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Analysis of genetic lineages and their correlation with virulence genes in enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates from root canal and systemic infections

Penas, Pâmela Pontes; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; Gomes, Brenda P. F. A.; Endo, Marcos; Pignatari, Antonio C. C.; Bauab, Karen C.; Pinheiro, Ericka Tavares
Fonte: American Association of Endodontists; New York Publicador: American Association of Endodontists; New York
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Introduction: Enterococcus faecalis is a member of the mammalian gastrointestinal microbiota but has been considered a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. In the oral cavity, it is commonly detected from root canals of teeth with failed endodontic treatment. However, little is known about the virulence and genetic relatedness among E. faecalis isolates from different clinical sources. This study compared the presence of enterococcal virulence factors among root canal strains and clinical isolates from hospitalized patients to identify virulent clusters of E. faecalis. Methods: Multilocus sequence typing analysis was used to determine genetic lineages of 40 E. faecalis clinical isolates from different sources. Virulence clusters were determined by evaluating capsule (cps) locus polymorphisms, pathogenicity island gene content, and antibiotic resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. Results: The clinical isolates from hospitalized patients formed a phylogenetically separate group and were mostly grouped in the clonal complex 2, which is a known virulent cluster of E. faecalis that has caused infection outbreaks globally. The clonal complex 2 group comprised capsule-producing strains harboring multiple antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity island genes. On the other hand...

Avaliação da virulência de isolados suínos de Mycobacterium avium no Brasil caracterizados pelo método de RFLP; Evaluation of virulence of swine Mycobacterium avium isolates in Brazil characterized by RFLP method

Suehiro, Rosana Tabata
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2008 PT
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Dada a existência de quatro famílias molecularmente distintas de estirpes de Mycobacterium avium isoladas de suínos da região Sul do Brasil e a verificação de diferentes virulências em hamsters de um representante por família, o presente trabalho objetiva relacionar a virulência de isolados de M. avium aos seus perfis genéticos obtidos em experimentos de RFLP. Foram selecionados três representantes por família que foram inoculados pela via intraperitoneal em hamsters distribuídos em doze grupos (cada grupo recebeu uma estirpe diferente). Foi mantido um grupo controle que recebeu solução salina estéril pela mesma via. Após 16 dias da inoculação, os animais foram eutanasiados; os baços foram colhidos, pesados, macerados, suspendidos em solução salina estéril e diluídos. Cada uma das diluições foi semeada em duplicata em placas com meio de Petragnani, que foram incubadas a 37°C. Após 30 dias de incubação, foram realizadas as contagens de UFC e os resultados foram expressos em UFC de M. avium por grama de baço. As famílias genéticas apresentaram capacidade de virulência semelhante (p=0,49). As estirpes dentro das famílias PIG B e PIG D não apresentaram diferença na virulência (p=0,15 e p=0,87, respectivamente). Dentro da família PIG A...

Virulence profile of ten Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates: association with morphologic and genetic patterns

Kurokawa, Cilmery S.; Lopes, Catalina R.; Sugizaki, Maria F.; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Franco, Marcello F.; Peraçoli, Maria T. S.
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 257-262
ENG
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Dez isolados de P. brasiliensis foram avaliados em relação à patogenicidade por inoculação intravenosa em camundongos e associação com morfologia miceliana e padrão genético por amplificação genônica do DNA polimórfico (RAPD). A patogenicidade, avaliada por recuperação de fungos viáveis a partir de tecido pulmonar e por lesões histopatológicas em diferentes órgãos, mostrou que os isolados apresentaram quatro graus de virulência: alta virulência, virulência intermediária, baixa virulência e não virulência. A técnica de RAPD agrupou os isolados em dois grupos com 56% de similaridade genética. Amostras com baixa virulência Pb265 ou não virulência Pb192 apresentaram morfologia glabra/cerebriforme e alta similaridade genética (98,7%) quando comparadas com os outros isolados estudados. O mesmo foi observado com os isolados Bt79 e Bt83, que compartilharam 96% de semelhança genética, colônias cotonosas e alta virulência. Essa técnica pode discriminar apenas isolados com morfologia glabra da cotonosa e com alta e baixa virulência. Isolados com virulência intermediária como Pb18...

