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Caracterização molecular de isolados de Giardia de amostras de água e esgoto provenientes do Estado de São Paulo; Molecular characterization of Giardia isolates in water and sewage samples from São Paulo State

Fernandes, Lícia Natal
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/08/2009 PT
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45.82%
Introdução - Giardia é um protozoário que parasita o intestino de quase todas as classes de vertebrados, podendo causar giardíase. Dentre os sete agrupamentos da espécie G. duodenalis, nomeados de A a G, apenas A e B foram encontrados no homem. Por se tratar de um patógeno de veiculação hídrica, a pesquisa de cistos desse microorganismo em água e esgoto é de interesse para a saúde pública. Uma vez que os métodos convencionais utilizados para a detecção desse protozoário em amostras ambientais não permitem diferenciar os isolados de Giardia potencialmente patogênicos para o homem dos demais, o emprego de técnicas que possibilitam a caracterização molecular do parasita em questão se torna necessário, principalmente no Brasil, onde as informações sobre os genótipos de Giardia do ambiente são escassas. Objetivos - Detectar a presença e identificar os genótipos de Giardia sp. em amostras de água e esgoto provenientes do estado de São Paulo, discutindo a importância dos achados para a saúde pública, bem como elaborar uma estratégia que possibilite a realização de tal proposta. Método - Amostras de esgoto bruto (5) e tratado (6), de águas superficiais (11), de poço (3) e de nascente (1) foram coletadas e concentradas pela técnica de membrana filtrante modificada ou por centrifugação. O DNA genômico foi extraído pelo método de fenol/clorofórmio/álcool-isoamílico. A amplificação do fragmento de 890pb do gene gdh...

The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

Scoaris,Denise de Oliveira; Bizerra,Fernando Cezar; Yamada-Ogatta,Sueli Fumie; Abreu Filho,Benício Alves de; Ueda-Nakamura,Tânia; Nakamura,Celso Vataru; Dias Filho,Benedito Prado
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2008 EN
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55.84%
The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Aeromonas sp in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Positive samples were found for Aeromonas spp. 12.7% from the mineral water, 8.3% from the artesian water and 6.5% from the tap water. The recovery of Aeromonas spp. was significantly higher in the bottled mineral and artesian water than in the tap water from municipal supplies. The occurrence of the Aeromonas spp. did not correlate significantly with the contamination indicator bacteria (i.e. total coliforms) in the artesian water samples. However, a significant correlation was found between Aeromonas spp. and total coliforms in the both mineral water and tap water samples. The presence or absence of a correlation between the indicator bacteria and Aeromonas could reflect the occasional appearance of the pathogen in the drinking water and the different rates of survival and recovery of these agents compared with those fecal indicators. The finding that 41.6, 14.8 and 9.0 % of the artesian water, bottled mineral water and tap water, respectively, sampled in the current study failed to meet the Brazilian standard for total coliforms in the drinking water should therefore be of concern.

Estimation of some heavy metals in polluted well water and mercury accumulation in broiler organs

Hussein,Hussein Khamis; Abu-Zinadah,Osama Abdullah; EL-Rabey,Haddad Abdulsameih; Meerasahib,Mohammed Fareez
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 EN
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55.79%
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the concentrations of heavy metals in well water and bioaccumulation of the most abundant metals in chicken tissues in some areas in the province of Mecca Almokaramah, Saudi Arabia. Among the heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cr, Mn, Cu Hg, Pb and Ni) studied, mercury (Hg) revealed highest in concentration in well waters. The concentration of mercury in the ground water, beside in liver, kidney, muscle and blood samples of ten chickens from each of four poultry- production farms were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the kidney followed by liver had the highest bioaccumulation of mercury in all farm samples. The level of mercury in the ground water was 7.06µg/L. The relationship between mercury accumulation levels in the kidney and those in the liver tissues were proportionally correlated and altered with elevation in the antioxidant enzyme activities such as AST and ALT. These elevated enzymatic activities were induced by the level of toxicity. There was a significant elevation in the level of liver and kidney malondialdhyde (MDA), while the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase (SOD and CAT) were significantly decreased. Biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver and kidney sections.

