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Exercício de direito de voto nas assembleias das companhias brasileiras, pedidos públicos de procuração, voto e participação à distância; Voting in the sharehordersmeetings of Brazilian companies, proxy solicitation, electronic voting and participation

Robert, Bruno
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/05/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
Pela primeira vez em sua história o mercado de capitais nacional lida com uma real, ainda que localizada, tendência de dispersão da titularidade acionária e com certo nível de popularização do investimento em companhias abertas, estimulados por um crescimento econômico, de consumo e de investimento estrangeiro também sem precedentes. A última década foi, de fato, um período fascinante para os entusiastas do direito societário; um período de crescente complexificação e especialização no ambiente societário nacional, que, em conjunto com o desenvolvimento recente das tecnologias de comunicação, vem desafiando os fundamentos da Lei das Sociedades por Ações, de 1976, e testando a capacidade de adaptação das instituições legais e regulatórias brasileiras. Nesse contexto, o estudo dos mecanismos de exercício do direito de voto, dos pedidos públicos de procuração e para o voto e participação à distância nas assembleias, mostrou-se um meio efetivo de contribuição para a construção de uma ponte entre o antigo e o novo mercado de capitais brasileiro. Para tanto, são três as contribuições principais pretendidas por este estudo. A primeira consiste na análise sistematizada inaugural, na doutrina nacional...

Trust in e-Voting systems : a case study

Nogueira, João Albano Palas Martins; Soares, Filipe de Sá
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 10/08/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
Completed research paper; The act of voting is one of the most representative of Democracy, being widely recognized as a fundamental right of citizens. The method of voting has been the subject of many studies and improvements over time. The introduction of electronic voting or e-voting demands the fulfillment of several requirements in order to maintain the security levels of the paper ballot method and the degree of trust people place in the voting process. The ability to meet those requirements has been called into question by several authors. This exploratory research aims to identify what factors influence voters’ confidence in e-voting systems. A case study was conducted in an organization where such a system has been used in several elections. A total of 51 e-voters were interviewed. The factors that were found are presented and discussed, and proposals for future work are suggested.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Normalized Range Voting Broadly Resists Control

Menton, Curtis (1986 - )
Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department. Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Tipo: Relatório
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
We study the behavior of Range Voting and Normalized Range Voting with respect to electoral control. Electoral control encompasses attempts from an election chair to alter the structure of an election in order to change the outcome. We show that a voting system resists a case of control by proving that performing that case of control is computationally infeasible. Range Voting is a natural extension of approval voting, and Normalized Range Voting is a simple variant which alters each vote to maximize the potential impact of each voter. We show that Normalized Range Voting has among the largest number of control resistances among natural voting systems.

The Usability Implications of Long Ballot Content for Paper, Electronic, and Mobile Voting Systems

Campbell, Bryan
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
ABSTRACT The Usability Implications of Long Ballot Content for Paper, Electronic, and Mobile Voting Systems by Bryan A. Campbell In the 2008 United States presidential election over 131 million ballots were cast. A substantial fraction of those ballots, approximately 23 million (17.5%), were cast as absentee ballots either domestically or by overseas and military citizens (EAC, 2008). These numbers demonstrate that a demand exists in the United States for less centralized voting procedures. One potential solution, allowing voters to cast ballots on Internet-enabled mobile devices, could potentially increase voter participation, reduce election administration costs, increase election flexibility, and provide the ability for voters to interact with familiar technology. Two experiments were conducted to examine the efficacy of a custom-designed mobile voting system as compared to more traditional voting technologies such as direct recording electronic and paper ballot voting systems. The results from experiment one suggest that displaying long ballot content as a single scrollable list may have distinct negative consequences on the effectiveness of electronic voting systems. Further, experiment one showed that candidates appearing below the fold...