A theoretical model of the evolution of virulence in sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS

Coutinho,FAB; Massad,E; Menezes,RX; Burattini,MN
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/1999 EN
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INTRODUCTION: The evolution of virulence in host-parasite relationships has been the subject of several publications. In the case of HIV virulence, some authors suggest that the evolution of HIV virulence correlates with the rate of acquisition of new sexual partners. In contrast some other authors argue that the level of HIV virulence is independent of the sexual activity of the host population. METHODS: Provide a mathematical model for the study of the potential influence of human sexual behaviour on the evolution of virulence of HIV is provided. RESULTS: The results indicated that, when the probability of acquisition of infection is a function both of the sexual activity and of the virulence level of HIV strains, the evolution of HIV virulence correlates positively with the rate of acquisition of new sexual partners. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that in the case of a host population with a low (high) rate of exchange of sexual partners the evolution of HIV virulence is such that the less (more) virulent strain prevails.

Virulence parameters in the characterization of strains of Entamoeba histolytica

Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/1997 EN
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Differences in virulence of strains of Entamoeba histolytica have long been detected by various experimental assays, both in vivo and in vitro. Discrepancies in the strains characterization have been arisen when different biological assays are compared. In order to evaluate different parameters of virulence in the strains characterization, five strains of E. histolytica, kept under axenic culture, were characterized in respect to their, capability to induce hamster liver abscess, erythrophagocytosis rate and cytopathic effect upon VERO cells. It was found significant correlation between in vitro biological assays, but not between in vivo and in vitro assays. Good correlation was found between cytopathic effect and the mean number of uptaken erythrocytes, but not with percentage of phagocytic amoebae, showing that great variability can be observed in the same assay, according to the variable chosen. It was not possible to correlate isoenzyme and restriction fragment pattern with virulence indexes since all studied strains presented pathogenic patterns. The discordant results observed in different virulence assays suggests that virulence itself may not the directly assessed. What is in fact assessed are different biological characteristics or functions of the parasite more than virulence itself. These characteristics or functions may be related or not with pathogenic mechanisms occurring in the development of invasive amoebic disease

Virulence profile of ten Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates: association with morphologic and genetic patterns

Kurokawa,Cilmery S.; Lopes,Catalina R.; Sugizaki,Maria F.; Kuramae,Eiko E.; Franco,Marcello F.; Peraçoli,Maria T. S.
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2005 EN
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Ten isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were examined for differences in virulence in outbred mice intravenously inoculated with the fungus, associated with mycelial morphology, and genetic patterns measured by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Virulence was evaluated by viable yeast cell recovery from lungs and demonstration of histopathologic lesions in different organs. The results showed that the isolates presented four virulence degrees: high virulence, intermediate, low and non-virulence. RAPD clustered the isolates studied in two main groups with 56% of genetic similarity. Strains with low virulence, Pb265 or the non-virulent, Pb192, showed glabrous/cerebriform morphology and high genetic similarity (98.7%) when compared to the other isolates studied. The same was observed with Bt79 and Bt83 that shared 96% genetic similarity, cottony colonies and high virulence. The RAPD technique could only discriminate P. brasiliensis isolates according to glabrous/cerebriform or cottony colonies, and also high from low virulence strains. Isolates with intermediate virulence such as Pb18, Pb18B6, Bt32 and Bt56 showed variability in their similarity coefficient suggesting that RAPD was able to detect genetic variability in this fungal specie. Virulence profile of P. brasiliensis demonstrated that both mycelial morphologic extreme phenotypes may be associated with fungal virulence and their in vitro subculture time. Thus...

