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Runoff sources and land cover change in the Amazon: an end-member mixing analysis from small watersheds

NEILL, Christopher; CHAVES, Joaquin E.; BIGGS, Trent; DEEGAN, Linda A.; ELSENBEER, Helmut; FIGUEIREDO, Ricardo O.; GERMER, Sonja; JOHNSON, Mark S.; LEHMANN, Johannes; MARKEWITZ, Daniel; PICCOLO, Marisa C.
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.47%
The flowpaths by which water moves from watersheds to streams has important consequences for the runoff dynamics and biogeochemistry of surface waters in the Amazon Basin. The clearing of Amazon forest to cattle pasture has the potential to change runoff sources to streams by shifting runoff to more surficial flow pathways. We applied end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) to 10 small watersheds throughout the Amazon in which solute composition of streamwater and groundwater, overland flow, soil solution, throughfall and rainwater were measured, largely as part of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia. We found a range in the extent to which streamwater samples fell within the mixing space determined by potential flowpath end-members, suggesting that some water sources to streams were not sampled. The contribution of overland flow as a source of stream flow was greater in pasture watersheds than in forest watersheds of comparable size. Increases in overland flow contribution to pasture streams ranged in some cases from 0% in forest to 27-28% in pasture and were broadly consistent with results from hydrometric sampling of Amazon forest and pasture watersheds that indicate 17- to 18-fold increase in the overland flow contribution to stream flow in pastures. In forest...

Dynamics of Dissolved Forms of Carbon and Inorganic Nitrogen in Small Watersheds of the Coastal Atlantic Forest in Southeast Brazil

ANDRADE, Tatiana M. B.; CAMARGO, Plinio B.; SILVA, Daniela M. L.; PICCOLO, Marisa C.; VIEIRA, Simone A.; ALVES, Luciana F.; JOLY, Carlos A.; MARTINELLI, Luiz A.
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
Based on the fact that streamwater quality reflects landscape conditions, the objectives of this study were: to investigate nitrogen (N), carbon (C), and major ion concentrations in six streams crossing minimally disturbed Atlantic Forest areas, with similar geomorphological characteristics; to determine N and C fluxes in one of these pristine streams (Indaia); and assess the impact of human activity on the biogeochemistry of two other streams in the same region, crossing urbanized areas. The distribution pattern of carbon and inorganic nitrogen dissolved forms, as well as the major ion and biogenic gas concentrations in the streamwater, was similar in pristine streams, indicating that the C and N dynamics were determined by influence of some factors, such as climate, atmospheric deposition, geology, soil type, and land covering, which were analogous in the forested watersheds. The urban streams were significantly different from the pristine streams, showing low dissolved oxygen concentrations, high respiration rates, and high concentrations of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved inorganic carbon, and major ion. These differences were attributed to anthropogenic impact on water quality, especially domestic sewage discharge. Additionally...

Permeability of riparian forest strips in agricultural, small subtropical watersheds in south-eastern Brazil

Ferreira, Anderson; Cyrino, José Eurico Possebon; Duarte-Neto, Paulo Jose; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio
Fonte: CSIRO PUBLISHING; COLLINGWOOD Publicador: CSIRO PUBLISHING; COLLINGWOOD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.47%
If riparian buffer zones are ineffective in preventing C-4 plant carbon from upland areas reaching the stream sediment, the composition of stream fauna can be significantly altered. The permeability of riparian forest strips in agricultural, small subtropical watersheds in south-eastern Brazil was measured in nine watersheds categorised according to the predominant land cover of the legally required 30-m buffer riparian zone. Four watersheds with well preserved riparian forest along the 30-m buffer zone were designated as FOREST watersheds; three watersheds, with a predominance of C-4 grasses from sugarcane to pasture, mixed with preserved riparian forests, were designated MIXED watersheds; and two watersheds were termed PASTURE-SUGAR because their entire 30-m buffer zone was covered by C-4 plants. Stable carbon (delta C-13) isotopes were used as tracers of upland C-4 carbon in sediments, suspended particulate organic carbon, terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and two species of neotropical fish. Although the intact 30-m buffer zone of riparian forests did not entirely prevent the input of C-4 to the river environment and food web, there was a significant increase in C-4 carbon in those watersheds where the buffer zone was not covered by riparian forests. These findings emphasise the importance of riparian forests in mitigating disturbance in streams and support efforts to preserve such riparian corridors.; Sao Paulo State Research Foundation (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo); Sao Paulo State Research Foundation (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo); FAPESP; FAPESP [03/10505-0]