Vote-By-Phone: Usability of an IVR Voting System with Adjustable Audio Speed

Holmes, Danae
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
Currently, there is a lack of usable, remote, and accessible voting technologies that must be addressed. An interactive voice response (IVR) system is one potential solution to this problem, due to its capability of remote use and its audio interface, which is very beneficial for those who are visually impaired. An IVR voting system developed by Holmes and Kortum (2011) was fitted with a synthetic voice and an audio speed adjustment feature for increased accessibility and usability, especially for blind voters (Piner, 2011). This system was tested on the three ISO 9241-11 usability metrics (ISO 9241-11, 1998), efficiency (time to complete a ballot), effectiveness (accuracy), and satisfaction (subjective usability) and compared with the usability of other voting methods in an attempt to determine its viability as a voting method. The usage of the accessibility feature was also examined. Results showed that the IVR voting system is comparable with other voting methods in terms of usability. Results also showed a noticeable portion of non-visually impaired participants utilized the accessibility feature.

CHILVote: The design and assessment of an accessible audio voting system

Piner, Gillian
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
The Help America Vote Act, passed into law in 2002, mandated that all polling places provide privacy and independence to all voters. Given this, many jurisdictions have been forced into making a choice between providing traditional voting methods (such as paper ballots) and offering newer electronic voting systems. Electronic voting machines have been seen as the solution to many usability and accessibility problems, but very little literature exists to indicate whether this is the case among specific populations such as disabled, elderly, and non-English speaking voters. An audio accessible voting interface for visually disabled voters (CHILVote) was designed using specifications from both the Voluntary Voting System Guidelines and a largescale survey of blind individuals conducted by Piner and Byrne [in proceedings of The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting, pp. 1686-1690 (2011)]. CHILVote’s interface utilizes the given design guidelines and includes use of a male text-to-speech voice, a flexible navigation structure, adjustable speed and volume, and an optional review section. Relatively low error rates (M=1.7%) and high SUS scores (M=89.5) among blind subjects are consistent with previous findings. Error rates and satisfaction are not significantly different than those of sighted voters using both paper and DRE...

System Usability and User Mental Models of Three Verifiable, End-to-end Voting Methods: Helios, Prêt à Voter, and Scantegrity II

Acemyan, Claudia Ziegler
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
There are many ways voting systems can be maliciously attacked so that election outcomes are altered. In response, voting security experts developed end-to-end (e2e), verifiable voting methods. These systems were intended to be secure, accurate, reliable, and transparent, while still preserving voter anonymity. What is not clear is if these complex, novel systems, which allow voters to check on their ballots after voting, will be usable by every voter. If voting methods are unusable, negative ramifications like disenfranchisement and altered election outcomes could occur. For this reason, system usability and voter mental models of e2e systems must be understood. To address this lacuna in voting research, three e2e methods representative of voter verifiable technologies were studied: Helios, Prêt à Voter, and Scantegrity II. Four studies were conducted. In the first study, baseline usability data was collected. By having participants vote with each system in a mock election, it was found that the systems were difficult, if not impossible, to use. Only 58% of voters were able to cast a ballot, and fewer were able to verify their vote. In the second study, the behavioral errors that led to ballot casting and vote verification event failures were identified...

Approval voting with endogenous candidates

Dellis, A.; Oak, M.
Fonte: Academic Press Inc Publicador: Academic Press Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
We present a formal model of political competition under approval voting which allows for endogenous candidate entry. Our analysis yields a number of novel insights. First, we develop a notion of sincere voting behavior under approval voting, called relative sincerity. We then show that the relatively sincere voting behavior is consistent with the strategic calculus of voting. Second, we show that in a one-dimensional model with distance preferences, equilibria in relatively sincere strategies and without spoiler candidates always generate outcomes close to the median voter. Moreover, approval voting satisfies Duverger's Law in the sense that there are at most two winning positions! Finally, we extend our analysis to arbitrary policy spaces. In the general setting, approval voting is shown to be susceptible to the same kinds of problems as the plurality rule, such as the possibility of non-majoritarian outcomes, failure to elect the Condorcet winner and existence of spoiler candidates.; Arnaud Dellis and Mandar P. Oak

Internet Voting One small click for the elector, One giant leap for the electoral process