Molecular characterization of virulence factors in Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from fish

Oliveira,Samira T.L.; Veneroni-Gouveia,Gisele; Costa,Mateus M.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 EN
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Multiple factors can be involved in the virulence processes of Aeromonas hydrophila. The objective of the present paper was to verify the presence of aerolysin, hidrolipase, elastase and lipase virulence genes through the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in A. hydrophila isolates obtained from fish of the São Francisco River Valley, and to evaluate virulence according to the presence of these genes in Nile tilapia fingerlings. One hundred and fourteen isolates from the bacteria were used. DNA was heat extracted and PCR undertaken using specific primers described in the literature. For in vivo tests Nile tilapia fingerlings were used. From the PCR tests, negative isolates for all genes tested were selected, positive isolates for two genes (aerolysin and elastase) and positive for the four genes tested. These were inoculated at a concentration of 10(8) UFC/ml into the tilapias, considered as treatments; another group of animals was used as control (with inoculation of saline solution). In all, 12 distinct standards regarding the presence of virulence factors in isolates from A. hydrophila, were observed. Of the 114 isolates analyzed, 100 (87.72%) presented at least one of the virulence factors under study. The virulence factors were widely distributed among the A. hydrophila isolates. Aerolysin was the most frequent virulence factor present in the isolates analyzed. A. hydrophila led to the mortality of the Nile tilapia fingerlings...

Detection of virulence-associated genes in Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from chicken in South of Brazil

Borges,Karen A.; Furian,Thales Q.; Borsoi,Anderlise; Moraes,Hamilton L.S.; Salle,Carlos T.P.; Nascimento,Vladimir P.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
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Salmonella spp. are considered the main agents of foodborne disease and Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the most frequently isolated serovars worldwide. The virulence of Salmonella spp. and their interaction with the host are complex processes involving virulence factors to overcome host defenses. The purpose of this study was to detect virulence genes in S. Enteritidis isolates from poultry in the South of Brazil. PCR-based assays were developed in order to detect nine genes (lpfA, agfA, sefA, invA, hilA, avrA, sopE, sivH and spvC) associated with the virulence in eighty-four isolates of S. Enteritidis isolated from poultry. The invA, hilA, sivH, sefA and avrA genes were present in 100% of the isolates; lpfA and sopE were present in 99%; agfA was present in 96%; and the spvC gene was present in 92%. It was possible to characterize the isolates with four different genetic profiles (P1, P2, P3 and P4), as it follows: P1, positive for all genes; P2, negative only for spvC; P3, negative for agfA; and P4, negative for lpfA, spvC and sopE. The most prevalent profile was P1, which was present in 88% of the isolates. Although all isolates belong to the same serovar, it was possible to observe variations in the presence of these virulence-associated genes between different isolates. The characterization of the mechanisms of virulence circulating in the population of Salmonella Enteritidis is important for a better understanding of its biology and pathogenicity. The frequency of these genes and the establishment of genetic profiles can be used to determine patterns of virulence. These patterns...

Assessing the diversity of the virulence potential of Escherichia coli isolated from bacteremia in São Paulo, Brazil

Santos,A.C.M.; Zidko,A.C.M.; Pignatari,A.C.; Silva,R.M.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 EN
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Most of the knowledge of the virulence determinants of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) comes from studies with human strains causing urinary tract infections and neonatal meningitis and animal strains causing avian colibacillosis. In this research, we analyzed the phylogenetic background, the presence of 20 ExPEC virulence factors, and the intrinsic virulence potential of 74 E. coli strains isolated in São Paulo, Brazil, from 74 hospitalized patients (43 males and 31 females) with unknown-source bacteremia. Unlike other places in the world, the bacteremic strains originated equally from phylogroups B2 (35%) and D (30%). A great variability in the profiles of virulence factors was noted in this survey. Nevertheless, 61% of the strains were classified as ExPEC, meaning that they possessed intrinsic virulent potential. Accordingly, these strains presented high virulence factor scores (average of 8.7), and were positively associated with 12 of 17 virulence factors detected. On the contrary, the non-ExPEC strains, isolated from 39% of the patients, presented a generally low virulence capacity (medium virulence factor score of 3.1), and were positively associated with only the colicin cvaC gene. These results show the importance of discriminating E. coli isolates that possess characteristics of true pathogens from those that may be merely opportunistic in order to better understand the virulence mechanisms involved in extraintestinal E. coli infections. Such knowledge is essential for epidemiological purposes as well as for development of control measures aimed to minimize the incidence of these life-threatening and costly infections.

