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Policies of different governments : persistence and interactions

Ricka, Frantisek
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 121 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.19%
This dissertation consists of three chapters on persistence and interactions of policies of different governments in various settings. Chapter 1 studies government policy persistence when firms face capital installation costs. In an environment, where the government is either left- or right-wing, the left-wing government almost always sets more right-wing policies when it follows a conservative administration than otherwise. Similarly, when the types of policy makers are close enough to each other, a right-wing government that succeeds a leftist one chooses more left-wing policies. However, when the preferences of the politicians are sufficiently different, a conservative government selects more right-wing fiscal policies when following a leftist administration in order to address the state of the economy it inherits. Chapter 2 considers the political implications of tax competition between countries of different sizes. Smaller countries competing for internationally mobile capital set lower tax rates than their larger counterparts. This is because they perceive higher elasticity of capital with respect to their policy and their governments are to the right of those elected in larger countries. Then a more significant number of small countries involved in the competition with large countries not only decreases the large-country tax rates on capital...

Western Balkans - Public Investment Management Study : Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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35.96%
This report summarizes the findings of a review of public investment management (PIM) practices in the Western Balkans carried out with an eye to improving practices over the medium term, sharing experiences on a regional basis, providing some initial specific recommendations and identifying areas for more intensive further analysis. Following this introduction, the second section of the main report examines capital expenditure trends in the study countries. The third section provides an overview of the findings across the six countries. The fourth section provides potential drill-down topics for the further analysis. The fifth and final section briefly outlines the methodology used in the individual country studies. The study has revealed frequent weaknesses in the institutional arrangements for public investment management, although in most cases things are moving in the right direction. Box one set out some stylized guidelines on good practice for institutional arrangements for public investment management...

Republic of South Sudan Public Finance Management Assessment : Western Equatoria State

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
The purpose of the assessment is to assess the public finance management (PFM) system performance of the Government of Western Equatoria State. The effort is one of a number of Public Expenditure Financial Accountability, or PEFA assessments being conducted in South Sudan: the others focus on Government of Republic of South Sudan (GRSS), Unity State, Jonglei State and Northern Bahr el Ghazal State. These assessments will later feed into a Country Integrated Fiduciary Assessment (CIFA) along with a country procurement assessment report being prepared by another World Bank team on the procurement systems of GRSS and the same state governments. The assessment team received a lot of support and cooperation from state officials. The DG of taxation had attended the PEFA orientation and introduction workshop in April 2011 in Juba. The team appreciated this support, and without it the extent of its work would have been very limited given the short time the team was in the state. Prior reconnaissance by the assessment team with key state officials proved to be a key success factor in this assessment.

Critical liberalism in international relations

Richardson, James L
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 243196 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
A number of recent developments have prompted a revival of interest in liberal theories of international relations, among them the spread of democratic institutions, economic liberalisation and the increasing significance of international institutions in many aspects of life. This paper argues that liberal international relations theory, overimpressed by developments such as these, risks becoming an apologia for a narrow version of liberalism currently promoted by Western governments. The challenge of rethinking the meaning of liberalism in a ‘globalising’ world characterised by extreme economic inequality, social upheavals and the reassertion of cultural differences—and the questions whether and how liberal values can at all be realised in such a world—have been left to political theorists, whose struggles with these issues attract little interest in an international relations discipline still largely committed to the idea of a purely empirical social science. The paper suggests that a different, ‘critical’ conception of liberalism offers a way of relating pressing liberal normative concerns to empirical research, instead of seeking to keep the two entirely separate. It presents a critique of current liberal international relations theory and outlines an alternative approach.; yes

Common ends, divergent means: US and Austalian responses to proliferation (chemical, biological, missile)