Wood, Elise
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.37%
The use of the Internet in everyday life has transformed the nature of service provision in Australia. Increasingly, web-based interaction is used to deliver information and perform transactional functions with citizens. It is within this context that the debate for using the Internet to facilitate political elections has emerged. Some observers of the electoral process in Australia have called for Internet voting to be adopted so as to improve the accessibility and efficiency of the voting process. Others have argued against online voting as it is a difficult system to implement in a safe, secure and transparent way. These arguments continue to be waged in policy arenas as electoral stakeholders attempt to balance demands for voter-centric services with the democratic principles that underpin the electoral system. Notably absent in the policy discussions on Internet voting has been the views of the Australian public. This is problematic to the electoral process as the public is also a stakeholder to the , and their satisfaction with elections is an important and necessary mechanism for producing government accountability and responsiveness. As such, this report examines the public's perception of Internet voting through the frames of convenience...

Remote electronic voting : studying and improving Helios

Faria, Pedro Vasconcelos Castro Lopes
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 03/04/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.31%
Dissertação de mestrado em Engenharia Informática; A former North American President once said that the ballot is stronger than the bullet. In fact, the most civilized and organized way for a people express their opinion is by voting. However, there are people with bad intentions that affect voting and elections, being normal situations of coercion, collusion, fraud or forgery that disturb and cause alterations in the outcome of a vote. Thus, it becomes necessary to find ways to protect the voters, through vote secrecy and transparency, so that in end of a voting, democracy and justice prevail. Since the secret ballot papers until the electronic voting machines, passing through punched cards, technology in voting systems is evolving to ensure a greater security in elections, as well as greater efficiency, lower costs and other characteristics wanted in this type of systems. Nowadays, remote electronic voting is seen as the ultimate goal to achieve. The difficulty of developing such system is to ensure that it meets all the security requirements without infringing each other and without compromising the usability of the system itself. Thus, cryptography becomes an essential tool for obtaining security and integrity on electronic voting systems. This master thesis focuses on the world of electronic voting...

Undecidability of the existence of dictator for strongly candidate stable voting procedures in an infinite society and Cantor's diagonal argument

Tanaka,Yasuhito
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Matemática Aplicada e Computacional Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Matemática Aplicada e Computacional
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
The strong candidate stability theorem by Dutta et al. [ 4], one of the major theoremsof social choice theory, states that, with a finite number of voters, there exists a dictator for any voting procedure which satisfies strong candidate stability, strong unanimity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). This paper investigates a decidability problem of voting procedures in a society with an infinite number of individuals (infinite society) using Cantor's diagonal argument presented by Yanofsky [ 19] which is based on Lawvere [ 10]. We will show the following result. The problem whether a strongly candidate stable voting procedure has a dictator or has no dictator in an infinite society is undecidable. It is proved using the arguments similar to those used to prove an extended version of Cantor's theorem that there cannot be an onto function from (the set of natural numbers) to its power set (). This undecidability means that for any strongly candidate stable voting procedure we can not decide whether or not it has a dictator in finite steps by some program. A dictator of a voting procedure is a voter such that if he strictly prefers a candidate (denoted by x) to another candidate (denoted by y)...

Sincere Voting with Cardinal Preferences: Approval Voting

Ballester, Miguel Angel; Rey-Biel, Pedro
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
We discuss sincere voting when voters have cardinal preferences over alternatives. We interpret sincerity as opposed to strategic voting, and thus define sincerity as the optimal behaviour when conditions to vote strategically vanish. When voting mechanisms allow for only one message type we show that this optimal behaviour coincides with an intuitive and common definition of sincerity. For voting mechanisms allowing for multiple message types, such as approval voting (AV), there exists no conclusive definition of sincerity in the literature. We show that for AV, voters' optimal strategy tends to one of the existent definitions of sincerity, consisting in voting for those alternatives that yield more than the average of cardinal utilities.; Financial support from Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología through grants BEC 2005-00836, SEJ2005-01481/ECON and FEDER, Generalitat de Catalunya through grant 2005SGR00454 and Barcelona Economics-XREA is gratefully acknowledged.