Produção de sedimentos em microbacias hidrográficas em função do relevo e da cobertura florestal; Sediment yield in watersheds as a function of relief and forest cover

Mingoti, Rafael
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/09/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
Com a intensa discussão entre proprietários e órgãos públicos sobre a quantidade de área com cobertura florestal necessária em propriedades rurais de diferentes regiões, ocorreu o aumento da necessidade da disponibilização de dados técnicos que sirvam de suporte à discussão. Além das abordagens da conservação e reabilitação dos processos ecológicos, à conservação da biodiversidade e ao abrigo e proteção da fauna e flora nativas, outro item desta discussão é a proteção aos recursos hídricos e ao solo que a cobertura florestal proporciona. Um dos critérios para se avaliar o efeito da cobertura florestal, neste quesito, é a geração de sedimentos. Como o estudo desses processos erosivos, envolvendo medições de todas as variáveis envolvidas em uma ampla escala é, na maioria das vezes, impossível de ser conduzido, cada vez mais estão sendo desenvolvidos, e revisados, modelos hidrológicos para predizer o impacto das atividades agrícolas na qualidade da água. A modelagem hidrológica e de qualidade da água e os Sistemas de Informações Geográficas têm evoluído constantemente de modo que possam ser feitas análises em bacias hidrográficas Nesse contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivo principal analisar a produção de sedimentos em microbacias hidrográficas com diferentes relevos e diferentes tamanhos e localizações da cobertura florestal...

Dynamics of Dissolved Forms of Carbon and Inorganic Nitrogen in Small Watersheds of the Coastal Atlantic Forest in Southeast Brazil

ANDRADE, Tatiana M. B.; CAMARGO, Plinio B.; SILVA, Daniela M. L.; PICCOLO, Marisa C.; VIEIRA, Simone A.; ALVES, Luciana F.; JOLY, Carlos A.; MARTINELLI, Luiz A.
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
Based on the fact that streamwater quality reflects landscape conditions, the objectives of this study were: to investigate nitrogen (N), carbon (C), and major ion concentrations in six streams crossing minimally disturbed Atlantic Forest areas, with similar geomorphological characteristics; to determine N and C fluxes in one of these pristine streams (Indaia); and assess the impact of human activity on the biogeochemistry of two other streams in the same region, crossing urbanized areas. The distribution pattern of carbon and inorganic nitrogen dissolved forms, as well as the major ion and biogenic gas concentrations in the streamwater, was similar in pristine streams, indicating that the C and N dynamics were determined by influence of some factors, such as climate, atmospheric deposition, geology, soil type, and land covering, which were analogous in the forested watersheds. The urban streams were significantly different from the pristine streams, showing low dissolved oxygen concentrations, high respiration rates, and high concentrations of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved inorganic carbon, and major ion. These differences were attributed to anthropogenic impact on water quality, especially domestic sewage discharge. Additionally...

Studies of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in two adjacent watersheds.