Cooper, David A.
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
Western governments have focused increasing attention over the past decade on combating the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and associated means of delivery. However, there has been relatively little scholarly examination of their individual anti-proliferation strategies, and virtually no meaningful attempt at comparison. The extant literature on proliferation therefore fails to illuminate the national preferences among influential supplier states that presumably have shaped international efforts to curb proliferation. This gap in knowledge fosters assumptions about the 'likemindedness' of Western responses to proliferation that essentially remain untested. This dissertation promotes and contributes to a nascent research agenda focusing on responses to proliferation at the national level by comprehensively examining the policies of two pivotal members of the Western anti-proliferation coalition. It addresses the central questions of how and why two close strategic allies and dedicated anti-proliferation partners might disagree on the means by which to achieve common anti-proliferation goals. The study constructs an original analytic framework by which to categorise and examine national responses to proliferation. It then utilises this framework as the basis for discrete empirical investigations of the anti-proliferation policies of the United States and Australia since the mid-1980s in the areas of chemical weapons (CW)...

Multilateral governance of fisheries: management and cooperation in the Western and Central Pacific Tuna Fisheries

Chand, Satish; Grafton, R. Quentin; Petersen, Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 545956 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
The tuna resources of the Western and Central Pacific (WCP) are the world's largest and most valuable fisheries of their type and are of significant economic importance to the Pacific Island countries (PICs), through whose waters of national jurisdiction the tuna migrate. Two major concerns exist with the current governance of the fishery. First, PICs are receiving only a small share of the resource rents from the tuna fisheries. Second, current management structure of the fisheries will not ensure the long-term sustainability of the resources. The paper presents a simple model to argue for increased resource taxation as a means of raising tax revenues and improving sustainability of the resource. Such an outcome is only possible when a single policy-maker has the prerogative to set taxes so that the government acts as a Stakelberg leader in this game. Institutional mechanisms to engender cooperation between PIC governments and with distant water fishing nations (DWFNs) to achieve the espoused outcomes of the model are also presented.; no

South East Europe Municipal Finance Review : Local Government Finance in the Western Balkans

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
This report addresses the limited access to local governments of data and knowledge of municipal finance issues in South East Europe (SEE). The objective of the analytical work under the SEE Municipal Finance Review (MFR) aims to (i) contribute to improved understanding of local government management and finance in the SEE Region; and (ii) contribute to improving the quality and consistency of key municipal finance data for improved evidence based policy making. The analysis presented in this report comprises the first attempt to review and analyze a regional set of disaggregated sub-national finance data in the SEE Region. Main findings of the MFR are presented in this report. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 provides an overview of the decentralization framework in the SEE Region, including on the administrative and political structure of sub-national governments, their population size and distribution, and the service functions assigned to local governments. Chapter 3 explains in more detail the local government finance framework. This includes an overview of the structure and composition of sub-national finances...

Reforming Urban Water Utilities in Western and Central Africa : Experiences with Public-Private Partnerships, Volume 2. Case Studies

Fall, Matar; Marin, Philippe; Locussol, Alain; Verspyck, Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
The Western and Central Africa has one of the longest experiences with public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the developing world, both for water supply and for combined power and water supply utilities. Cote d'Ivoire has a successful partnership dating from 1959, and over the last two decades as many as 15 countries (out of 23 in the region) have experimented with PPPs: eight for water supply operations alone and seven for combined power and water supply operations. This discussion paper documents the region's experience with PPPs for urban water supply in a comprehensive manner to help inform the current debate about the benefits brought by PPPs, in the context of helping Africa to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Eleven PPPs have been studied, and detailed performance indicators are reported for six large cases - Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal, Niger, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Gabon, with at least four years of private operation. Through its successes and failures, the Western and Central African experience offers interesting lessons that other developing countries could reflect upon as they strive to improve the quality of urban water supply services...

