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Trade Liberalization and Regional Impacts on Residual Wage Inequality: Evidence from Brazil

Rey, Ignacio Crespo
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.73%
O objetivo deste trabalho é entender mais sobre o papel da liberalização sobre a desigualdade salarial, mais precisamente, sobre a desigualdade residual dos salários. Usando a abertura comercial brasileira, a extensa redução tarifária que ocorreu entre 1987 e 1995, é investigado empiricamente se os diferentes níveis de exposição ao comércio entre os estados contribuíram para os diferentes movimentos da desigualdade. Os resultados indicam que estados mais expostos à liberalização comercial experimentaram um aumento relativo da desigualdade residual dos salários ou, de forma equivalente, uma menor redução. Estes resultados enriquecem a discussão dos efeitos da abertura comercial sobre a desigualdade.; The aim of this paper is to understand more about the role of trade liberalization on wage inequality, more precisely, on the residual wage inequality. Using the Brazil- ian trade openness, the large tari cuts that occurred between 1987 and 1995, it is empirically investigated whether di erent levels of exposure to trade across states contributed to the di erent inequality movements. Results indicate that states more exposed to trade liberalization experienced a relative increase in residual wage in- equality or...

Wage inequality and trade liberalization : evidence from Argentina

Sanguinetti, Pablo
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
Wage inequality has increased substantially in Argentina during the nineties. At the same time during this decade Argentina has gone through a rapid and deep process of trade liberalization. In this paper we try to associate both phenomena. In particular, we attempt to answer the following question: Did trade liberalization play any role in shaping the argentine wage structure during the period studied? Specifically, we test whether those sectors where import penetration deepened are also the sectors where, ceteris paribus, a higher increase in wage inequality has taken place. We fmd evidence that supports this hypothesis.

Education, educational mismatch, and wage inequality: evidence for different european countries

Santos, Marcelo Serra
Fonte: Universidade da Beira Interior Publicador: Universidade da Beira Interior
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
In this dissertation, we study the relationship of mismatch between workers’ education and labor market requirements throughout different European countries. We found evidence in several countries that overeducated people tend to have a wage penalty and undereducated people tend to have a wage premium. This evidence contradicts the few existing evidence on the issue. However, despite the typical effects of education, tenure, experience, and gender in wages, the effects of mismatch between education and labor market requirements differ a lot throughout the wage distribution and European countries. Meanwhile, we also found a potentially new stylized fact on the relationship between returns to education and wage inequality: an inverted U-shaped relationship between returns to education and wage.

General Purpose Technology and Wage Inequality

Aghion, Philippe; Howitt, Peter; Violante†, Giovanni L.
Fonte: Springer Science + Business Media Publicador: Springer Science + Business Media
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
The recent changes in the US wage structure are often linked to the new wave of capital-embodied information technologies. The existing literature has emphasized either the accelerated pace or the skill-bias of embodied technical progress as the driving force behind the rise in wage inequality. A key, neglected, aspect is the “general purpose” nature of the new information technologies. This paper formalizes the idea of generality of technology in two ways, one related to human capital (skill transferability) and one to physical capital (vintage compatibility) and studies the impact of an increase in these two dimensions of technological generality on equilibrium wage inequality.; Economics

Trade Liberalization, Employment Flows, and Wage Inequality in Brazil

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Leite, Phillippe G.; Wai-Poi, Matthew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.8%
Using nationally representative, economywide data, this paper investigates the relative importance of trade-mandated effects on industry wage premia; industry and economywide skill premia; and employment flows in accounting for changes in the wage distribution in Brazil during the 1988-95 trade liberalization. Unlike in other Latin American countries, trade liberalization appears to have made a significant contribution toward a reduction in wage inequality. These effects have not occurred through changes in industry-specific (wage or skill) premia. Instead, they appear to have been channeled through substantial employment flows across sectors and formality categories. Changes in the economywide skill premium are also important.

Trends in Tariff Reforms and Trends in Wage Inequality

Galiano, Sebastian; Porto, Guido G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.85%
The authors provide new evidence on the impacts of trade reforms on wages and wage inequality in developing countries. While most of the current literature on the topic achieves identification by comparing outcomes before and after one episode of trade liberalization across industries, they propose a stronger identifying strategy. The authors explore the recent historical record of policy changes adopted by Argentina: from significant protection in the early 1970s, to the first episode of liberalization during the late 1970s, back to a slowdown of reforms during the 1980s, to the second episode of liberalization in the 1990s. These swings in trade policy comprise broken trends in trade reforms that they can compare with observed trends in wages and wage inequality. After setting up unusual historical data sets of trends in tariffs, trends in wages, and trends in wage inequality, the evidence supports two well-known hypotheses: trade liberalization, other things being equal, (1) has reduced wages, and (2) has increased wage inequality.

