Tumor cells escape the immune surveillance system of the host through a process called immune tolerance. Immunotherapy targets molecules that serve as checks and balances in the regulation of immune response. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an intracellular enzyme, which through the process of tryptophan depletion exerts an immunosuppressive effect, facilitating immune escape of tumors. This review summarizes our current knowledge on IDO expression in malignancies, the IDO inhibitors that are currently available and those under clinical development.
The C-terminal domain of α-COP, an essential subunit of the COPI coatomer complex, is composed of an all α-helical region and a small β-sheet domain. We show that this β-sheet domain is a Really Interesting New Gene (RING)-like treble clef zinc finger. The zinc-binding residues are substituted by other aminoacids in many homologs including the structurally-characterized proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bos taurus. This RING-like domain is possibly related to those of other vesicle membrane-associated complexes, such as CORVET, HOPS and SEA, and likely mediates interactions with Dsl1p and assist in coat oligomerization.
Problem-based learning (PBL) is arguably one of the most important innovations in medical education in the last century. The evident benefits of PBL and the changing face of medicine and medical education have led many institutions including those in resource-poor settings to consider the adoption of PBL curricula. However, experts are uncertain about how successful PBL will be in such settings, as literature on the implementation of PBL in resource-poor settings appears to be inadequate. The University of Cape Coast is located in a resource-poor setting, however, its medical school has used PBL curriculum since 2007. In a descriptive prose, this article discusses the PBL implementation processes, the challenges faced, the mitigation strategies employed, and the lessons learned at University of Cape Coast School of Medical Sciences (UCCSMS). The arguments fall under the broad themes of curricular structure, resource constraints, faculty development, and assessment. The peculiar socioeconomic situation of Ghana, challenges in funding of tertiary education, and the resource implications of PBL provided the context for the arguments. It emerged out of the discussion that PBL has to be implemented as whole curriculum to be effective. Regular faculty development activities on PBL and the alignment of assessment methods with PBL also emerged as important issues in the discussion. The article argues that in spite of its cost implication...
Inflammatory processes and metabolic alterations are supposed to substantially interact. Recently, cumulating reports describe a profound role of interleukin(IL)-22 in this relationship. IL-22 is a particular kind of immune mediator that is produced by certain lymphocyte populations and regulates the function of several tissue cells but not immune cells. So far, IL-22 was known to plays a fundamental role in the elimination of bacterial infections at border surfaces of the body and to protect tissues from damage. This research highlight article arranges the facts regarding the effects of IL-22 in the context of adiposity and metabolic alterations and postulates a new function of the immune system.