Esta pesquisa de doutorado faz uma avaliação correlacional entre a evolução espacial da rede de monitoramento de qualidade das águas interiores do Estado de São Paulo, através do número de pontos de amostragem e sua respectiva densidade espacial ao longo dos 30 anos de existência da mesma e o crescimento populacional, através da densidade populacional dos municípios inseridos nas 22 unidades de gerenciamento de recursos hídricos do Estado de São Paulo. Analisa também se estes pontos mantiveram a capacidade de representar o status da qualidade da água em função do crescimento populacional, e se é necessário expandir ou adensar a rede em determinadas regiões. Esta comparação ficou mais racional com o uso dos recursos das geotecnologias e da análise multicritério aplicada ao planejamento e gerenciamento de recursos hídricos, com a construção do SIG SP_WATERNET e através da criação de um índice de avaliação do monitoramento que relaciona as 22 unidades espacialmente e ao longo do período estudado. Este índice pode ressaltar o grau de abrangência e de vulnerabilidade da rede de monitoramento das águas interiores superficiais no Estado de São Paulo.; This Ph.D. research makes a correlational evaluation between the spatial evolution of the monitoring network of inland surface waters of State of São Paulo...
Frequentemente, moradores da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo veem obras hidráulicas serem implantadas em seus bairros sem que tenham qualquer participação ou mesmo conhecimento sobre as mesmas. Sentem-se totalmente alheios à obra e podem passar a rejeitá-la ou a não usá-la corretamente, limitando a universalização de um atendimento eficaz. Por outro lado, são os mesmos moradores que tomam decisões importantes. Decidem como descartar o lixo doméstico e outros resíduos sólidos; como se desfazer do esgoto; como usar a infra-estrutura de água urbana, aqui entendida como o abastecimento, o esgotamento e a drenagem. Dada a importância das decisões dos moradores, com este trabalho se pretendeu analisar a possibilidade de incluí-los no processo de gestão compartilhada da água urbana, uma estratégia da governança, por meio do Monitoramento por Moradores em seu Domicílio e Arredores. O trabalho baseou-se em referencial sobre o potencial do morador como agente de mudanças e em documentação teórico-metodológica para o seu envolvimento no monitoramento. A principal conclusão a que se chegou é sobre a importância da interação morador-técnico das agências provedoras de serviços de água urbana, com apoio de autoridades locais...
The surface water quality monitoring is an important concern of public organizations due to its relevance to the public health. Statistical methods are taken as consistent and essential tools in the monitoring procedures in order to prevent and identify environmental problems. This work presents the study case of the hydrological basin of the river Vouga, in Portugal. The main goal is discriminate the water monitoring sites using the monthly dissolved oxygen concentration dataset between January 2002 and May 2013. This is achieved through the extraction of trend and seasonal components in a linear mixed-effect state space model. The parameters estimation is performed with both maximum likelihood method and distribution-free estimators in a two-step procedure. The application of the Kalman smoother algorithm allows to obtain predictions of the structural components as trend and seasonality. The water monitoring sites are discriminated through the structural components by a hierarchical agglomerative clustering procedure. This procedure identified different homogenous groups relatively to the trend and seasonality components and some characteristics of the hydrological basin are presented in order to support the results.
A monitoring programme of hazardous substances was implemented in Alcantarilha’s
water treatment plant (Algarve, Portugal) since 2002, in addition to the legally established
monitoring of standard physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The objective of this
programme was to ensure the drinking water quality regarding the waterborne disease organisms
Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterovirus and cyanobacteria,
and the potentially harmful chemicals aluminium, cyanotoxins, and disinfection by-products (THM)
and their precursors (TOC, DOC, UV254nm, SUVA). Most of these parameters are new and still not
regulated by the Portuguese and the European legislation. Data presented in this study refer to the
period of August 2002 to October 2003. Results show that, despite the seasonal variations of the
raw water quality, concentrations of the hazardous substances in the supplied drinking water were
far below the legal standards and the WHO’s and EPA guideline values, demonstrating the high
removal efficiencies of this treatment plant.