Ong, C; Moorehead, W; Ross, A; Isaac-Renton, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.39%
Two adjacent British Columbia, Canada, watersheds with similar topographical features were studied. Both the Black Mountain Irrigation District (BMID) and the Vernon Irrigation District (VID) serve rural agricultural communities which are active in cattle ranching. The present study was carried out in five phases, during which a total of 249 surface water samples were tested in the study watersheds. The aims of these phases were to determine levels of parasite contamination in raw water samples collected from the intakes as well as from other sites in each watershed and to investigate cattle in the watersheds as potential sources of parasite contamination of surface drinking water supplies. Giardia cysts were not detected in the raw water samples collected from lake sources at the headwaters of both watersheds but were found in 100% (70 or 70) of water samples collected at the BMID intake and 97% (68 of 70) of water samples collected at the VID intake. Significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) of Giardia cysts were found at the BMID intake (phase 1, 7 to 2,215 cysts per 100 liters; phase 3, 4.6 to 1,880 cysts per 100 liters) when compared with that of the VID intake (2 to 114 cysts per 100 liters). The BMID watershed has a more complex system of surface water sources than the VID watershed. Cattle have access to creeks in the BMID watershed...

Impacts of Surface Water Diversions for Marijuana Cultivation on Aquatic Habitat in Four Northwestern California Watersheds

Bauer, Scott; Olson, Jennifer; Cockrill, Adam; van Hattem, Michael; Miller, Linda; Tauzer, Margaret; Leppig, Gordon
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.39%
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds...

Some ecological effects of beaver upon the watersheds in the Porcupine Hills, Alberta /

Sverre, S. F. S.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
This ecological investigation of the beaver (Castor canadensis canadensis Kuhl) was part of the Eastern Slopes (Alberta) Watershed Research program conducted during the summers of 1968 . 1969 . 1970. and 1971 . A soil particle size analysis indicated that soil heavy with clay was used by the beaver for construction purposes in the Porcupine Hills . Examples were given of the beaver controlling erosion with the construction of dams . and also causing erosion to occur . However . in general . the beaver slow down soil erosion and decrease the loss of soil from this region. The beaver utilized measureable amounts of herbaceous vegetation . However, the utilization of herbs by the beaver requires further investigation. A system of ex~sures and enclosures of herbaceous vegetation plots was used to study the utilization of sedges , grasses , and forbs . The beaver indicated stronger species preference for willow as compared to aspen . The size preference for willow was in the 1.0 to 10.0 centimeters basal diameter classes , while the beaver utilization of aspen indicated a preference for the largest trees with basal diameter greater than 20.0 centimeters. Willow was the most important plant in the low lying areas with regard to distribution...

The Forest-Hydrology-Poverty Nexus in Central America: An Heuristic Analysis

Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.39%
A "forest-hydrology-poverty nexus" hypothesis asserts that deforestation in poor upland areas simultaneously threatens biodiversity and increases the incidence of flooding, sedimentation, and other damaging hydrological processes. The authors use rough heuristics to assess the applicability of this hypothesis to Central America. They do so by using a simple rule of thumb to identify watersheds at greater risk of hydrologically significant land use change: these are watersheds where there is a relatively large interface between agriculture and forest, and where this interface is on a steep slope. The authors compare the location of these watersheds with spatial maps of poverty and forests (for Guatemala and Honduras) and with maps of population and forests (for Central America at large). The analysis is performed for watersheds defined at different scales. The authors find plausible evidence for a forest-biodiversity-poverty connection in Guatemala, and to a lesser extent in Honduras. In the rest of Central America...

Freshwater Resource Supply Modeling for Developed and Undeveloped Watersheds

Gustafson, Kelly C
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
Globally, the current state of freshwater resource management is insufficient and impeding the chance at a sustainable future. Human interference within the natural hydrologic cycle is becoming dangerously irreversible and the need to redefine resource managerial approaches is imminent. This research involves the development of a coupled natural-human freshwater resource supply model using a System Dynamics approach. The model was applied to two case studies, Somalia, Africa and the Phoenix Active Management Area in Arizona, USA. It is suggested that System Dynamic modeling would be an invaluable tool for achieving sustainable freshwater resource management in individual watersheds. Through a series of thought experiments, a thorough understanding of the systems’ dynamic behaviors is obtainable for freshwater resource managers and policy-makers to examine various courses of action for alleviating freshwater supply concerns. This thesis reviews the model, its development and an analysis of several thought experiments applied to the case studies.