Does Tariff Liberalization Increase Wage Inequality? Some Empirical Evidence

Milanovic, Branko; Squire, Lyn
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.93%
The objective of the paper is to answer an often asked question: If tariff rates are reduced, what will happen to wage inequality? The authors consider two types of wage inequality: between occupations (skills premium) and between industries. They use two large databases of wage inequality that have recently become available and a large data set of average tariff rates covering the period between 1980 and 2000. The authors find that tariff reduction is associated with higher inter-occupational and inter-industry inequality in poorer countries (those below the world median income) and the reverse in richer countries. However, the results for inter-occupational inequality must be treated with caution.

Factor mobility and wage inequality in the presence of specialisation-based external economies

Anwar, Sajid
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.7%
By making use of a simple general-equilibrium model that is relevant to a high-income developing country or a newly industrialised country, this paper examines the link between factor mobility and wage inequality. It is shown that, in the presence of specialisation-based external economies, emigration of skilled as well unskilled labour increases wage inequality even if the income shares of capital are identical across industries. On the other hand, outflow of capital decreases wage inequality.; Sajid Anwar; Available online 7 September 2006

Labour mobility and wage inequality in the presence of endogenous foreign investment

Anwar, S.; Rice, J.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.8%
This paper examines the impact of labour mobility and increased competition on skilled–unskilled wage inequality and foreign investment. Unlike the existing literature this paper considers a model where foreign investment is endogenously determined. The paper shows that in the shortrun, inflow of either skilled or unskilled labour has no effect on wage inequality but increased competition increases wage inequality. Inflow of either type of labour increases foreign investment but the impact of increased competition on foreign investment cannot be unambiguously determined. Inflow of skilled labour increases wage inequality in the longrun and its effect on foreign investment is positive. Increased competition in the longrun increases wage inequality, foreign investment and welfare.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30411/description#description; Sajid Anwar and John Rice

Export premium, productivity, trade openness and wage inequality in China : empirical evidence from firm-level data.

Lin, Faqin
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.91%
This thesis uses Chinese firm-level data to investigate the relationships between the export premium, firm productivity and wage inequality. Using Chinese annual survey data for all state-owned firms and other non-state-owned firms with sales on mainland China over 5 million RMB, the author finds that there is a series of premiums for exporters compared with non-exporters. On average, exporters pay higher wages, produce more, sell more, add more value, employ more labour, have higher capital intensity, and have higher productivity (based on 1999-2003 data). Firms with relatively high export values will also be relatively more productive. Quantile results show that the premium decreases with the increase of the quantile. In addition, the export premium declines over time and across the industries, provinces and ownership types, and the higher the export intensity, the lower the export premium. The thesis further investigates the question: what determines the export premium – the selection effect or learning-by-exporting effect? First, the author uses the Olley and Pakes (1996) method to control both selection and simultaneity bias to estimate the reliable firm productivity. Then the author tests the self-selection and learning-by-exporting effects both parametrically and non-parametrically. The author finds both strong self-selection and learning-by-exporting effects at the aggregate level. The higher the productivity the firm has today...

Market vs. Institutions: The Trade-off Between Unemployment and Wage Inequality Revisited

BICAKOVA, Alena
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 873505 bytes; application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.85%
The trade-off hypothesis suggests that high wage inequality in the US and the UK and high unemployment in countries of continental Europe are consequences of the same negative change in the demand for the low skilled under different degrees of wage rigidity. This paper uses a labor supply and labor demand model with heterogenous types of labor in order to test the trade-off hypothesis and to analyze the effect of market forces and wage rigidity on changes in the between-group variation in earnings, employment, unemployment, and inactivity in France, the UK, and the US between 1990 and 2002. The results provide clear evidence in favor of the trade- off hypothesis when France is compared to the US as well as to the UK. We also find that labor supply and labor demand are more wage elastic in the UK than in the other two countries. Counterfactual simulations based on the estimated model reveal that exogenous changes in the relative demand for skills dominated in France, while supply shifts had more impact in the US over the studied period. In the UK, the opposite effects of the supply and the demand shifts were of similar magnitude, even though the supply effects dominated for the least and the most educated. In addition, an extended version of the trade-off hypothesis is proposed which considers not only wage inequality and unemployment but also labor supply. If labor force participation is sensitive to wages...

