profiles were analyzed by using RFLPScan software. This RAPD method clearly differentiated between members of the genus Vibrio and between isolates of V. vulnificus. Each V. vulnificus strain produced a unique band pattern, indicating that the members of this species are genetically quite heterogeneous. All of the vibrios were found to have amplification products whose sizes were within four common molecular weight ranges, while the V. vulnificus strains had an additional two molecular weight range bands in common. All of the V. vulnificus strains isolated from clinical specimens produced an additional band that was only occasionally found in environmental strains; this suggests that, as is the case with the Kanagawa hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the presence of this band may be correlated with the ability of a strain to produce an infection in humans. In addition, band pattern differences were observed between encapsulated and nonencapsulated isogenic morphotypes of the same strain of V. vulnificus.

Comparison of Flagellin Genes from Clinical and Environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates

Morgan, J. Alun W.; Bellingham, Nessa F.; Winstanley, Craig; Ousley, Margaret A.; Hart, C. Anthony; Saunders, Jon R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
97.92022%
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important opportunistic pathogen, was isolated from environmental samples and compared to clinically derived strains. While P. aeruginosa was isolated readily from an experimental mushroom-growing unit, it was found only rarely in other environmental samples. A flagellin gene PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the isolates revealed that environmental and clinical P. aeruginosa strains are not readily distinguishable. The variation in the central regions of the flagellin genes of seven of the isolates was investigated further. The strains used included two strains with type a genes (998 bp), four strains with type b genes (1,258 bp), and one strain, K979, with a novel flagellin gene (2,199 bp). The route by which flagellin gene variation has occurred in P. aeruginosa is discussed.

Occurrence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Environmental Samples

Covert, Terry C.; Rodgers, Mark R.; Reyes, Antolin L.; Stelma, Gerard N.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1999 EN
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87.85099%
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a major cause of opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts. Because there is no evidence of person-to-person transmission and NTM have been found in drinking water, the environment is considered a likely source of infection. In this study the widespread occurrence of NTM was examined in drinking water, bottled water, and ice samples. A total of 139 samples were examined for NTM by a membrane filtration culture technique followed by PCR amplification and 16S rRNA sequence determination to identify the isolates. NTM were not detected in bottled water or cisterns but were detected in 54% of the ice samples and 35% of the public drinking-water samples from 21 states. The most frequently occurring isolate was M. mucogenicum (formerly referred to as an M. chelonae-like organism).

Hemolysis, Toxicity, and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis of Stachybotrys chartarum Strains

Vesper, Stephen J.; Dearborn, Dorr G.; Yike, Iwona; Sorenson, W. G.; Haugland, Richard A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1999 EN
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97.64875%
Stachybotrys chartarum is an indoor air, toxigenic fungus that has been associated with a number of human and veterinary health problems. Most notable among these has been a cluster of idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage cases that were observed in the Cleveland, Ohio, area. In this study, 16 strains of S. chartarum isolated from case (n = 8) or control (n = 8) homes in Cleveland and 12 non-Cleveland strains from diverse geographic locations were analyzed for hemolytic activity, conidial toxicity, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA banding patterns. In tests for hemolytic activity, strains were grown at 23°C on wet wallboard pieces for an 8-week test period. Conidia from these wallboard pieces were subcultured on sheep’s blood agar once a week over this period and examined for growth and clearing of the medium at 37 or 23°C. Five of the Cleveland strains (all from case homes) showed hemolytic activity at 37°C throughout the 8-week test compared to 3 of the non-Cleveland strains. Five of the Cleveland strains, compared to two of the non-Cleveland strains, produced highly toxic conidia (>90 μg of T2 toxin equivalents per g [wet weight] of conidia) after 10 and 30 days of growth on wet wallboard. Only 3 of the 28 strains examined both were consistently hemolytic and produced highly toxic conidia. Each of these strains was isolated from a house in Cleveland where an infant had idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage.