Land use, Runoff and Recharge on Selected Watersheds in the U. S. Virgin Islands

Smith, Henry H., 1954- Ajayi, Owolabi. Bello, Yahaya. V.I. Water Resources Research Center.
Fonte: Water Resources Research Institute ( US Virgin Islands ) Publicador: Water Resources Research Institute ( US Virgin Islands )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
"Condensed by Yahaya Bello from: "Water Resources of the College of Virgin Islands Area, St. Thomas" by Owolabi Ajayi and Ferdinand Gomez Gomez, Technical Report No. 11"--[p. 2] [i.e. "Land Use, Runoff and Recharge on Selected Watersheds in the U.S. Virgin Islands", by Henry H. Smith and Owolabi Ajayi, Technical Report No. 13, Water Resources Research Center...September 1983]

Organic farm does not improve neither soil, or water quality in rural watersheds from southeastern Brazil

Silva, Alexandre Marco da; Manfre, Luiz Augusto; Urban, Rodrigo Custodio; Ogihara Silva, Vanessa Honda; Manzatto, Mariana Politti; Norton, Lloyd Darrell
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 132-146
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.43%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); This study was conducted in a rural region where there are conventional and organic farms, the agricultural production includes more than 20 million people, and the effect on environmental quality is still poorly known in terms of indicators. Our objectives were: (1) compare soils attributes to reference areas, (2) verifying if cultivated areas under different farm systems presented differences in the soils attributes, (3) evaluate the attributes of quality water of watersheds and comparing the results with limiting values established by environmental legislation, and (4) analyze the values considering three criterion: watersheds, climatic season, and region of the landscapes. The study was conducted in two rural watersheds that have similar biophysical features and located in the Ibitina municipality, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. However, one watershed encompasses farms where landowners largely use conventional agricultural systems. In the other watershed approximately 25% of the farms there are using an organic farm system. In the two watersheds soil samples were collected in sites covered with natural forest and in sites with agriculture (one watershed being organic and other being conventional). The attributes analyzed were soil bulk density (BD)...

The influence of snowcover distribution and variable melt regimes on the transport of nutrients from two high Arctic watersheds

McLeod, Brock R.
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2724866 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.39%
In June 2005, fieldwork was conducted during the spring snowmelt period at Cape Bounty, Melville Island, Nunavut to examine the relationships between snow accumulation, runoff, and nutrient fluxes in two High Arctic watersheds. The snowcover was quantified by means of eleven depth and three density measurements at 42 survey transects (100 m) distributed throughout the West and East watersheds. River discharge was monitored at the watershed outlets, where water samples were collected four times daily during the first ten days of melt and twice daily once flow receded. Water samples were also collected from headwater and tributary sites in the two watersheds, and samples were analyzed for DOC, DON and DIN (NH4+ and NO3-). An objective terrain classification weighted equally on slope, aspect and land surface curvature was applied to the two watersheds using an ISODATA unsupervised classification scheme to determine watershed SWE. The terrain model confirmed that topography likely explains greater SWE in the West watershed, and provides a method for reproducible estimates of watershed SWE in future years. However, improved methods for estimating SWE in channels and deep snowbanks are required to ensure accurate assessments of watershed SWE. The seasonal trends in DOC...

Valoração, cobrança pelo uso da água e a gestão das bacias hidrográficas do Alto Iguaçu e afluentes do Alto Ribeira : uma abordagem econômico-ecológica; Valuation, charging for water use and managemente of Alto Iguaçu and tributaries of the Alto Ribeira watersheds : an economic-ecological approach