Testing for bacterial resistance to arsenic in monitoring well water by the direct viable counting method.

Zelibor, J L; Doughten, M W; Grimes, D J; Colwell, R R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1987 EN
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45.83%
Direct viable counting of metal-resistant bacteria (DVCMR) has been found to be useful in both enumerating and differentiating metal-resistant and metal-sensitive strains of bacteria. The DVCMR bioassay was used to detect effects of low and high concentrations of arsenic and arsenicals on bacterial populations in groundwater. The level of resistance of the bacterial populations to arsenate was determined by the DVCMR bioassay, and the results showed a linear correlation with the total arsenic concentrations in the monitoring well water samples; no correlation was observed by culture methods with the methods employed. Bacteria resistant to 2,000 micrograms of arsenate per ml were isolated from all monitoring well water samples studied. Strains showed similar antibiotic and heavy-metal profiles, suggesting that the arsenic was not a highly selective pressure for arsenic alone. The monitoring well water samples were amended with arsenate and nutrients to determine the biotransformation mechanisms involved. Preliminary results suggest that bacteria indigenous to the monitoring well water samples did not directly transform, i.e., precipitate or volatilize, dissolved arsenic. It was concluded that arsenic contamination of the groundwater can be monitored by the DVCMR bioassay.

Antimony: an unlikely confounder in the relationship between well water arsenic and health outcomes in Bangladesh.

McCarty, Kathleen M; Senn, David B; Kile, Molly L; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Christiani, David C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2004 EN
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45.85%
Recent in vitro studies have suggested a potential role for antimony as a confounder in human health studies related to arsenic in drinking water. We measured tube-well water concentrations of antimony and arsenic in the Pabna region of Bangladesh, where arsenic concentrations are known to be elevated and the concentrations of antimony have not yet been thoroughly documented. Two hundred forty-five tube-well water samples were collected from various regions in Pabna, Bangladesh, as part of an ongoing case-control study. Water samples were analyzed for arsenic and antimony concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 200.8. The arsenic concentrations in the tube-well water samples ranged from < 1 microg/L to 747 microg/L. All 245 water samples had antimony concentrations < 1 microg/L. Based on consideration of the concentrations used the in vitro studies compared with field-observed concentrations, our results do not support the hypothesis that antimony would be a significant confounder in observed relationships between arsenic exposure through drinking water and potential health outcomes in Pabna, Bangladesh.

Studies on well water and possible health risks in Katsina, Nigeria.

Adesiyun, A. A.; Adekeye, J. O.; Umoh, J. U.; Nadarajab, M.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1983 EN
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45.84%
Well water was sampled from all four major wards in Katsina town. All 20 samples taken showed high coliform counts. Sixty-five per cent contained greater than or equal to 2400 coliforms per 100 ml while the remainder had counts ranging from 79 to 920. Faecal coliforms and non-cholera vibrios were detected in all samples. There was no significant relationship between the coliform counts and the distances of latrines to wells, water table to ground level, slope relationship between wells and latrines, the pH of water and whether the wells were left permanently open or not. Salmonella sp., Enterobacter sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were each isolated from about 10% of the samples, while Proteus sp. was isolated from 40%, Citrobacter sp. 15%, Alcaligenes sp. 5% and an unidentified Gram-negative rod from 5%. Only 2 (10%) of the sampled households, representing 23 (9.6%) of the 239 people exposed to well-water had pipeborne water in addition. It was concluded that well water in Katsina town could be a human health hazard.

Escherichia coli O157:H7 diarrhoea associated with well water and infected cattle on an Ontario farm.