Isofemale Line Analysis of Meloidogyne incognita Virulence to Cowpea Resistance Gene Rk

Petrillo, M. D.; Roberts, P. A.
Fonte: Society of Nematologists Publicador: Society of Nematologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2005 EN
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Isofemale lines (IFL) from single egg masses were studied for genetic variation in Meloidogyne incognita isolates avirulent and virulent to the resistance gene Rk in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). In parental isolates cultured on susceptible and resistant cowpea, the virulent isolate contained 100% and the avirulent isolate 7% virulent lineages. Virulence was selected from the avirulent isolate within eight generations on resistant cowpea (lineage selection). In addition, virulence was selected from avirulent females (individual selection). Virulence differed (P ≤ 0.05) both within and between cohorts of IFL cultured for up to 27 generations on susceptible or resistant cowpea. Distinct virulence profiles were observed among IFL. Some remained avirulent on susceptible plants and became extinct on resistant plants; some remained virulent on resistant and susceptible plants; some changed from avirulent to virulent on resistant plants; and others changed from virulent to avirulent on susceptible plants. Also, some IFL increased in virulence on susceptible plants. Single descent lines from IFL showed similar patterns of virulence for up to six generations. These results revealed considerable genetic variation in virulence in a mitotic parthenogenetic nematode population. The frequencies of lineages with stable or changeable virulence and avirulence phenotypes determined the overall virulence potential of the population.

Étude du rôle spécifique du système à deux composantes PhoBR et du système Pst (phosphate specific transport) dans la virulence d’une souche pathogène aviaire de Escherichia coli (APEC)

Bertrand, Nicolas
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Les souches d’Escherichia coli pathogènes aviaires (APEC) sont responsables d’infections respiratoires et de septicémies chez la volaille. Le régulon Pho est contrôlé conjointement par le système à deux composantes PhoBR et par le système de transport spécifique du phosphate (Pst). Afin de déterminer l’implication de PhoBR et du système Pst dans la pathogenèse de la souche APEC O78 χ7122, différentes souche mutantes phoBR et pst ont été testées pour divers traits de virulence in vivo et in vitro. Les mutations menant à l’activation constitutive du régulon Pho rendaient les souches plus sensibles au peroxyde d’hydrogène et au sérum de lapin comparativement à la souche sauvage. De plus, l’expression des fimbriae de type 1 était affectée chez ces souches. L’ensemble des mutants Pho-constitutifs étaient aussi significativement moins virulents que la souche sauvage dans un modèle de coinfection de poulet, incluant les souches avec un système Pst fonctionnel. De plus, l’inactivation du régulateur PhoB chez un mutant Pst restaure la virulence. Par ailleurs, l’inactivation de PhoB n’affecte pas la virulence de la souche χ7122 dans notre modèle. De manière intéressante, le degré d’atténuation des souches mutantes corrèle directement avec le niveau d’activation du régulon Pho. Globalement...

Étude de prévalence et associations des gènes de virulence et résistance aux antimicrobiens d’Escherichia coli de la flore intestinale du poulet sain