Júnior Ruiz Garcia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
A degradação do sistema natural ao longo do século XX pode ser caracterizada pela tendência ascendente e estreita relação com a escala física da atividade econômica, que demanda quantidades crescentes de recursos naturais, seja como fonte de insumos, seja como fonte para a absorção de resíduos. Desta forma, o que antes era considerado um bem ou serviço provido gratuitamente pelo sistema natural, por exemplo, água limpa, controle de enchentes, fertilidade do solo etc., no período recente está associado a custos crescentes. Neste contexto, a disponibilidade de recursos hídricos tornou-se objeto de constante preocupação por parte de diversos agentes públicos e privados. Essa preocupação resultou no desenvolvimento e na implantação de sistemas de gestão de bacias hidrográficas, cujo objetivo é promover o uso racional, a preservação e a melhoria da qualidade dos recursos hídricos. Em 1997, o Brasil instituiu a Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos que reconheceu o valor econômico da água e autoriza a cobrança pelo direito de uso. Entretanto, a valoração e a precificação da água não se mostrou uma tarefa trivial para os Comitês de Bacias Hidrográficas. Ainda, a definição do "preço da água" no Brasil tem sido realizada de maneira arbitrária...

Vazios urbanos no contexto do ambiente promotor de saúde com foco no planejamento por microbacias hidrográficas para cidades brasileiras : proposta de roteiro de análise e classificação; Urban unoccupied in the promotion of health in environment context with focus on watersheds planning for Brazilian cities : logbook to analysis and classification

Maria da Purificação Teixeira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/09/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
É fato que a maioria das cidades brasileiras, atravessadas em suas áreas urbanas, rurais e até mesmo áreas protegidas, por rios, cresceram de forma desordenada ao longo destes cursos d'água. As razões para esta despreocupação com o patrimônio ambiental são históricas e encontram suas raízes em inúmeras condicionantes. Este trabalho não pretende abarcar tão vasta contextualização. Ocupa-se de identificar que este cenário de não ordenamento do território por um viés mais integral, tem legado ao País um passivo ambiental hídrico, mas também, um grande passivo social, decorrente da apropriação insustentável deste recurso natural. Emerge, então, antigo desafio administrativo e gerencial, prevalente no planejamento municipal brasileiro, relacionado ao binômio da apropriação dos recursos naturais x a qualidade de vida nas cidades. Partindo-se deste entendimento, é defendida a hipótese de que o passivo social deva ser incorporado de forma mais sistemática aos contextos decisórios municipais. E, favorecer que a tomada de decisão por parte das administrações municipais, tenha condições de incorporar medidas mitigadoras mais agressivas, também para esta modalidade de danos. Desta forma, defende-se a promoção da saúde no ambiente urbano como estratégia consensual de modo à melhor viabilizar políticas públicas municipais. O objetivo deste trabalho é relevar a apropriação dos vazios urbanos com foco no ambiente promotor de saúde...

The anti-estrogenic activity of sediments from agriculturally-intense watersheds: Assessment using in vivo and in vitro assays

Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K.; Conoan, Nicholas H.; Cox, Marc B.; Sangster, Jodi L.; Balsiger, Heather A.; Bridges, Andrew A.; Cowman, Tim; Knight, Lindsey A.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Kolok, Alan S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.39%
The goal of the current study was to determine whether sediments from agriculturally-intense watersheds can act as a potential source of anti-estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compounds. The specific objectives of the current study were to determine 1) whether female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) experience alterations in endocrine function when exposed to sediments collected from agriculturally-intense watersheds and 2) if these sediments display anti-estrogenic activity in an in vitro assay. In addition, sediment samples were analyzed for the presence of steroid hormones and pesticides associated with local agricultural practices. To accomplish this, sediments and water were collected from three sites within two agriculturally-intense Nebraska watersheds (Bow Creek and the Elkhorn River). In 2009, minnows were exposed to sediment and/or water collected from the two Bow Creek sites (East Bow Creek and the Confluence) in the laboratory, while in 2010, minnows were exposed to sediment and/or water from East Bow Creek, the Confluence and the Elkhorn River. Following the 7-d exposure period, the hepatic mRNA expression of two-estrogen responsive genes, estrogen receptor α (ERα) and vitellogenin (Vtg) was determined. In 2009, females exposed to Confluence sediments...

Watersheds in disordered media

Ara?jo, Nuno A. M.; Schrenk, K. Julian; Herrmann, Hans J.; Andrade, Jos? S. Jr
Fonte: Frontiers Publicador: Frontiers
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphy.2015.00005/full#h11.; What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of a watershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometrical and physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificial model landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.; We acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Grant 319968-FlowCCS...