Jackson, S. G.; Goodbrand, R. B.; Johnson, R. P.; Odorico, V. G.; Alves, D.; Rahn, K.; Wilson, J. B.; Welch, M. K.; Khakhria, R.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1998 EN
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45.84%
A 16-month old female child living on an Ontario dairy farm was taken to hospital suffering from bloody diarrhoea. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from her stool. Initial tests of well water samples were negative for E. coli by standard methods but culture of selected coliform colonies on sorbitol-MacConkey agar led to isolation of E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 was also isolated from 63% of cattle on the farm. The E. coli O157:H7 isolates from the child, the water and the cattle were phage type 14, produced verotoxins 1 and 2, and were highly related on analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The child did not have known direct contact with the cattle and did not consume unpasteurized milk. Hydrogeological investigation revealed the design and location of the well would allow manure-contaminated surface water to flow into the well. This investigation demonstrates that cattle farm well water is a potential source of E. coli O157:H7 which may not be identified by standard screening for E. coli in water.

Observations on the ocurrence of pseudomonas aeruginosa in a sample of well water

Conroy, David A.
Fonte: Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Farmacia Publicador: Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Farmacia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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65.77%
The author is indebted to Prof. Dr. Luis C. Verna of this C??tedra, for having encouraged the preparation of this paper and for his interest in the work described.; A sample of well water was examined, and it was found that the total bacterial count and the coliform count were of no significance in condemning the water as unsuitable for drinking purposes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the predominating organism present and the possible relationship between this organism and those of the coliform group is considered. Reference to recent published work is made, in an attempt to show that the sample received should rightly be regarded as having been contaminated from faecal or sewage sources.; Una muestra de pozo de agua fue examinada,y se encontr?? que el recuento total de bacterias y el recuento de coliformes carecian de importancia como para decidir si el agua es no apta para beber.Se descubri?? que Pseudomonas aeruginosa era el organismo predominante y se considera que existe una posible relaci??n entre este organismo y los del grupo de coliformes.La muestra recibida deber??a ser considerada como que ha sido contaminada con aguas residuales o fecales,refiriendonos a la reciente obra publicada.

Making the Most of Scarcity : Accountability for Better Water Management Results in the Middle East and North Africa; Obtenir le meilleur parti des ressources rares : Une meilleure gouvernance pour une meilleure gestion de l'eau au moyen-orient et en Afrique du Nord

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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45.91%
Water -- the resource itself as well as the irrigation and water supply services derived from it is important for every country. It is fundamental to human health, wellbeing, productivity, and livelihoods. It is also essential for the long-term sustainability of ecosystems. Here, in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the most water-scarce region of the world, good water management matters even more than it does elsewhere. The report suggests that MENA can meet its water management challenge. People have a very real need for water for drinking and for household uses. This domestic use, however, accounts for less than ten percent of a typical country's water consumption. Every country in the region has enough water resources to meet domestic needs, even accounting for the larger populations expected in the future. And policy decisions can help improve the way drinking water and sanitation services are delivered so that people get the services they need. The bulk of a typical country's water consumption goes to agriculture. This demand depends on such factors as the structure of the economy...

INVESTIGATION OF PRIVATE WELL WATER QUALITY IN SOUTHEASTERN ONTARIO USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MOLECULAR MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING TOOLS

KROLIK, JULIA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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65.91%
In Canada, as in many other affluent nations, private well water consumers remain at risk for gastrointestinal (GI) illness due to fecal contamination of groundwater. There have been numerous documented outbreaks of GI illness related to contaminated drinking water. While the general risk to well water consumers has been established, the risk in southern Ontario is poorly understood. As a preliminary step towards understanding this risk, a study of Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination in private well water was undertaken. Spatial scan statistics were employed to determine the extent of contamination for over 30,000 private wells in southeastern Ontario between 2008 and 2012, inclusive. This analysis revealed one large, temporally stable elevated risk region, and three significant smaller regions within it. The methodology utilized in the primary investigation was then applied to a 2012 dataset for all of southern Ontario, resulting in the identification of three regions of elevated risk. The presence of E. coli, a traditional fecal indicator organism, indicates lack of water potability. To provide knowledge regarding the origins of fecal contamination in southeastern Ontario, a molecular microbial source tracking (MST) study was undertaken. A quantitative real-time Bacteroidales PCR assay specifically targeting human...