Kaboré, Kiswendsida Paul
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Les Escherichia coli pathogènes de la volaille (APEC) font partie des E. coli extra-intestinaux pathogènes (ExPEC) et seraient un réservoir possible de gènes de virulence et de résistance aux antimicrobiens (RAM) des ExPEC chez l’humain. L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer l’effet d’un prébiotique et d’un mélange d’acide organique et d’huiles essentielles encapsulés sur la prévalence des gènes de virulence des ExPEC et de RAM, ainsi que les associations entre ces gènes chez E. coli de l’intestin du poulet sain. Des échantillons de contenus caecaux de poulets de 29 jours d’âge ayant reçu un de ces ingrédients alimentaires comparativement à des témoins ont été analysés pour la présence des gènes de virulence iucD, tsh, papC et des gènes de RAM blaTEM, blaSHV, tetA, tetC, blaCMY-2, aadA1, aac3 par PCR. La prévalence d’iucD était supérieure dans le groupe témoin comparativement aux groupes «prébiotique» et «acide organique» et la prévalence de papC était affectée dans le groupe «acide organique». La prévalence d’isolats d’E.coli positifs pour blaCMY-2 était supérieure dans le groupe témoin comparée aux groupes «prébiotique» et «acide organique», tel que démontré par la technique d’hybridation de l’ADN sur HGMF (Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter). De plus...

Rôle du régulateur Fur et des petits ARN non codants RfrA et RfrB dans l’homéostasie du fer et la virulence de Salmonella

Leclerc, Jean-Mathieu
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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36.66%
La régulation de l’homéostasie du fer est cruciale chez les bactéries. Chez Salmonella, l’expression des gènes d’acquisition et du métabolisme du fer au moment approprié est importante pour sa survie et sa virulence. Cette régulation est effectuée par la protéine Fur et les petits ARN non codants RfrA et RfrB. Le rôle de ces régulateurs est d’assurer que le niveau de fer soit assez élevé pour la survie et le métabolisme de Salmonella, et assez faible pour éviter l’effet toxique du fer en présence d’oxygène. Les connaissances concernant le rôle de ces régulateurs ont été principalement obtenues par des études chez S. Typhimurium, un sérovar généraliste causant une gastro-entérite chez les humains. Très peu d’informations sont connues sur le rôle de ces régulateurs chez S. Typhi, un sérovar humain-spécifique responsable de la fièvre typhoïde. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer les rôles de Fur, RfrA et RfrB dans l’homéostasie du fer et la virulence de Salmonella, et de démontrer qu’ils ont une implication distincte chez les sérovars Typhi et Typhimurium. Premièrement, Fur, RfrA et RfrB régulent l’homéostasie du fer de Salmonella. Les résultats de cette étude ont démontré que Fur est requis pour la résistance au stress oxydatif et pour une croissance optimale dans différentes conditions in vitro. La sensibilité du mutant fur est due à l’expression des petits ARN RfrA et RfrB...

RegR, a global LacI/GalR family regulator, modulates virulence and competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae

Chapuy-Regaud, S.; Ogunniyi, A.; Diallo, N.; Huet, Y.; Desnottes, J.F.; Paton, J.; Escaich, S.; Trombe, M.C.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
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The homolactic and catalase-deficient pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is not only tolerant to oxygen but requires the activity of its NADH oxidase, Nox, to develop optimal virulence and competence for genetic transformation. In this work, we show that the global regulator RegR is also involved in these traits. Genetic dissection revealed that RegR regulates competence and the expression of virulence factors, including hyaluronidase. In bacteria grown in vitro, RegR represses hyaluronidase. At neutral pH, it increases adherence to A549 epithelial cells, and at alkaline pH, it acts upstream of the CiaRH two-component signaling system to activate competence. These phenotypes are not associated with changes in antibiotic resistance, central metabolism, and carbohydrate utilization. Although the RegR0 (where 0 indicates the loss of the protein) mutation is sufficient to attenuate experimental virulence of strain 23477 in mice, the introduction of an additional hyl0 (where 0 indicates the loss of function) mutation in the RegR0 strain 23302 dramatically reduces its virulence. This indicates that residual virulence of the RegR0 Hyl+ derivative is due to hyaluronidase and supports the dual role of RegR in virulence. This LacI/GalR regulator...