Genomic Characterization of Human and Environmental Polioviruses Isolated in Albania

Divizia, Maurizio; Palombi, Leonardo; Buonomo, Ersilia; Donia, Domenica; Ruscio, Vito; Equestre, Michele; Leno, Luljeta; Panà, Augusto; Degener, Anna Marta
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
97.97266%
Between April and December 1996, a serious outbreak of poliomyelitis occurred in Albania; almost 140 subjects were involved, and the episode presented an unusually high mortality rate (12%). During the outbreak, water samples from the Lana River in Tirana, Albania, and stool samples from two cases of paralytic poliomyelitis were collected and analyzed for the presence of polioviruses. Six polioviruses were isolated from the environmental and human samples, according to standard methods. All the samples were characterized by partial genomic sequencing of 330 bases across the 5′ untranslated region (5′-UTR) (nucleotide positions 200 to 530) and of 300 bases across the VP1 region (nucleotide positions 2474 to 2774). Comparison of these sequences with those present in data banks permitted the identification of environmental isolates Lana A and Lana B as, respectively, a Sabin-like type 2 poliovirus and an intertypic recombinant poliovirus (Sabin-like type 2/wild type 1), both bearing a G instead of an A at nucleotide position 481. The two other environmental polioviruses were similar to the isolates from the paralytic cases. They were characterized by a peculiar 5′-UTR and by a VP1 region showing 98% homology with the Albanian epidemic type 1 isolates reported by other authors. This study confirms the environmental circulation in Albania of recombinant poliovirus strains...

Immunomagnetic Capture PCR for Rapid Concentration and Detection of Hepatitis A Virus from Environmental Samples

Jothikumar, N.; Cliver, Dean O.; Mariam, Tadesse W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.87569%
We studied the concentration of hepatitis A virus (HAV) from environmental samples by membrane filter-based urea-arginine phosphate buffer and its detection by using immunomagnetic capture (IC) reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (IC PCR). Magnetic beads coated with anti-HAV rabbit antibodies were used for enrichment and concentration of HAV from environmental samples. IC PCR is sensitive enough to detect as few as 0.04 PFU of cell culture-adapted HAV in inoculated water and sewage samples. IC PCR is specific and does not yield positive reactions with poliovirus 1, HAV RNA, or selected bacteriophages. IC concentrates viruses suspended in small volumes to microliter volumes that can be used directly in RT-PCR. IC concentration of viruses from sewage samples without concentration of inhibitory substances is important for successful RT-PCR detection. In a field trial, 2 of 18 raw sewage samples tested by IC PCR were positive for HAV.

Influence of Water Temperature and Salinity on Vibrio vulnificus in Northern Gulf and Atlantic Coast Oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

Motes, M. L.; DePaola, A.; Cook, D. W.; Veazey, J. E.; Hunsucker, J. C.; Garthright, W. E.; Blodgett, R. J.; Chirtel, S. J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.81792%
This study investigated the temperature and salinity parameters associated with waters and oysters linked to food-borne Vibrio vulnificus infections. V. vulnificus was enumerated in oysters collected at three northern Gulf Coast sites and two Atlantic Coast sites from July 1994 through September 1995. Two of these sites, Black Bay, La., and Apalachicola Bay, Fla., are the source of the majority of the oysters implicated in V. vulnificus cases. Oysters in all Gulf Coast sites exhibited a similar seasonal distribution of V. vulnificus: a consistently large number (median concentration, 2,300 organisms [most probable number] per g of oyster meat) from May through October followed by a gradual reduction during November and December to ≤10 per g, where it remained from January through mid-March, and a sharp increase in late March and April to summer levels. V. vulnificus was undetectable (<3 per g) in oysters from the North and South Carolina sites for most of the year. An exception occurred when a late-summer flood caused a drop in salinity in the North Carolina estuary, apparently causing V. vulnificus numbers to increase briefly to Gulf Coast levels. At Gulf Coast sites, V. vulnificus numbers increased with water temperatures up to 26°C and were constant at higher temperatures. High V. vulnificus levels (>103 per g) were typically found in oysters from intermediate salinities (5 to 25 ppt). Smaller V. vulnificus numbers (<102 per g) were found at salinities above 28 ppt...

Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Viable Giardia Cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Large-Volume Water Samples with Wound Fiberglass Cartridge Filters and Reverse Transcription-PCR

Kaucner, Christine; Stinear, Timothy
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.92498%
We recently described a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for detecting low numbers of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts spiked into clarified environmental water concentrates. We have now modified the assay for direct analysis of primary sample concentrates with simultaneous detection of viable C. parvum oocysts, Giardia cysts, and a novel type of internal positive control (IPC). The IPC was designed to assess both efficiency of mRNA isolation and potential RT-PCR inhibition. Sensitivity testing showed that low numbers of organisms, in the range of a single viable cyst and oocyst, could be detected when spiked into 100-μl packed pellet volumes of concentrates from creek and river water samples. The RT-PCR was compared with an immunofluorescence (IF) assay by analyzing 29 nonspiked environmental water samples. Sample volumes of 20 to 1,500 liters were concentrated with a wound fiberglass cartridge filter. Frequency of detection for viable Giardia cysts increased from 24% by IF microscopy to 69% by RT-PCR. Viable C. parvum oocysts were detected only once by RT-PCR (3%) in contrast to detection of viable Cryptosporidium spp. in four samples by IF microscopy (14%), suggesting that Cryptosporidium species other than C. parvum were present in the water. This combination of the large-volume sampling method with RT-PCR represents a significant advance in terms of protozoan pathogen monitoring and in the wider application of PCR technology to this field of microbiology.

Development and Testing of a Bacterial Biosensor for Toluene-Based Environmental Contaminants

Willardson, Barry M.; Wilkins, Jon F.; Rand, Timothy A.; Schupp, James M.; Hill, Karen K.; Keim, Paul; Jackson, Paul J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.817%
A bacterial biosensor for benzene, toluene, and similar compounds has been constructed, characterized, and field tested on contaminated water and soil. The biosensor is based on a plasmid incorporating the transcriptional activator xylR from the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2. The XylR protein binds a subset of toluene-like compounds and activates transcription at its promoter, Pu. A reporter plasmid was constructed by placing the luc gene for firefly luciferase under the control of XylR and Pu. When Escherichia coli cells were transformed with this plasmid vector, luminescence from the cells was induced in the presence of benzene, toluene, xylenes, and similar molecules. Accurate concentration dependencies of luminescence were obtained and exhibited K1/2 values ranging from 39.0 ± 3.8 μM for 3-xylene to 2,690 ± 160 μM for 3-methylbenzylalcohol (means ± standard deviations). The luminescence response was specific for only toluene-like molecules that bind to and activate XylR. The biosensor cells were field tested on deep aquifer water, for which contaminant levels were known, and were able to accurately detect toluene derivative contamination in this water. The biosensor cells were also shown to detect BETX (benzene, toluene...

Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Survival in Ovine or Bovine Manure and Manure Slurry

Kudva, Indira T.; Blanch, Kathryn; Hovde, Carolyn J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.88383%
Farm animal manure or manure slurry may disseminate, transmit, or propagate Escherichia coli O157:H7. In this study, the survival and growth of E. coli O157:H7 in ovine or bovine feces under various experimental and environmental conditions were determined. A manure pile collected from experimentally inoculated sheep was incubated outside under fluctuating environmental conditions. E. coli O157:H7 survived in the manure for 21 months, and the concentrations of bacteria recovered ranged from <102 to 106 CFU/g at different times over the course of the experiment. The DNA fingerprints of E. coli O157:H7 isolated at month 1 and month 12 were identical or very similar. A second E. coli O157:H7-positive ovine manure pile, which was periodically aerated by mixing, remained culture positive for 4 months. An E. coli O157:H7-positive bovine manure pile was culture positive for 47 days. In the laboratory, E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into feces, untreated slurry, or treated slurry and incubated at −20, 4, 23, 37, 45, and 70°C. E. coli O157:H7 survived best in manure incubated without aeration at temperatures below 23°C, but it usually survived for shorter periods of time than it survived in manure held in the environment. The bacterium survived at least 100 days in bovine manure frozen at −20°C or in ovine manure incubated at 4 or 10°C for 100 days...