Sincerity in Simple and Complex Voting Mechanisms

Ballester, Miguel Angel; Rey-Biel, Pedro
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo Formato: 173943 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
We discuss sincere voting when voters have cardinal preferences over alternatives. We interpret sincerity as opposed to strategic voting, and thus define sincerity as the optimal behavior when conditions to vote strategically diminish. When voting mechanisms allow for only one message type (simple voting mechanisms) we show that eliminating some conditions for strategic voting, individuals' optimal behavior coincides with an intuitive and common definition of sincerity. In order to obtain a precise definition of sincerity in voting mechanisms allowing for multiple message types (complex voting mechanisms) further restrictions on strategic voting are required. We illustrate our methodological approach using approval voting (AV) as a prime example of complex voting mechanisms for which no conclusive definition of sincerity exists in the literature.; Peer reviewed

Reclaiming the Vote: Assessing the Effectiveness of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Under the Obama Administration

Gunn, Lekisha
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 19/04/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY POLICY QUESTION Given historical accounts of discriminatory tactics directed against African Americans’ voting rights, did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 successfully incorporate African Americans in the policymaking process? BACKGROUND The Voting Rights Act of 1965 attempted to solidify the goals of Reconstruction by addressing the limitations of previous civil rights legislation. The VRA contains two important, yet controversial, provisions that, if removed, would drastically weaken its overall effectiveness. In 2006, President Bush signed the Fannie Lou Hamer, Rosa Parks, and Coretta Scott King Voting Rights Reauthorization and Amendments Act. Congress voted overwhelmingly (390-33 in the House and 98-0 in the Senate) to extend the two key provisions of the Voting Rights Act until 2031. Section 2 of the VRA prohibits “voting practices or procedures that discriminate on the basis of race, color, or membership in one of the minority groups defined by Section 4(f)(2). Section 5 prohibits any “covered” state or jurisdiction from modifying a “voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure with respect to voting” without prior clearance of the proposed change through the Attorney General or the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. This “preclearance” measure was a direct response to the thirteen Southern states that used their legislatures and municipalities to circumvent federal legislation. PROBLEM Modern-day civil rights legislation fails to address structural racism that continues to limit African Americans’ full participation in the policymaking process. This new racism...

Nil Points, Douze Points, and Everything In Between: An Analysis of Political Voting Bias in the Eurovision Song Contest

Boulos, Anna
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 12/04/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
Most viewers assume voting in the Eurovision Song Contest (ESC) is politically motivated, but few empirical studies have addressed political voting bias. If these claims have any validity then Eurovision voting results would provide meaningful insight into European public opinion and the degree of assimilation amongst contest participants. This study examines political voting bias by estimating what predicts votes from participating countries across voting systems using data from 1989 – 2012, as well as numerous song, performance, and country variables. The findings suggest voting is politically biased, although song popularity is significant and predictive of voting behavior. The results further indicate that contest participants form into smaller regional voting blocs and are statistically likely to vote for their neighbors. This study supports the claims of political voting and that Eurovision voting patterns are meaningful indicators of public opinion and inter-regional relations.

Economic Voting and Regionalism in South Korea: A Statistical Analysis of the 2007 Presidential Election

Lee, Sophie Jiseon
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
Although economic voting is a common phenomenon in most democracies, voters in young democracies do not necessarily vote based on the economy because at the early stage of democratization, the salience of political issues, regarding transition, overwhelms economic issues. Similarly, economic voting has not been observed in newly democratized South Korea since its first meaningful election in 1987. The absence of economic voting in Korea has widely been attributed to the overriding effect of regionalism, the phenomenon in which Jeolla and Gyeongsang natives vote for candidates born in their provinces. Against this backdrop, this paper argues that economic voting recently gained strength with 1) the consolidation of Korean democracy and 2) the traumatic experience of the IMF. In the meantime, the pre-democratic resource allocation political division, regionalism, has developed into the ideologies of native Jeolla and Gyeongsang voters today; liberal Jeolla natives tend to value distributive justice and freedom of speech, while conservative Gyeongsang natives value economic growth and security. To support this theory, the study provides empirical evidence for the rise of economic voting in Korea. The results of the empirical analysis are fourfold. First...