West Virginia Community Awareness and Opinion of Water and Hydraulic Fracturing

Kern, Eleanor
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 23/04/2015 EN_US
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45.86%
The need for cleaner energy sources has driven a boom in oil and gas extraction via hydraulic fracturing. However, significant environmental issues that have been raised in response to this rapid expansion of fracking. Most of the scientific research has focused on potential water contamination (methane or toxic chemicals) or seismic activity related to drilling or wastewater injection, but there has been little research on the impacts of fracking on local communities that are directly affected by oil and gas activity. Communities are often without an avenue to voice their opinion or to discuss how they are affected by the rapid rise in fracking with scientists, politicians or industry. Opinion surveys collected from residents in West Virginia who live near hydraulic fracturing operations were analyzed and compared to groundwater drinking well water tests to determine how residents who live in areas impacted by oil and gas drilling feel about hydraulic fracturing and if certain informational inputs (online reports vs. well water data) impact residents’ opinions. Survey data was collected in Doddridge and Tyler counties of West Virginia from 27 residents whose water was either being tested for the first time or being retested by researchers at Duke University. The participants were asked about their knowledge and opinions of hydraulic fracturing and water quality issues in their community. Their answers were analyzed by qualitative and spatial analyses using STATA and ArcGIS. The survey data results were compared to selected chemical results from the participants’ drinking well water samples. The results from the project showed that...

Results Of The Domestic Well Water-Quality Study

Pellerito, V.; Neimeister, M.P.; Wolff, E.; Andres, A.S.
Fonte: Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware Publicador: Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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45.85%
The Delaware Geological Survey conducted a review of existing ground-water quality data collected from shallow (less than 100 feet deep) domestic water-supply wells and small public water-supply wells (serving fewer than 100 residents) to determine the extent to which toxic and carcinogenic compounds are present in the shallow ground water serving domestic water supply wells. These data were generated by several agencies including the Delaware Geological Survey, U.S. Geological Survey, Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Delaware Division of Public Health Office of Drinking Water, and the Delaware Department of Agriculture Pesticide Management Program.

Ground-Water Levels In Delaware July, 1966 - December, 1977

Talley, J.H.
Fonte: Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware Publicador: Newark, DE: Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
Water-level records from 13 observation wells in Delaware for the period July, 1966 - December, 1977 provide the bases for the analyses of water-level fluctuations. Water levels in shallow water-table wells generally rise from November to March, when recharge exceeds discharge, and decline during the warm growing season from May through September. Although water-levels in individual wells changed by as much as 11.17 feet during the 11.5 year period studied, the water-table system remained in a state of dynamic equilibrium and exhibited no permanent changes in aquifer storage. However, the water levels in three artesian observation wells have declined during the same 11.5 year period in response to high demands for ground water while levels in the other two artesian wells have risen slightly due to a reduction in ground-water discharge, or increase in ground-water recharge, or both. Nevertheless during the past several decades, water levels have declined, cones of depression have enlarged, and reductions in aquifer storage, have occurred in the Potomac aquifer in central and southeastern New Castle County, and the Piney Point and Cheswold aquifers in the Dover-Dover Air Force Base area. Therefore, future groundwater development in the artesian aquifers must be carefully planned and managed.