Are dictatorships more unequal? : economic growth and wage inequality during Portugal's estado novo, 1944-1974

Lains, Pedro; Gomes da Silva, Ester; Guilera, Jordi
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: text/plain; application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2008 ENG; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.79%
This paper relates the changes in the structure of the Portuguese economy to changes in wage inequality, during 1944-1974, when Portugal had its golden age of growth under a dictatorial regime. We present a new wage data set based on surveys conducted by the Portuguese Statistics Office (INE). Our data set covers the whole economy, including 16 sectors, and data on skilled and unskilled labor for manufacturing, and on male and female labor force for agriculture. To measure the evolution of wage inequality we estimate a Theil index. The results reveal an inverted-U curve with a peak in 1959. We proceed by estimating econometrically the relationship between wage inequality and per capita income growth, controlling for the influence of additional variables that capture the effects of industrialization, investment in human and physical capital, emigration, foreign trade and the size of the government. We find a significant relationship between wage inequality, real GDP per capita, human capital and the share of government spending.

Trade Policy and Wage Inequality : A Structural Analysis with Occupational and Sectoral Mobility

Artuc, Erhan; McLaren, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.8%
A number of authors have argued that a worker's occupation of employment is at least as important as the worker's industry of employment in determining whether the worker will be hurt or helped by international trade. This paper investigates the role of occupational mobility on the effects of trade shocks on wage inequality in a dynamic, structural econometric model of worker adjustment. Each worker in the model can switch either industry, occupation, or both, paying a time-varying cost to do so in a rational-expectations optimizing environment. The authors find that the costs of switching industry and occupation are both high, and of similar magnitude, but in simulations they find that a worker's industry of employment is much more important than either the worker's occupation or skill class in determining whether he or she is harmed by a trade shock.

Trade Policy and Wage Inequality; A Structural Analysis with Occupational and Sectoral Mobility

Artuc, Erhan; McLaren, John
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
A number of authors have argued that a worker's occupation of employment is at least as important as the worker's industry of employment in determining whether the worker will be hurt or helped by international trade. We investigate the role of occupational mobility on the effects of trade shocks on wage inequality in a dynamic, structural econometric model of worker adjustment. Each worker in our specification can switch either industry, occupation, or both, paying a time-varying cost to do so in a rational-expectations optimizing environment. We also specify a novel model of offshoring based on task-by-task comparative advantage that collapses to a very simple form for simulation. We find that the costs of switching industry and occupation are both high, and of similar magnitude. In simulations we find that a worker's industry of employment is much more important than either the worker's occupation or skill class in determining whether or not she is harmed by a trade shock, but occupation is crucial in determining who is harmed by an offshoring shock.

Effects of international diffusion of a general purpose technology on wage inequality

Bandeira, Ana Maria; Afonso, Óscar
Fonte: Hitotsubashi University Publicador: Hitotsubashi University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
This paper studies the effects of the diffusion of a General Purpose Technology (GPT) that spreads first within the developed North country of its origin, and then to a developing South country. In the developed general equilibrium growth model, each final good can be produced by one of two technologies. Each technology is characterized by a specific labor complemented by a specific set of intermediate goods, which are enhanced periodically by Schumpeterian R&D activities. When quality reaches a threshold level, a GPT arises in one of the technologies and spreads first to the other technology within the North. Then, it propagates to the South, following a similar sequence. Since diffusion is not even, neither intra- nor inter-country, the GPT produces successive changes in the direction of technological knowledge and in inter- and intra-country wage inequality. Through this mechanism the different observed paths of wage inequality can be accommodated.

Education, educational mismatch, and wage inequality: evidence for different european countries

Santos, Marcelo Serra
Fonte: Universidade da Beira Interior Publicador: Universidade da Beira Interior
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
In this dissertation, we study the relationship of mismatch between workers’ education and labor market requirements throughout different European countries. We found evidence in several countries that overeducated people tend to have a wage penalty and undereducated people tend to have a wage premium. This evidence contradicts the few existing evidence on the issue. However, despite the typical effects of education, tenure, experience, and gender in wages, the effects of mismatch between education and labor market requirements differ a lot throughout the wage distribution and European countries. Meanwhile, we also found a potentially new stylized fact on the relationship between returns to education and wage inequality: an inverted U-shaped relationship between returns to education and wage.