Virulence factors associated with antimicrobial resistance determinants among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp

Calhau, Vera Mónica Tavares Vinhas
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
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Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. are important pathogens, responsible for several infectious diseases. These members of Enterobacteriaceae family are of particularly concerning due to a high increase in their resistance to antimicrobials. The detection of more resistant strains brings into question if this enhancement of resistance may be accompanied by an increase in virulence. If so, extremely pathogenic strains would start to emerge, and no antibiotic therapy would be available to fight them, leading to serious public health problems. Thus, the main objective of this research was to understand the relation between virulence and resistance among E. coli collected from different origins and Klebsiella spp.. The interplay between resistance and virulence was studied among Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). E. coli strains are classified into four main phylogenetic groups. More virulent strains belong mainly to phylogroup B2 and, to a lesser extent, to group D, and most of the commensal strains belong to groups A and B1. During the characterization of strains, a new genotype was discovered in the Clermont method, which is used to assess phylogenetic groups. This yjaA/ tspE4.C2 genotype was assigned to phylogroup B2. Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are mobile genetic elements that carry virulence genes and may increase the virulence of bacteria. PAI I536...

Le profil de virulence d' Escherichia coli intra-utérin permettrait de prédire la métrite postpartum chez la vache laitière

Ndongo Kassé, Flavien
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Les objectifs de cette étude ont été de : (1) déterminer s’il existe une association entre la présence intra-utérine d'Escherichia coli dans la 1 ère semaine postpartum et le développement de la métrite postpartum, (2) déterminer s’il y a une association entre les gènes de virulence d'E. coli et la métrite postpartum, et (3) d'évaluer si les analyses bactériologiques (bactéries et gènes de virulence d'E. coli) pourraient prédire la métrite postpartum chez la vache laitière. Des écouvillons utérins ont été prélevés dans la première semaine postpartum sur 486 vaches de race Holstein et soumis au laboratoire pour détection de E. coli. Les gènes de virulence d'E. coli ont été identifiés par la technique d'hybridation des sondes radioactives. Un total de 252 vaches (52%) ont été positives à E. coli et 67 vaches positives à la métrite postpartum (13,7%). Les vaches positives à E. coli intra-utérin dès la première semaine postpartum avaient un risque 2,6 fois plus élevé de développer la métrite postpartum que les vaches sans E. coli. La plupart des E. coli possédaient un ou plusieurs gènes des E. coli d'origine extra-intestinale (ExPEC) dont fimH (89%), HlyE (87%) et iss (70%). Parmi les autres gènes ExPEC...

Étude de la virulence et de la résistance aux antibiotiques des Staphylococcus aureus résistants à la méthicilline chez le porc à l'abattoir au Québec

Pelletier-Jacques, Geneviève
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Depuis quelques années et dans plusieurs pays, un nouveau type de Staphylococcus aureus résistant à la méthicilline (SARM), le séquence type (ST) 398, a été fréquemment retrouvé chez les porcs et chez les fermiers en contact avec ces porcs. Au Canada, très peu d’informations sont disponibles concernant le SARM d’origine porcine. Une première étude dans notre laboratoire a permis de récolter 107 isolats de SARM provenant de deux abattoirs porcins du Québec. Le présent travail vise à caractériser les gènes de virulence et de résistance aux antibiotiques de ces SARM, d’étudier leur formation de biofilm en relation avec la spécificité du groupe agr et de vérifier la localisation plasmidique et la transférabilité de ces gènes à des souches de SARM d’origine humaine. Plusieurs souches ont démontré différents patrons phénotypiques de résistance aux antibiotiques. Vingt-quatre souches représentatives de ces isolats ont été soumises à une caractérisation plus approfondie par une étude génotypique en utilisant une biopuce à ADN et un grand nombre de gènes de virulence a été détecté codant pour des entérotoxines staphylococcales, des leucocidines, des hémolysines, des auréolysines, des facteurs d’immunoévasion...