The challenges facing the water sector in Egypt are enormous and require the mobilization of all resources and the management of these resources in an integrated manner. Changes in the way water resources are currently allocated and managed are inevitable. Accordingly, a National Water Resources Plan for Egypt (NWRP) was launched. The NWRP is a comprehensive document which describes how Egypt will safeguard its water resources in the future, both with respect to quantity and quality, and how it will use these resources in the best way from a socio-economic and environmental point of view. The NWRP needs to be augmented by a transitional strategy including further reform interventions which ensure smooth and enhanced streamlining with Integrated Water Resources Management principles and approaches. The current integrated water resources management plan (IWRM Plan) has been prepared to serve the later concerns and is intended to be a complementary, action-oriented, implementation framework to the NWRP. It addresses the gaps in NWRP and provides for additional measures and provisions which facilitate the transition towards an integrated management approach within the water sector. The IWRM Plan assesses the current water resources management setup and practices along with the ongoing reform efforts led by the MWRI. The Plan identifies the actions agreed upon as major interventions to pursue an effective integrated framework for water management over the next 15 years. Thirty Nine actions falling under 11 major categories are proposed: Institutional reform and strengthening; policies and legislations; physical interventions; capacity building; technological and information systems; water quality; economic and financial framework; research; raising awareness for IWRM; monitoring and evaluation; and trans-boundary cooperation.
The primary objective of this report is
to provide a coherent and comprehensive review on integrated
urban water management (IUWM) approach to assist public
authorities to identify and address the future challenges of
urban water supply, sanitation and flood management in
African cities. This report presents the existing and future
challenges in Africa, the possible options for innovative
technologies and approaches for their breakthrough and a way
forward to achieve the objectives of IUWM. It highlights
technical and institutional constraints of the IUWM in
Africa. It presents the global and African best practices
and trends in IUWM which are linked to urban development and
which have very good lessons learnt that can be shared
within and among the cities in Africa. The report consists
of four chapters. Chapter two reviews the existing
condition, future challenges and opportunities in Urban
Water Sector (UWS) in Africa. The review covers the current
situation of urban water systems and their management
approaches; the major future change pressures (climate
In the field of environment protection, a series of European Directives with special emphasis on the water bodies has been approved as a cascade after the milestone Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the year 2000.
The most recent piece of legislation, Directive 2009/90/EC, points out the necessity of ensuring the quality of the analytical data and prescribes that the laboratories appointed by the Member States as responsible for the chemical water monitoring shall ‘‘demonstrate their competences... by... analysis of available reference materials...’’.
Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are the anchor points for comparability of measurement results, in both space and time, ensuring their traceability to a common reference.
In this article, we present a critical overview of existing matrix CRMs, related to WFD monitoring needs. Our survey concerns available water, biota and sediment matrix CRMs for the 33 Priority Substances (PSs) (and the eight ‘‘other certain pollutants’’) listed in the WFD, together with a reference to discontinued CRMs. Tables providing a more synoptic view are available on-line as supplementary information.
For the four priority metals (Cd, Pb, Hg and Ni), there are sufficient CRMs for all matrices considered to cover the needs of the monitoring laboratories...
The purification of water for the next century is paramount. As global demand for energy increases new ways of generating energy have been discovered and exploited. However, with the diversification of energy sources one thing remains constant, the water energy nexus. The water energy nexus is the intimate connection of water generation to energy generation and visa-versa. In other words, to have energy clean water is needed and to have clean water energy is needed. Because of this, new methods of water purification and monitoring have been investigated and developed.Herein the author describes new water purification methods using zwitterionic surfaces which have been used to purify various types of water including to date the most difficult waters such as ‘oilfield brines’. The author also describes techniques developed to monitor the chemical content of the oilfield brine which may be adapted for use at on-site wells as well as techniques which may be utilized to monitor for aquifer contamination by oilfield operations via nanoparticle sensors.