Investigation of Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Some Synthesized Water Soluble Terpolymers on N-80 Steel in HCl, NaCl and Simulated Oil Well Water

Geethanjali,R.; Subhashini,S.
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
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65.79%
Five different water soluble terpolymers, namely polyvinyl alcohol-g-poly(acrylamidevinylsulfonate), polyvinyl alcohol-g-poly(acrylic acid-vinylsulfonate), polyvinyl alcohol-g-poly(acrylamide-vinyl benzene sulfonate), polyvinyl alcohol-g-poly(acrylic acid-vinyl benzene sulfonate) and polyvinyl alcohol-g-poly(vinylsulfonate-vinyl benzene sulfonate), have been designed, developed and tested for their efficacy to control N-80 steel corrosion in 10 % HCl, 3.5 % NaCl and simulated well water. The terpolymer characterization was carried out by FTIR. The inhibitors were tested by potentiodynamic and impedance techniques. The inhibitors were also tested in static and dynamic conditions at 55±5 °C, for 6 hours immersion period by weight loss method. Acrylamide terpolymers rendered the best inhibition efficiency in all the studied systems. The results provided a preliminary validation of the inhibitor such that they can be optimised and used for corrosion in oil and gas industries.

Ensuring water supply for all towns and villages in the Eastern Cape and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa

Hay,ER; Riemann,K; van Zyl,G; Thompson,I
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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45.83%
The Department of Water Affairs (DWA) has embarked on a nationwide programme to develop water-reconciliation strategies for all towns across the country. Reconciliation strategies for the major metropolitan areas and systems (e.g. Johannesburg/Pretoria, East London, Cape Town and Durban) were developed next. The implementation of these strategies is monitored by strategy steering committees. The approach has now been extended to all other metropolitan areas as well as all towns and villages or clusters of villages. In order to prepare the actual strategies, regardless of the size of the town, thorough documentation, research and analysis of the available information was required, as well as evaluation of projected growth scenarios to assess water requirements over the next 25 years and identification of potential additional sources to meet this growing requirement. It has emerged that the poor operation and maintenance of water supply, treatment and reticulation infrastructure are resulting in significant losses, which, if corrected, can reverse the current water shortages being experienced. Similarly, the generally poor management of effluent remains a threat to surface water and groundwater quality downstream. It appears that many municipalities perceive groundwater as an unreliable resource; however...

Monitoring drinking water quality in South Africa: Designing information systems for local needs

Rivett,Ulrike; Champanis,Michael; Wilson-Jones,Toni
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/30/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
In South Africa, the management and monitoring of drinking water quality is governed by policies and regulations based on international standards. Water Service Authorities, which are either municipalities or district municipalities, are required to submit information regarding water quality and the management thereof regularly to the national Blue Drop System (BDS). Since 2009, a trend has emerged in which urban municipalities have been shown to consistently improve their water quality management whilst some of the rural and under-resourced municipalities are falling behind. A major concern has been that rural municipalities are failing to report the required information and are not complying with some of the regulator's requirements that speak to the overall management of water quality monitoring rather than the actual water quality itself. This paper reflects on a case study undertaken in four rural municipalities in South Africa where a cellphone-based information system was implemented to collect information relevant to the municipality. The study was conducted by the Information for Community Oriented Municipal Services (iCOMMS) research team based at the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Cape Town. The hypothesis for the research was that improved information flow within rural municipalities - from water supplies in outlying areas to the municipal government office - can improve the efficiency of existing monitoring...

Multi-criteria decision making for water resource management: a case study of the Gediz River basin, Turkey

Yilmaz,B; Harmancioglu,NB
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2010 EN
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45.83%
In this study, a water resource management model that facilitates indicator-based decisions, with respect to environmental, social and economic dimensions in a multiple criteria perspective, is developed for the Gediz River Basin in Turkey. The basic input of the proposed model is the quantity of surface water that is mainly allocated to irrigation purposes. The model has been applied under 3 different hydro-meteorological scenarios that reflect baseline as well as better and worse conditions of water supply and demand, not only to reach a comprehensive assessment of the water budget in the Gediz Basin, but also to evaluate the impacts of proposed management alternatives under different conditions. The Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) software is used as a simulation and evaluation tool to assess the performance of possible management alternatives; performance is measured by 9 indicators representing economic, social and environmental sustainability. The study has delineated the best management alternative on the basis of 3 different multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods, including simple additive weighting (SAW), compromise programming (CP) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). Each method is also applied with 7 different sets of criteria weights that represent objective judgements as well as subjective preferences of decision makers. The results of the study indicate that the decision on the best alternative is basically independent of the MCDM method used...