Analysis of the virulence of Candida albicans biofilms developed under different conditions = : Análise da virulência de biofilmes de Candida albicans desenvolvidos sob diferentes condições; Análise da virulência de biofilmes de Candida albicans desenvolvidos sob diferentes condições

Yuri Wanderley Cavalcanti
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/02/2015 PT
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A prevalência das infecções por Candida é elevada; logo, melhor compreensão dos mecanismos de desenvolvimento do biofilme é necessária para a redução da virulência e apropriado manejo clínico. Objetivou-se analisar a virulência de biofilmes de Candida albicans desenvolvidos sob diferentes condições. O papel das superfícies de biomateriais, da película salivar, e do estágio de desenvolvimento dos biofilmes foi avaliado no Capítulo 1. A influência da presença de outros microrganismos na virulência de C. albicans e na interação com o epitélio foi avaliada no Capítulo 2. O papel da atmosfera e da população bacteriana dos biofilmes foi investigado no Capítulo 3. No Capítulo 1, biofilmes de C. albicans foram desenvolvidos sobre discos de resina acrílica e titânio recobertos com película de saliva, ou de saliva com plasma. A superfície dos materiais foi analisada quanto a rugosidade e energia livre de superfície (ELS). Avaliou-se o número de microrganismos viáveis, a concentração de DNA, a atividade metabólica, a expressão de fatores de virulência e a estrutura dos biofilmes. Não houve diferenças quanto a rugosidade das superfícies. A película minimizou as diferenças entre a ELS dos materiais...

Perfil de virulência de dez isolados de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: associação com morfologia e padrão genético; Virulence profile of ten Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates: association with morphologic and genetic patterns

Kurokawa, Cilmery S.; Lopes, Catalina R.; Sugizaki, Maria F.; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Franco, Marcello F.; Peraçoli, Maria T. S.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2005 ENG
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Dez isolados de P. brasiliensis foram avaliados em relação à patogenicidade por inoculação intravenosa em camundongos e associação com morfologia miceliana e padrão genético por amplificação genônica do DNA polimórfico (RAPD). A patogenicidade, avaliada por recuperação de fungos viáveis a partir de tecido pulmonar e por lesões histopatológicas em diferentes órgãos, mostrou que os isolados apresentaram quatro graus de virulência: alta virulência, virulência intermediária, baixa virulência e não virulência. A técnica de RAPD agrupou os isolados em dois grupos com 56% de similaridade genética. Amostras com baixa virulência Pb265 ou não virulência Pb192 apresentaram morfologia glabra/cerebriforme e alta similaridade genética (98,7%) quando comparadas com os outros isolados estudados. O mesmo foi observado com os isolados Bt79 e Bt83, que compartilharam 96% de semelhança genética, colônias cotonosas e alta virulência. Essa técnica pode discriminar apenas isolados com morfologia glabra da cotonosa e com alta e baixa virulência. Isolados com virulência intermediária como Pb18, Pb18B6, Bt32 e Bt54 mostraram variabilidade no coeficiente de similaridade, sugerindo que a técnica de RAPD permite mostrar variabilidade genética nessa espécie fúngica. O estudo do perfil de virulência das amostras de P. brasiliensis demonstrou que os dois fenótipos extremos de morfologia miceliana podem ser associados com a virulência do fungo e com o tempo de subcultivo in vitro. Assim...

A theoretical model of the evolution of virulence in sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS

Coutinho,FAB; Massad,E; Menezes,RX; Burattini,MN
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/1999 EN
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INTRODUCTION: The evolution of virulence in host-parasite relationships has been the subject of several publications. In the case of HIV virulence, some authors suggest that the evolution of HIV virulence correlates with the rate of acquisition of new sexual partners. In contrast some other authors argue that the level of HIV virulence is independent of the sexual activity of the host population. METHODS: Provide a mathematical model for the study of the potential influence of human sexual behaviour on the evolution of virulence of HIV is provided. RESULTS: The results indicated that, when the probability of acquisition of infection is a function both of the sexual activity and of the virulence level of HIV strains, the evolution of HIV virulence correlates positively with the rate of acquisition of new sexual partners. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that in the case of a host population with a low (high) rate of exchange of sexual partners the evolution of HIV virulence is such that the less (more) virulent strain prevails.