Dissertação de mestrado em Geociências (área de especialização em Valorização de Recursos Geológicos); A água é um recurso natural essencial à vida fortemente suscetível de degradação, pelo
que é fundamental a sua gestão e o controlo da sua qualidade. Os usos da água dependem
das suas propriedades e composição. Estas, por sua vez, resultam de processos de
interação água-rocha e da introdução antrópica de substâncias que podem afetar a sua
qualidade e, assim, condicionar os usos. A presente investigação tem como objetivo a
avaliação do estado de qualidade da água e potencialidades de uso no concelho de S.
Domingos, Ilha de Santiago, Cabo Verde. Foram colhidas 22 amostras de água, sujeitas as
medições in situ de parâmetros expeditos: pH, condutividade elétrica (CE), sólidos
dissolvidos totais (TDS) e temperatura. A caracterização foi completada com a análise da
componente aniónica (cloreto, brometo, fluoreto, nitrato, nitrito, fosfato e sulfato), de
alcalinidade, oxidabilidade, sólidos suspensos totais e metais. Os resultados obtidos
mostram, de uma maneira geral, o carácter mineralizado destas águas, com valor médio
de condutividade de 1361μS/cm. A classificação hidroquímica...
The Department of Drinking Water Supply
(DDWS), Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India
launched the National Rural Drinking Water Program (NRDWP)
on 1st April, 2009. The NRDWP builds on experiences gained
through past efforts by many stakeholders and brings all
existing rural drinking water initiatives under a single
program. The focus of the NRDWP is to ensure drinking water
security for all rural citizens in India. Drinking water
security means providing every rural person with enough safe
water for drinking, cooking and other domestic needs at all
times and in all situations, including periods of drought
and flood and for livestock. The Gram Panchayats (GP), as
leaders and representatives of the community, has to take
the lead in achieving this goal of drinking water security.
The Gram Panchayats, through Village Water and Sanitation
Committees (VWSCs), have to mobilize communities, educate
them and ensure they get the necessary training and
technical support to achieve drinking water security. The
gram Sabha is the main platform for taking decisions and
approving plans. The handbook seeks to serve as a quick
reference for GP and VWSC on how to plan...
The existence of community-based ecosystem monitoring activities is a relatively new concept that has been on the rise in past years for several reasons, including decreased governmental funding and capacity for monitoring, a growing awareness of environmental issues and a desire to participate in environmental planning and protection (Au et al., 2000; Bliss et al., 2001; Sharpe and Conrad, 2006; Sharpe et al., 2000). Water quality monitoring has become one of the most widespread types of community monitoring (Devlin, 2011). This research project is part of a larger initiative called the CURA H2O Project, based out of St. Mary’s University, Nova Scotia, Canada. CURA H2O looks at streamlining community-based water monitoring and resource management, with a focus on Nova Scotia. The province currently lacks a comprehensive policy water management framework (Sharpe and Conrad, 2006), but has very active community groups monitoring water resources to fill in the governance gap. This research project relates to one of CURA H2O’s objectives to review the state of CBM in Canada: the purpose of this research project is to investigate the state of community-based water monitoring in Southern Ontario, Canada, focusing on the Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM) landscape north of the Greater Toronto Area as a case study. The ORM was chosen for its ecological and hydrological significance...
FERREIRA, VAGNER G.; School of Earth Sciences and Engineering; GONG, ZHENG; State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering; ANDAM-AKORFUL, SAMUEL A.; School of Earth Sciences and Engineering
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná-UFPRPublicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná-UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos ParesFormato: application/pdf
GRACE satellite gravity data was used to estimate mass changes within the Volta River basin in West African for the period of January, 2005 to December, 2010. We also used the precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) to determine relative contributions source to the seasonal hydrological balance within the Volta River basin. We found out that the seasonal mass change tends to be detected by GRACE for periods from 1 month in the south to 4 months in the north of the basin after the rainfall events. The results suggested a significant gain in water storage in the basin at reference epoch 2007.5 and a dominant annualcycle for the period under consideration for both in the mass changes and rainfall time series. However, there was a low correlation between mass changes and rainfall implying that there must be other processes which cause mass changeswithout rainfall in the upstream of the Volta River basin.