Viral Pollution in the Environment and in Shellfish: Human Adenovirus Detection by PCR as an Index of Human Viruses

Pina, Sonia; Puig, Montserrat; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Joan; Girones, Rosina
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
97.69945%
A study of the presence of human viruses (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and hepatitis A viruses [HAVs]) in environmental and shellfish samples was carried out by applying DNA and cDNA amplification techniques by PCR. The detection of human adenoviruses by PCR was also examined as a potential molecular test to monitor viral pollution. The samples studied were urban and slaughterhouse sewage, river water, seawater, and shellfish. Enteroviruses were quantified by PFU in Buffalo green monkey kidney cells and fecal coliforms and phages of Bacteroides fragilis HSP40 were also evaluated in some of the samples. The amplification of viral DNA and cDNA has shown a high prevalence of human viruses that would not be detected by the use of classical techniques, such as the quantification of PFU in cell lines. The results of the analysis of slaughterhouse sewage samples together with the test of farm animal feces indicate that the adenoviruses and the HAVs detected in the environment are mostly of human origin. A significative correlation between the detection of human viruses by PCR and the values of bacteriophages of B. fragilis HSP40 in urban raw sewage was observed. Human adenoviruses were the viruses most frequently detected throughout the year...

Genetic Relatedness among Environmental, Clinical, and Diseased-Eel Vibrio vulnificus Isolates from Different Geographic Regions by Ribotyping and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA PCR

Arias, Covadonga R.; Pujalte, María Jesús; Garay, Esperanza; Aznar, Rosa
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
97.81324%
Genetic relationships among 132 strains of Vibrio vulnificus (clinical, environmental, and diseased-eel isolates from different geographic origins, as well as seawater and shellfish isolates from the western Mediterranean coast, including reference strains) were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR. Results were validated by ribotyping. For ribotyping, DNAs were digested with KpnI and hybridized with an oligonucleotide probe complementary to a highly conserved sequence in the 23S rRNA gene. Random amplification of DNA was performed with M13 and T3 universal primers. The comparison between ribotyping and RAPD PCR revealed an overall agreement regarding the high level of homogeneity of diseased-eel isolates in contrast to the genetic heterogeneity of Mediterranean isolates. The latter suggests the existence of autochthonous clones present in Mediterranean coastal waters. Both techniques have revealed a genetic proximity among Spanish fish farm isolates and a close relationship between four Spanish eel farm isolates and some Mediterranean isolates. Whereas the differentiation within diseased-eel isolates was only possible by ribotyping, RAPD PCR was able to differentiate phenotypically atypical isolates of V. vulnificus. On the basis of our results...

Detection of Cytotoxin-Hemolysin mRNA in Nonculturable Populations of Environmental and Clinical Vibrio vulnificus Strains in Artificial Seawater

Saux, Marion Fischer-Le; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Loaec, Solen; Colwell, Rita R.; Pommepuy, Monique
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
88.15218%
The objective of this study was to develop a molecular detection method that better estimates the potential risk associated with the presence of Vibrio vulnificus. For that purpose, we applied seminested reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to viable but nonculturable (VBNC) populations of V. vulnificus and targeted the cytotoxin-hemolysin virulence gene vvhA. Three strains, two environmental, IF Vv10 and IF Vv18, and one clinical, C7184, were used in this study. Artificial seawater, inoculated with mid-log-phase cells, was maintained at 4°C. VBNC cells resulted after 3, 6, and 14 days for C7184, IF Vv18, and IF Vv10, respectively. Our data indicate that seminested RT-PCR is sensitive for the detection of vvhA mRNA in artificial seawater when exclusively nonculturable bacteria are present. This is the first report of the expression of a toxin gene in VBNC V. vulnificus. Moreover, vvhA transcripts were shown to persist in nonculturable populations over a 4.5-month period, with a progressive decline of the signal over time. This result indicates that special attention should be given to the presence of potentially pathogenic VBNC cells in environmental samples when assessing public health risk.

PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method for Detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Environmental Waters without Microscopic Confirmation

Shields, Joan M.; Olson, Betty H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
88.13241%
We developed an alternative nested-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) protocol for the detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis in environmental samples that obviates the need for microscopic examination. The RFLP method, with the restriction enzyme AluI, differentiates the amplified target sequence from C. cayetanensis from those that may cross-react. This new protocol was used to reexamine a subset (121 of 180) of surface water samples. Samples previously positive when the CYCF3E and CYCR4B primers (33) and RFLP with MnlI (20) were used were also PCR positive with the new primers; however, they were RFLP negative. We verified, by sequencing these amplicons, that while two were most likely other Cyclospora species, they were not C. cayetanensis. We can detect as few as one oocyst seeded into an autoclaved pellet flocculated from 10 liters of surface water. This new protocol should be of great use for environmental microbiologists and public health laboratories.

Potential Pathogens in the Environment: Cultural Reactions and Nucleic Acid Studies on Klebsiella pneumoniae from Clinical and Environmental Sources1

Seidler, Ramon J.; Knittel, Martin D.; Brown, Carol
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1975 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
88.04073%
The phenotypic and nucleic acid properties of Klebsiella pneumoniae have been studied on cultures obtained from six different habitats (humans, vegetables, seeds, trees, rivers, and pulp mills). The 19 cultural reactions of 107 isolates varied significantly only in tryptophanase activity and dulcitol fermentation. The percentage of guanine plus cytosine base composition of 41 isolates varied from 53.9 to 59.2%. The range of percentage of guanine plus cytosine base composition for environmental klebsiellas was broader than that for the cultures of human origin. The range of deoxyribonucleic acid relative reassociation (homology) to the human K. pneumoniae reference strain extended from 5% to 100% and the chromosome molecular weights ranged from 2,200 × 106 to 3,000 × 106. The species of K. pneumoniae is thus molecularly more heterogeneous than previously thought and most isolates of human, pulp mill, and river origin are genetically indistinguishable. The presence of K. pneumoniae therefore represents a deterioration of the microbiological quality of the environment and should be considered of public health significance. At the present time the health significance of the molecularly more divergent strains, primarily of vegetable and seed origin...

Distribution of Vibrio vulnificus and Other Lactose-Fermenting Vibrios in the Marine Environment

Oliver, James D.; Warner, Robert A.; Cleland, David R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
88.07358%
During the summer of 1981, 3,887 sucrose-negative vibrios were isolated from seawater, sediment, plankton, and animal samples taken from 80 sites from Miami, Fla., to Portland, Maine. Of these, 4.2% were able to ferment lactose. The lactose-positive strains isolated from the various samples correlated positively with pH and turbidity of the water, vibrios in the sediment and oysters, and total bacterial counts in oysters. Negative correlations were obtained for water salinity. Numerical taxonomy was performed on 95 of the lactose-fermenting environmental isolates and 23 reference strains. Five clusters resulted, with the major cluster containing 33 of the environmental isolates and all of the Vibrio vulnificus reference strains. The 33 isolates, which produced an acid reaction in lactose broth within hours of initial inoculation, represented 20% of all lactose-fermenting vibrios studied. These isolates were nearly identical phenotypically to clinical strains of V. vulnificus studied by the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga., and by our laboratory, and their identification was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies. V. vulnificus was isolated from all sample types and from Miami to Cape Cod, Mass., and comparison of the environmental parameters of the eight subsites yielding this species with those of all 80 subsites revealed no significant differences. The majority of the isolates were obtained from animals...