Reforming Regional-Local Finance in Russia

Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge; Timofeev, Andrey; Boex, Jameson
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.19%
The book assesses the current state of Russia's regional and local fiscal relations, and self-government, and analyzes the related reforms undertaken over the past decade. The analysis is based on the kind of first-hand experience and in-depth knowledge of Russian intergovernmental reforms that only a handful of Western scholars possess. This book complements the earlier World Bank Institute (WBI) title Russia's Transition to a New Federalism (2001), reflecting the shift in Russia's policy reform agenda, from an emphasis on federal and regional relations, to the regional and local levels. The study uses a framework that integrates all the building blocks of federalism: size and structure of jurisdictions, expenditures, revenues, transfers, and borrowing. It offers reform options based on international practices and normative principles, while also identifying some dangers that may arise in implementing the next round of proposed intergovernmental reforms in Russia. The book was prepared as part of the WBI's program to train central and local government officials to carry out intergovernmental reforms...

The Changing Face of Rural Space : Agriculture and Rural Development in the Western Balkans

Lampietti, Julian A.; Lugg, David G.; Van der Celen, Philip; Branczik, Amelia
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
This report brings together lessons from previous studies, supplemented by new analysis. It frames the challenges facing the rural and agri-food sector in the Western Balkans to illustrate the directions for policies, now and in the future. Part one looks at the characteristics of the rural and agri-food sector today, its potential and its obstacles. Part two looks at the future of the agri-food sector and rural space. Value chains will change with more competitive imports, with larger retailers influencing value chains, and with farmers and processors needing to respond to these trends by producing goods that meet quality and safety standards consistently and reliably. These changes will drive the modernization of agriculture, leading to an agri-food sector with fewer and more productive farms. Beyond the agri-food sector, effective rural development programs will be needed to ensure that agriculture's modernization is balanced and equitable. Local authorities and rural communities will have to be involved in developing and implementing territorial strategies for leveraging the non-farm potential of rural areas. Food safety standards will become more important as countries strive to meet private and public standards, and climate change will introduce uncertainty and compel farmers to adapt. Part three provides a roadmap to help governments create a strong and healthy rural and agri-food sector able to respond to these challenges. It looks first at the strategy that should drive public spending in agriculture and the composition of that spending. It then looks at how governments can best provide public services to agriculture...

Establishing and Operationalizing an Energy Efficiency Revolving Fund : Scaling Up Energy Efficiency in Buildings in the Western Balkans

Limaye, Dilip; Singh, Jas; Hofer, Kathrin
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
An energy efficiency revolving fund (EERF) is a viable option for scaling up energy efficiency (EE) financing in the public sector in the Western Balkans. Under a typical EERF targeting the public sector, loans are provided to public agencies to cover the initial investment costs of EE projects; some of the resulting savings are then used to repay the EERF until the original investment is recovered, plus interest and service charges. The repayments can then be used to finance additional projects, thereby allowing the capital to revolve creating a sustainable financing mechanism. This guidance note is intended for government decision makers interested in establishing such EE revolving funds. It defines the typical structure of such funds, conditions under which they can be useful and effective, ways they can address some of the financing barriers, and implementation options. The note also provides examples, case studies, and lessons learned, and a 'road map' for establishing such funds.

Municipal Budgeting and Finance : Scaling Up Energy Efficiency in Buildings in the Western Balkans

Network of Associations of Local Authorities in South-East Europe
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Within the Western Balkans region, a secure and reliable energy supply is critical for sustainable economic growth. Expensive, imported energy and inefficient energy use place a huge burden on municipalities that require affordable and reliable infrastructure services to attract investment and provide services to their citizens. With energy prices projected to rise, service delivery costs will increase, further straining municipal budgets and disproportionally affecting poorer households. The ability of municipalities to adequately budget for and finance reductions in energy use thus will be a critical need in the years ahead. Saving energy can also help cities renew their building and infrastructure stock while helping to create employment opportunities, all paid for through the reductions in their energy bills. The municipal budget is the main financial planning document at the local level. It contains a list of municipal revenues and expenditures for the coming year, the latter of which are divided into operating and capital expenditures. Typically...