Approaches that prioritise chemicals according to their importance as environmental contaminants have been developed by government agencies and private industries. However, it has been noticed that few approaches, such as one published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), address the needs of the drinking water industry. There is also no generic approach to the selection, prioritisation and monitoring of organic contaminants in the drinking water value chain. To safeguard drinking water industry customers, it was necessary to develop a generic protocol to assist with the identification of a list of organic contaminants for monitoring in the drinking water value chain. Once the protocol was developed, it was validated in a prototype drinking water value chain. This paper describes the implementation of such a generic protocol. The exercise comprised of testing each step of the protocol, from selection of the 'pool of organic contaminants' (Step I) to recommending the final priority list of organic contaminants (Step VII). Successful implementation of the protocol took place in the Rand Water (South Africa) drinking water value chain (from catchment to tap). Expert judgment was emphasized during the implementation as each step was validated and the opinion of key stakeholders used to shape the process. The tailor-made prioritisation criteria...
In South Africa, the management and monitoring of drinking water quality is governed by policies and regulations based on international standards. Water Service Authorities, which are either municipalities or district municipalities, are required to submit information regarding water quality and the management thereof regularly to the national Blue Drop System (BDS). Since 2009, a trend has emerged in which urban municipalities have been shown to consistently improve their water quality management whilst some of the rural and under-resourced municipalities are falling behind. A major concern has been that rural municipalities are failing to report the required information and are not complying with some of the regulator's requirements that speak to the overall management of water quality monitoring rather than the actual water quality itself. This paper reflects on a case study undertaken in four rural municipalities in South Africa where a cellphone-based information system was implemented to collect information relevant to the municipality. The study was conducted by the Information for Community Oriented Municipal Services (iCOMMS) research team based at the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Cape Town. The hypothesis for the research was that improved information flow within rural municipalities - from water supplies in outlying areas to the municipal government office - can improve the efficiency of existing monitoring...
Monitoring of sanitary quality or faecal pollution in water is currently based on quantifying some bacterial indicators such as Escherichia coli and faecal enterococci. Using a multiplex real-time PCR assay for faecal enterococci and Bacteroides spp., the detection of faecal contamination in non-treated water can be done in a few hours, reducing the analysis time to 2 h. The conventional method based on cultures was compared with a multiplex assay procedure for Bacteroides spp. and faecal enterococci with an internal inhibition control. Out of 74 water samples from different sources analyzed, using both procedures, 54 were true positives and 6 true negatives, 12 samples were real-time PCR positive and culture-negative whereas 2 were real-time PCR negative and culture-positive. In conclusion, 89.2% of the samples were found to be positive with real-time PCR and 75.7% with plate cultures. Detection levels were much higher when using the multiplex real-time PCR assay, based on the higher number of positive samples in comparison with conventional microbiology. The feasibility of multiple reactions in the monitoring of faecal contamination has been demonstrated along with fast quantification of the faecal load. Such procedure can be performed in less than 3 h. This work extends the use of multiplex real-time PCR for environmental analysis...
It is well established in literature that the environmental impacts associated with the coal industry are numerous. In respect of South Africa's groundwater resources the major impact of the coal industry is a reduction in groundwater quantity and quality. There is therefore a need to proactively prevent or minimise these potential impacts through long-term protection and improved water management practices. One such initiative is to implement monitoring programmes in various sectors of the coal industry for groundwater quality and quantity. Groundwater monitoring requires sophisticated interlinked stages which are often overlooked or not fully understood. Consequently a methodical approach must be undertaken in order to have an effective and economical groundwater monitoring system. This paper provides a comprehensive guide to the establishment of a groundwater monitoring programme for environmental practitioners in the coal industry. An inclusive 7-stage methodology is presented describing the different stages of establishing a groundwater monitoring programme, focusing on the 'why', 'how', and 'who' of groundwater monitoring.