Computational Voting Theory: Game-Theoretic and Combinatorial Aspects

Xia, Lirong
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%

For at least two thousand years, voting has been used as one of the most effective ways to aggregate people's ordinal preferences. In the last 50 years, the rapid development of Computer Science has revolutionize every aspect of the world, including voting. This motivates us to study (1) conceptually, how computational thinking changes the traditional voting theory, and (2) methodologically, how to better use voting for preference/information aggregation with the help of Computer

Science.

My Ph.D. work seeks to investigate and foster the interplay between Computer Science and Voting Theory. In this thesis, I will discuss two specific research directions pursued in my Ph.D. work, one for each question asked above. The first focuses on investigating how computational thinking affects the game-theoretic aspects of voting. More precisely, I will discuss the rationale and possibility of using computational complexity to protect voting from a type of strategic behavior of the voters, called manipulation. The second studies a voting setting called Combinatorial Voting, where the set of alternative is exponentially large and has a combinatorial structure. I will focus on the design and analysis of novel voting rules for combinatorial voting that balance computational efficiency and the expressivity of the voting language...

Electronic voting system for RIT Student Government elections

Maeung, Sungho
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Masters Project Formato: 525660 bytes; 114091 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
Recent studies argue that traditional voting systems do not encourage increased voter participation due to constraints in time, location, accuracy, and, accessibility. To ensure the rights of a democratic society and to enhance and secure the voting rights of citizens by surpassing all the limitations of the traditional voting system, the development of an electronic voting system is an attractive solution. Research on secure electronic voting systems has been conducted for at least the past two decades. We propose to develop an electronic voting system, called the Rochester Institute of Technology Student Government Election System (SGEES) based on Damgard et al. This voting scheme will use efficient honest-verifier zero-knowledge, which, unlike previous election schemes, are both easy to compute and to verify for both voters and authorities. Our proposed electronic voting system will allow convenient and confident voting while maintaining the accuracy of election results. This project will address the security requirements for electronic voting over the Internet, including privacy, completeness, soundness, receipt-freeness, and universal verifiability. In particular, we will research the feasibility of the voting scheme and protocols by studying three related cryptographical theories: homomorphic encryption...

Range voting is resistant to control

Menton, Curtis
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
Social choice theory is concerned with developing and evaluating voting systems, both for the use of political and organizational elections and for use as decision making process for multiagent systems. Particularly in the context of multiagent systems, computational resistance to various types of control has become a desired property of a voting system. Though manipulative actions may always be possible, strong computational barriers to efficient control can give us sufficient confidence in the integrity of an election. Range Voting is a natural extension of approval voting that is resistant to a large number of cases of control. In particular, the variant Normalized Range Voting has among the largest number of control resistances among natural voting systems.

Compulsory Voting, Party Stability and Electoral Advantage in Australia

Mackerras, Malcolm; McAllister, Ian
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
Australia has the oldest and probably the most efficient system of compulsory voting among the established democracies. The main reason for its introduction in the 1920s was to increase turnout, a goal it has achieved without difficulty. Compulsory voting has also made a major contribution to the long-term stability of the party system. However, the compulsory voting system has had two disadvantages. As in other countries which have introduced compulsory voting, historically there has been a very high level of invalid votes, although the levels are now less than they were prior to 1984, as a result of various electoral reforms. Second, the system disadvantages rightwing parties and advantages leftwing and minor parties. Survey evidence from the 1996 federal election suggests compulsory voting reduced the Liberal-National coalition's first preference vote by some 5 per cent, compared to the coalition's expected vote under a voluntary system. If the system is ever removed, it is likely to be for this reason, rather than because of any difficulties in administering it, or because of any philosophical objection to compulsion among voters or politicians.