Water use characteristics of a bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) landrace during seedling establishment

Chibarabada,Tendai Polite; Modi,Albert Thembinkosi; Mabhaudhi,Tafadzwanashe
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2015 EN
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45.83%
Bambara groundnut is slow to establish and this has negative implications for total water use. Consideration of bambara groundnut as a water-efficient crop for dry areas will benefit from an understanding of water use efficiency and water use characteristics during establishment. We investigated whether there is an association between seed-coat colour of bambara groundnut seeds and water use efficiency. A secondary objective was to determine physiological and metabolic responses of bambara groundnut to terminal water stress during seedling establishment. Bambara groundnut seedlings showed reduced seedling canopy growth, increased root length and root: shoot ratio, as well as increased total soluble sugars and tissue water potential with decreasing water availability - traits associated with drought avoidance mechanisms. Consequently, seedling water use efficiency improved with decreasing water availability. Acclimation to water stress was observed under terminal stress; previously stressed seedlings responded better than previously non-stressed seedlings. Dark-coloured seeds had higher levels of phenolics which may have led to their enhanced performance during seedling emergence as well as improved drought tolerance and seedling WUE.

Water in nutritional health of individuals and households: an overview

Wenhold,Friede; Faber,Mieke
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
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This paper gives an overview of human water requirements (Part 1) and water quality for nutritional health (Part 2). A balance between water input and water output is needed to maintain a normal hydration status. Water requirements of individuals differ in different stages and circumstances in the healthy life cycle, e.g. childhood, pregnancy and lactation as well for the elderly. Various sources of dietary water as well as water consumption of the South African population are discussed. Water is needed to maintain a normal hydration status, yet the non-water ingredients of beverages may also have hydration and non-hydration-related (ill-) effects, mostly in the longer term. Furthermore, water quality can affect nutrition-related health. Water is a source of nutrients, with fluoride being the most important from a nutritional perspective. Water is needed for hygiene and there are various transmission routes for diseases related to water i.e. water-borne, water-washed, water-based and water-related. In South Africa, 2.6% of all deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) are attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene. The figures are much higher for children under 5 years of age. Of the diseases associated with water...

Building capacity for co-operative governance as a basis for integrated water resource managing in the Inkomati and Mvoti catchments, South Africa

Colvin,J; Ballim,F; Chimbuya,S; Everard,M; Goss,J; Klarenberg,G; Ndlovu,S; Ncala,D; Weston,D
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
South Africa's National Water Act and National Water Resource Strategy set out an ambitious vision for Integrated Water Resources Management including a strong focus on the redistribution of water resources towards the poor and on empowering historically disadvantaged communities. To achieve this vision the Department of Water Affairs & Forestry (DWAF) has been pursuing a programme for devolving powers to 19 stakeholder-led catchment management agencies (CMAs) and more locally, transforming irrigation boards into more inclusive water user associations (WUAs), as well as creating new associations. Co-operative governance is a core principle of this programme. As well as being enshrined in South Africa's constitution, this principle is seen as key to enabling CMAs to implement their core functions, which include co-ordinating the activities of water users and water management institutions within their water management area. For WUAs also, the principle of co-operative governance is key to building engagement between White commercial farmers and emerging Black farmers, as well as (in some cases) engaging with a wider set of stakeholder interests including local government and environmental interests. Despite a commitment to the principle of co-operative governance...