A harmonised in-stream water quality guideline was constructed to develop a water quality index for the Upper and Middle Vaal Water Management Areas, in the Vaal basin of South Africa. The study area consisted of 12 water quality monitoring points; V1, S1, B1, S4, K9, T1, R2, L1, V7, V9, V12, and V17. These points are part of a Water Board's extensive catchment monitoring network but were re-labelled for this paper. The harmonised guideline was made up of 5 classes for NH4+ Cl-, EC, DO, pH, F-, NO3-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-) against in-stream water quality objectives for ideal catchment background limits. Ideal catchment background values for Vaal Dam sub-catchment represented Class 1 (best quality water), while those for Vaal Barrage, Blesbok/Suikerbosrand Rivers and Klip River represented Classes 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Values above those of Klip River ideal catchment background represented Class 5. For each monitoring point, secondary raw data for the 9 parameters were cubic-interpolated to 2 526 days from 1 January 2003 to 30 November 2009 (7 years). The IF-THEN-ELSE function then sub-classified the data from 1 to 5 while the daily index was calculated as a median of that day's sub-classes. Histograms were constructed in order to distribute the indices among the 5 classes of the harmonised guideline. Points V1 and S1 were ranked as best quality water (Class 1)...
Despite the health risks associated with exposure to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, there is no uniform approach to monitoring these protozoan parasites across the world. In the present study, a strategy for monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water was developed in an effort to ensure that the risk of exposure to these organisms and the risks of non-compliance to guidelines are reduced. The methodology developed will be applicable to all water supply systems irrespective of size and complexity of the purification works. It is based on monitoring procedures proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Drinking Water Inspectorate, Australia and New Zealand, as well as the risk-based procedure followed by Northern Ireland. The monitoring strategy developed represents a preventative approach for proactively monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in drinking water. The strategy consists of 10 steps: (i) assessment of the monitoring requirements, (ii) description and characterisation of the source water types, (iii) abstraction of source water, (iv) assessment of the water purification plant, (v) water quality monitoring, (vi) cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreak, (vii) risk assessment, (viii) sample collection and laboratory processing...
Water quality monitoring in the Olifants River catchment, Mpumalanga, is evaluated using river water dissolved sulphate levels, one of the best indicators of pollution related to acid mine drainage. Assessment of long-term water quality records shows that monitoring has not been carried out systematically. In that it fails one of the most fundamental criteria of good environmental monitoring practices. At some monitoring stations sampling frequency has been scaled down from approximately weekly to monthly intervals over time, despite evidence for increasing and problematic levels of pollution. At the Loskop Dam dissolved sulphate levels have increased more than 7-fold since the 1970s evidently due to increasing levels of pollution within the Little Olifants River catchment. At 4 of the 7 long-term monitoring stations river water sulphate levels exceed the 100 mg/ℓ threshold value for aquatic ecosystem health most of the time for the duration of the record, and all of the time since about 2001. At these stations river water sulphate levels also exceed the 200 mg/ℓ threshold for human consumption 27 to 45% of the time, for the duration of the long-term record. These observations necessitate more frequent and improved monitoring...
It is predicted that vast volumes of impacted mine water will be produced by mining activities in the Mpumalanga coalfields of South Africa. Irrigation provides for a novel approach to the utilisation and disposal of mine water, under the correct conditions. The significance of these findings lies in the versatility of this irrigation. Communities which often have very few other resources can utilise mine water to generate livelihoods. Research over a period of more than 10 years has shown that this water can be used successfully for the irrigation of a range of crops. The potential environmental impact of this excess water is of great concern in a water-scarce country like South Africa. There is, however, continuing concern from the local regulators regarding the long-term impact that large-scale mine-water irrigation may have on groundwater quality and quantity. Detailed research has been undertaken over the past number of years on both undisturbed soils and in coal-mining spoils. These sites range from sandy soils to very clayey soils. The results indicate that many of the soils have considerable attenuation capacities and that over the period of irrigation, a large proportion of the salts are contained in the upper portions of the unsaturated zones below each irrigation pivot. The volumes and quality of water leaching through to the aquifers have been quantified at each site. From these data mixing ratios were calculated in order to determine the effect of the irrigation water on the underlying aquifers. One of the outcomes from this study was to define the conditions under which mine-water irrigation can be implemented and the associated operational and monitoring guidelines that should be followed. These have been based on the findings from this study...