The human rights dilemma : an east-west encounter : Germany and China in 1996 /

Sieren, Andreas.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.35%
Conflicts over human rights in relations between East Asia and the West have increased since the end of the Cold War. Western governments express concern about human rights standards in East Asian countries. In the East, these expressions have been perceived as interference in internal affairs. Due to dramatic economic development, East Asian nations recently have gained in pride and self-confidence as global actors. Such development is observed with suspicion in the West. Concerned about the decline of global U.S. influence, some American scholars have re-invented the notion of "culture" to point at an alleged East Asian threat. Also East Asian statesmen use the cultural argument by claiming the existence of so-called 'Asian values', which they allege are the key to Eastern economic success. This thesis argues that issues of human rights in East-West relations are not only a consequence of well-intended concern by Western governments regarding the human rights and welfare of the citizens of East Asian nations, but are in fact dominated by and used as a pawn in interplay with more complicated questions of global power and economic relations between East and West. The thesis reviews the relevance of culture in East-West relations. In the West...

Governing together : the extent and limits of joint decision-making in Western European cabinets

Fonte: St. Martin's Press Publicador: St. Martin's Press
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
'Governing together' is the first truly comparative attempt at analysing how the national cabinets of Western European parliamentary systems take their decisions. There has been much talk about 'prime ministerial government' and about the end of the cabinet as an effective body. On the basis of the analysis of conflicts and, especially, of over 400 interviews of ministers in twelve Western European countries, this study examines the nature of the decision process. The role of procedures and rules, of parties and prime ministers' offices, of individual ministers, of ministers of finance, and, above all, of prime ministers, is thus examined for the first time on the basis of the evidence of those who belong to national cabinets. The work considers in particular how far governments composed of one party only and governments based on coalitions differ from one another, as well as whether large differences are due to the characteristics of individual countries. The overall conclusion is that, while cabinets no longer have, in most countries, the central position which they once had, they remain an essential focus for the national decision process.; 1. Introduction / Jean Blondel and Ferdinand Müller-Rommel. -- Part I. General framework of analysis. -- 2. A model of the cabinet system : the dimension of cabinet decision-making processes / Rudi Andeweg. -- 3. The single party/coalition distinction and cabinet decision-making / André-Paul Frognier. -- Part II. The role of structures in cabinet decision-making. -- 4. The organisational structure of Western European cabinets and its impact on decision-making / Jean-Louis Thiébault. -- 5. Organising the flow of business in Western European cabinets / Martin Burch. -- 6. Ministers and the role of the prime minister staff / Ferdinand Müller-Rommel. -- 7. The links between cabinets and parties and cabinet decision-making / Liéren de Winter. -- Part III. The role of individuals in cabinet decision-making. -- 8. Individual ministers and their role in cabinet decision-making / Jean Blondel. -- 9. The role and position of ministers of finance / Torbjörn Larsson. -- 10. Prime ministers and cabinet decision-making processes / Wolfgang C. Müller...

Party and government : an inquiry into the relationship between governments and supporting parties in liberal democracies

Fonte: St. Martin's Press Publicador: St. Martin's Press
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
'Party and government' is an eleven-country study of the relationship between the governments of liberal democracies, mainly from Western Europe, but also including the United States and India, and the parties which support these governments. It examines this relationship at the three levels at which governments and parties connect: appointments, policy-making, and patronage. The emphasis is on a two-way relationship: parties influence governments but governments also influence parties. The extent and the direction of this influence varies from country to country. In some cases, governments and parties are almost autonomous from each other, as in the United States; in other cases, on the contrary, there is considerable power of one over the other: sometimes the party dominates, sometimes the government.; 1. Introduction / J. Blondel and M. Cotta. -- 2. Britain / J. Blondel. -- 3. France / L. Morel. -- 4. Sweden / O. Ruin. -- 5. Germany / T. König and U. Liebert. -- 6. Austria / W. C. Müller, W. Philipp, and B. Steininger. -- 7. Finland / J. Nousiainen. -- 8. The Netherlands / R. B. Andeweg. -- 9. Belgium / L. De Winter, A-P. Frognier and B. Rihoux. -- 10. Italy / M. Cotta and L. Verzichelli. -- 11. The United States / R. S. Katz. -- 12. India / J. W. Björkman and K. Mathur. -- 13. Conclusion / J. Blondel and M. Cotta.