APPLICATION OF PHYTOREMEDIATION ACCORDING TO GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE TYPOLOGIES IN URBAN WATERSHEDS IN THE CITY OF SÃO PAULO; APLICAÇÃO DA FITORREMEDIAÇÃO EM FUNÇÃO DE TIPOLOGIAS DE INFRAESTRUTURA VERDE EM MICROBACIAS URBANAS DA CIDADE DE SÃO PAULO

Pinheiro, Maitê Bueno
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
Este artigo investiga a aplicação da fitorremediação em função de tipologias de Infraestrutura Verde (IV) em microbacias urbanas da cidade de São Paulo. Para esta investigação utilizou-se o reconhecimento das tipologias de Infraestrutura Verde para sua aplicação em uma microbacia densamente urbanizada da cidade, realizado no recente trabalho de Bonzi (2015). Este estudo é parte integrante de pesquisa mestrado em andamento que, em seus resultados preliminares, apresenta a tipologia biovaleta como sendo bastante indicada à tecnologia de fitorremediação.  A fitorremediação é uma tecnologia emergente que utiliza os mecanismos naturais das plantas e suas interações com a microbiota associada para a degradação, contenção, imobilização e extração de poluentes orgânicos e inorgânicos, e pode ser aplicada para o tratamento da poluição das águas urbanas em função das tipologias paisagísticas de Infraestrutura Verde. A Infraestrutura Verde é uma rede de áreas paisagisticamente interconectadas que pode ser compreendida como uma ferramenta para o reconhecimento e aproveitamento de serviços ecossistêmicos no ambiente urbano. A IV tem sido considerada na literatura especializada como uma ferramenta capaz de atender às demandas das questões ambientais das cidades...

Correlation between Riparian Buffers and Water Quality in North Carolina Watersheds

Fang, Yao; Hashmi, Fatima
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 16/04/2013 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
Stream water quality is often impacted by changes in land use such as deforestation. Since streams are usually the major drinking water sources for millions of people, Water Treatment Plants are the most common water resource management option for treating degraded stream water for drinking water purposes. However because treatment plants are capital intensive, land use conservation as a water resource management option is now widely being adopted. The ability of forests to acts as natural water filters could drive down water treatment costs and offer a cost-effective way to provide clean drinking water. The purpose of this study is therefore to test the hypothesis that an increase of forest cover in watersheds and riparian buffers leads to water quality improvement. Land use metrics were generated from geospatial analysis using ArcGIS. Intake points were located for 31 WTPs across North Carolina, and their corresponding watershed boundaries were delineated. The 2006 National Land Cover and Land Use dataset was used to determine percent of forest cover, impervious cover and agricultural cover at three different spatial scales; watershed, 300ft riparian buffer and 100ft riparian buffer. In addition, water quality data of two water quality parameters...

Economic Benefits and Jobs Provided by Delaware Watersheds

Corrozi Narvaez, Martha; Kauffman, Gerald
Fonte: Universidade de Delaware Publicador: Universidade de Delaware
Tipo: Outros
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
prepared for the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control; The water, natural resources, and ecosystems contained in Delaware’s watersheds are an economic engine for the state. These resources provide tremendous economic value to the state and the surrounding region. This report examines that value in three distinct ways: • Economic value directly related to Delaware’s water resources and habitats—Using economic activity as a measure of value, Delaware watersheds contribute over $6 billion in annual economic activity from water quality, flood control, water supply, fishing and wildlife viewing, recreation, agriculture, ports, forests, and parks. • Value of the goods and services provided by Delaware’s ecosystems—Using ecosystem goods and services as a measure of value, the ecosystems of Delaware provide $6.7 billion annually in goods and services in 2010 dollars, with a net present value of $216.6 billion calculated over a 100-year period. • Employment related to Delaware’s water resources and habitats—Using employment as a measure of value, Delaware’s water resources and habitat directly and indirectly support over 70,000 jobs with over $2 billion in wages annually. This does not include the thousands or...