On the Determinants of Changes in Wage Inequality in Bolivia

Canavire, Gustavo; R??os, Fernando
Fonte: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Econom??a y Finanzas Publicador: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Econom??a y Finanzas
Tipo: workingPaper; Documento de trabajo de investigaci??n; draf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.76%
In recent years, Bolivia has experienced a series of economic and political transformations that have directly affected the labor markets, particularly the salaried urban sector. Real wages have shown strong increases across the distribution, while also presenting a decrease in inequality. Using an intertemporal decomposition approach, we find evidence that changes in demographic and labor market characteristics can explain only a small portion of the observed inequality decline. Instead, the results indicate that the decline in wage inequality was driven by the faster wage growth of usually low-paid jobs, and wage stagnation of jobs that require higher education or are in traditionally highly paid fields. While the evidence shows that the reduction in inequality is significant, we suggest that such an improvement might not be sustainable in the long run, since structural factors associated with productivity, such as workers??? level of education, explain only a small portion of these wage changes.

Forecasting Wage Inequality; Prediciendo la desigualdad de salarios

Ruiz-Tagle Venero, Jaime
Fonte: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios Publicador: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.87%
Artículo de publicación ISI; Wage inequality in Chile has remained high for decades and it is currently at the center of the political agenda. Increasing education of workers is expected to contribute to reduce wage inequality. Based on historical trends of age, education, and returns to education, this paper attempts to forecast wage inequality. Despite an increase in average earnings due to higher levels of education of workers, high levels of wage inequality within age groups and within education groups produce that forecasted wage inequality remains high for the next 10- year period. The structure of the Chilean labor market appears to imply that there is a high level of underlying wage inequality. Nevertheless, the good news are that the labor market structure seems to prevent further deteriorations of wage inequality.

Essays on wage inequality in developing countries

Ariza Bulla, John Fredy
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.91%
El principal objetivo de la tesis es aportar evidencia empírica sobre los determinantes de los recientes cambios en la desigualdad de ingresos y salarios en América Latina. En el primer capítulo se documenta la evolución de la desigualdad de ingresos en la región durante el 2001-2012. Después de testear si los cambios en la desigualdad son estadísticamente significativos, se descomponen dos índices de desigualdad por fuentes de ingreso y subgrupos de población. Adicional a la revisión de literatura, se estudian los recientes efectos distributivos del ciclo económico. Los resultados indican que los ingresos laborales para los hogares y los salarios para los individuos son las principales fuentes que explican la desigualdad de ingresos en la región. De acuerdo con las estimaciones econométricas, la tasa de desempleo tuvo un efecto positivo y estadísticamente significativo sobre la desigualdad en ingresos laborales explicando cerca del 30% de la caída en el índice de Gini en países como Brasil, Colombia y Argentina. Más de la mitad de la caída en la desigualdad de ingreso para Brasil y México y en menor medida para Colombia y Argentina fue explicada además por la reducción en el índice de Gini de años de educación. El efecto del salario mínimo fue también importante para Colombia y Argentina. Los resultados de la tasa de desempleo y el Gini en educación son robustos a diferentes especificaciones...

Why Did Wage Inequality Decrease in Mexico after NAFTA?

Campos-Vázquez,Raymundo M.
Fonte: Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas Publicador: Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.8%
Contrary to what happened before NAFTA, wage inequality in Mexico decreased after 1994. This paper investigates the forces behind the post-NAFTA decrease in wage inequality. Using a quantile decomposition, I show that the decline in wage inequality is driven by a decline in the returns to education and potential experience, especially at the top of the wage distribution. Supply and demand are the main contributors to this change. On the supply side, there were substantial increases in college enrollment rates after 1994, which translated into an increase in the proportion of workers with a college degree. However, this increase in supply was not met by an increase in demand for the highly educated: the proportion of the workforce in top qualified occupations and close to the top occupations did not increase as much as the increase in supply. As a result, college educated workers exercised wage pressure in top and less-than-top qualified occupations. A Bound and Johnson (1992) decomposition confirms that changes in relative supply are the main determinant behind the decrease in wage inequality.