The origin of Iraq's nuclear weapons program: Technical reality and Western hypocrisy

Erkman, Suren; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre; Klement, Stephan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
This report is based on a series of papers written between 1980 and 2005 on the origin of Iraq's nuclear weapons program, which was known to one of the authors in the late 1970s already, as well as to a number of other physicists, who independently tried without success to inform their governments and the public. It is concluded that at no point did the Western governments effectively try to stop Iraq's nuclear weapons program, which suggests that its existence was useful as a foreign policy tool, as is confirmed by its use as a major justification to wage two wars on Iraq.; Comment: Version 4 : 165 page, 17 figures, all documents translated in English

Quantitative easing does not address the fundamental problems underpinning struggling western economies

Doukas, John
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/03/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Quantitative easing has been adopted by a number of central banks in the wake of the global financial crisis. John Doukas takes an in-depth look at the effects of quantitative easing, arguing that it not only fails to increase real economic activity, it also increases unemployment and encourages outsourcing to developing countries that offer higher rates of return. He concludes that economic growth and job creation should be the priority of western governments and not of central banks.

Electoral turnover has very little effect on the spending habits of Western democracies

Epp, Derek A.; Lovett, John; Baumgartner, Frank R.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/10/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Do new electoral brooms sweep clean the economic policies of the parties that went before? In new research that examines how incoming Western governments set their spending priorities, Derek A. Epp, John Lovett, and Frank R. Baumgartner find that budgets tend to be set with little regard to a government’s ideology, be it left or right. They argue that when setting budgets, incoming policymakers are constrained by social, economic and international realities that are largely beyond their control. This means that budgets are set consistently and inconsistently with what went before at roughly the same rate; left-wing parties do not necessarily favor “big government” nor to right parties always seek to reduce government spending.

Coercion versus co-optation: Western relations with the MPLA and FRELIMO from 1956 to 1976.

Clissold, Gillian Rosalind Gunn
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.17%
This thesis analyses the development of Western relations with the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) from 1956 to 1976. It concludes that nationalist attitudes were influenced by eleven factors, of which only one--perception of Western policies--was consistently present in every time period. Even when a movement was becoming increasingly hostile to the West due to other factors, perception of a friendly Western attitude was capable of producing a positive nationalist response. Although seven factors shaped Western policies, in general governments reacted in accord with the impact of nationalist policies on interests deemed important. For cold war-focussed countries, a movement's policies were only examined to determine their influence on that international competition. Because both nationalist groups had ties with the socialist world, and because Portugal threatened to deny Western access to the Azores base if the West courted the nationalists, cold war-focussed states such as the United States avoided co-optation initiatives. Those states with wider ties to the area tended to evaluate the impact of the whole spectrum of nationalist policies on regional interests when determining strategies. Countries with broad ties to the region...

Emigration Policy and State Governments in Mexico

Yrizar Barbosa,Guillermo; Alarcón,Rafael
Fonte: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte Publicador: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
Several Mexican state governments have created institutions and developed public policies to benefit their emigrants abroad following the federal government's lead. The main objective of this article is two-fold: first, to analyze the three sociopolitical factors that influenced the emergence of emigration policy at the state level, and second, to examine two strategic activities undertaken by state governments in the Central Western region. Public agencies for international migrants carry out various actions such as administering federal government programs, preserving regional identities, promoting human and civil rights for migrants, locating missing persons, and processing official documents. Many of these activities are complementary to those undertaken by federal government. However, some of these agencies play a strategic role in the repatriation of the bodies of Mexican migrants that die in the United States and the management of temporary employment abroad for their citizens.