Relationships Between Environmental Factors, Bacterial Indicators, and the Occurrence of Enteric Viruses in Estuarine Sediments

LaBelle, Raymond L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Melnick, Joseph L.; Cech, Irina; Bogdan, Gregory F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1980 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.83056%
Current standards for evaluation of the public health safety of recreational and shellfish-harvesting waters are based upon bacteriological analysis, but do not include an evaluation of the number of viruses. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of enteric viruses in estuarine sediments and to find a relationship, if any, between the presence of viruses in seawater or sediment or both and various biological and physicochemical characteristics of the environment. Viruses were found in greater numbers in sediment than in overlying seawater on a volume basis. Several types of enteroviruses were isolated: coxsackievirus types A16, B1, and B5, echovirus type 1, and poliovirus type 2. On several occasions, viruses were isolated from sediments when overlying seawaters met bacteriological water quality standards for recreational use. Statistical analysis of the relationship between viruses in seawater or in sediment and other variables measured yielded only one significant association: the number of viruses in sediment was found to be positively correlated with the number of fecal coliforms in sediment. No other physical, chemical, or biological characteristic of seawater or sediment that was measured showed statistically significant association with viral numbers. No correlation was found between bacterial indicators and virus in the overlying waters. The data indicated that evaluation of the presence of bacteria and viruses in sediment may provide additional insight into long-term water quality conditions and that indicator bacteria in water are not reflective of the concentration of enteric viruses in marine waters.

Tracking Host Sources of Cryptosporidium spp. in Raw Water for Improved Health Risk Assessment▿

Ruecker, Norma J.; Braithwaite, Shannon L.; Topp, Edward; Edge, Thomas; Lapen, David R.; Wilkes, Graham; Robertson, Will; Medeiros, Diane; Sensen, Christoph W.; Neumann, Norman F.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.96488%
Recent molecular evidence suggests that different species and/or genotypes of Cryptosporidium display strong host specificity, altering our perceptions regarding the zoonotic potential of this parasite. Molecular forensic profiling of the small-subunit rRNA gene from oocysts enumerated on microscope slides by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 was used to identify the range and prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in the South Nation watershed in Ontario, Canada. Fourteen sites within the watershed were monitored weekly for 10 weeks to assess the occurrence, molecular composition, and host sources of Cryptosporidium parasites impacting water within the region. Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype II, Cryptosporidium cervine genotype, C. baileyi, C. parvum, Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype I, the Cryptosporidium fox genotype, genotype W1, and genotype W12 were detected in the watershed. The molecular composition of the Cryptosporidium parasites, supported by general land use analysis, indicated that mature cattle were likely the main source of contamination of the watershed. Deer, muskrats, voles, birds, and other wildlife species, in addition to sewage (human or agricultural) may also potentially impact water quality within the study area. Source water protection studies that use land use analysis with molecular genotyping of Cryptosporidium parasites may provide a more robust source-tracking tool to characterize fecal impacts in a watershed. Moreover...

Molecular Analysis as an Aid To Assess the Public Health Risk of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains▿ ‡

Coombes, Brian K.; Wickham, Mark E.; Mascarenhas, Mariola; Gruenheid, Samantha; Finlay, B. Brett; Karmali, Mohamed A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
98.34114%
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are commensal bacteria in cattle with high potential for environmental and zoonotic transmission to humans. Although O157:H7 is the most common STEC serotype, there is growing concern over the emergence of more than 200 highly virulent non-O157 STEC serotypes that are globally distributed, several of which are associated with outbreaks and/or severe human illness such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and hemorrhagic colitis. At present, the underlying genetic basis of virulence potential in non-O157 STEC is unknown, although horizontal gene transfer and the acquisition of new pathogenicity islands are an expected origin. We used seropathotype classification as a framework to identify genetic elements that distinguish non-O157 STEC strains posing a serious risk to humans from STEC strains that are not associated with severe and epidemic disease. We report the identification of three genomic islands encoding non-LEE effector (nle) genes and 14 individual nle genes in non-O157 STEC strains that correlate independently with outbreak and HUS potential in humans. The implications for transmissible zoonotic spread and public health are discussed. These results and methods offer a molecular risk assessment strategy to rapidly recognize and respond to non-O157 STEC strains from environmental and animal sources that might pose serious public health risks to humans.