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A hypothesis for explaining single outbreaks (like the Black Death in European cities) of vector-borne infections

BURATTINI, M. N.; COUTINHO, F. A. B.; MASSAD, E.
Fonte: CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE Publicador: CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
We propose a mechanism by which single outbreaks of vector-borne infections can happen even when the value of the basic reproduction number, R(o), of the infection is below one. With this hypothesis we have shown that dynamical models simulations demonstrate that the arrival of a relatively small (with respect to the host population) number of infected vectors can trigger a short-lived epidemic but with a huge number of cases. These episodes are characterized by a sudden outbreak in a previously virgin area that last from weeks to a few months, and then disappear without leaving vestiges. The hypothesis proposed in this paper to explain those single outbreaks of vector-borne infections, even when total basic reproduction number, Ro, is less than one (which explain the fact that those infections fail to establish themselves at endemic levels), is that the vector-to-host component of Ro is greater than one and that a sufficient amount of infected vectors are imported to the vulnerable area, triggering the outbreak. We tested the hypothesis by performing numerical simulations that reproduce the observed outbreaks of chikungunya in Italy in 2007 and the plague in Florence in 1348. The theory proposed provides an explanation for isolated outbreaks of vector-borne infections...

Estimation of R(0) from the initial phase of an outbreak of a vector-borne infection

MASSAD, E.; COUTINHO, F. A. B.; BURATTINI, M. N.; AMAKU, M.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.18%
The magnitude of the basic reproduction ratio R(0) of an epidemic can be estimated in several ways, namely, from the final size of the epidemic, from the average age at first infection, or from the initial growth phase of the outbreak. In this paper, we discuss this last method for estimating R(0) for vector-borne infections. Implicit in these models is the assumption that there is an exponential phase of the outbreaks, which implies that in all cases R(0) > 1. We demonstrate that an outbreak is possible, even in cases where R(0) is less than one, provided that the vector-to-human component of R(0) is greater than one and that a certain number of infected vectors are introduced into the affected population. This theory is applied to two real epidemiological dengue situations in the southeastern part of Brazil, one where R(0) is less than one, and other one where R(0) is greater than one. In both cases, the model mirrors the real situations with reasonable accuracy.

Surveillance for zoonotic vector-borne infections using sick dogs from southeastern Brazil

Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Schwartz, Denise Saretta; De Morais, Helio Silva Autran; Breitschwerdt, Edward Bealmear
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 689-697
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.3%
For many vector-borne organisms, dogs can be used as sentinels to estimate the risk of human infection. The objective of this study was to use dogs as sentinels for multiple vector-borne organisms in order to evaluate the potential for human infection with these agents in southeastern Brazil. Blood from 198 sick dogs with clinicopathological abnormalities consistent with tick-borne infections were selected at the São Paulo State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Botucatu and tested for DNA and/or antibodies against specific vector-borne pathogens. At least one organism was detected in 88% of the dogs, and Ehrlichia canis DNA was amplified from 78% of the blood samples. Bartonella spp. seroreactivity was found in 3.6%. Leishmania chagasi antibodies were detected in 1% of the dogs. There was no serological or polymerase chain reaction evidence of infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Rickettsia rickettsii. The full E. canis 16S rRNA gene sequence of one of the Brazilian strains obtained in this study was identical to the causative agent of human ehrlichiosis in Venezuela. Ehrlichia canis may pose a human health hazard and may be undiagnosed in southeastern Brazil...

Study on coinfecting vector-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

Gonçalves,Luiz Ricardo; Filgueira,Kilder Dantas; Ahid,Silvia Maria Mendes; Pereira,Josivânia Soares; Vale,André Mendes do; Machado,Rosangela Zacarias; André,Marcos Rogério
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs.

Global Change and Human Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases

Sutherst, Robert W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes are occurring more rapidly on a global scale and are having significant effects on vector-borne diseases. History is invaluable as a pointer to future risks, but direct extrapolation is no longer possible because the climate is changing. Researchers are therefore embracing computer simulation models and global change scenarios to explore the risks. Credible ranking of the extent to which different vector-borne diseases will be affected awaits a rigorous analysis. Adaptation to the changes is threatened by the ongoing loss of drugs and pesticides due to the selection of resistant strains of pathogens and vectors. The vulnerability of communities to the changes in impacts depends on their adaptive capacity, which requires both appropriate technology and responsive public health systems. The availability of resources in turn depends on social stability...

Concurrent Infections with Vector-Borne Pathogens Associated with Fatal Hemolytic Anemia in a Cattle Herd in Switzerland

Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Meli, Marina L.; Dreher, Ute M.; Gönczi, Enikö; Deplazes, Peter; Braun, Ueli; Engels, Monika; Schüpbach, Jörg; Jörger, Kaspar; Thoma, Rudolf; Griot, Christian; Stärk, Katharina D. C.; Willi, Barbara; Schmidt, Joseph; Kocan,
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Bovine anaplasmosis is a vector-borne disease that results in substantial economic losses in other parts of the world but so far not in northern Europe. In August 2002, a fatal disease outbreak was reported in a large dairy herd in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Diseased animals experienced fever, anorexia, agalactia, and depression. Anemia, ectoparasite infestation, and, occasionally, hemoglobinuria were observed. To determine the roles of vector-borne pathogens and to characterize the disease, blood samples were collected from all 286 animals: 50% of the cows were anemic. Upon microscopic examination of red blood cells, Anaplasma marginale inclusion bodies were found in 47% of the cows. The infection was confirmed serologically and by molecular methods. Interestingly, we also found evidence of infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, large Babesia and Theileria spp., and Mycoplasma wenyonii. The last two species had not previously been described in Switzerland. Anemia was significantly associated with the presence of the infectious agents detected, with the exception of A. phagocytophilum. Remarkably, concurrent infections with up to five infectious vector-borne agents were detected in 90% of the ill animals tested by PCR. We concluded that A. marginale was the major cause of the hemolytic anemia...

Neglected Infections of Poverty in the United States of America

Hotez, Peter J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/06/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV), toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US–Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections...

Vector-borne diseases in man: a general review

Kershaw, W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1963 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.07%
The author traces the historical growth of the idea that animals, especially insects, can act as vectors of human diseases. The development of insecticides of great efficacy raised hopes that such insect-borne diseases might be rapidly and easily controlled, but the appearance of insecticide resistance has, in many instances, proved a stumbling-block. Moreover, the discovery of animal reservoirs of vector-borne infections has shown the situation to be more complex than was at first thought. Before control measures can be placed on a sound scientific basis, comprehensive research is needed on insect physiology, toxicology, and vector behaviour and ecology. The author stresses the importance of making a detailed study of the ecological relations of all creatures in a particular environment before applying measures that may upset the balance.

Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea

Lim, Sun; Irwin, Peter J; Lee, SeungRyong; Oh, MyungHwan; Ahn, KyuSung; Myung, BoYoung; Shin, SungShik
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/04/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%). The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%), followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%), E. canis (6.1%) and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%). In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%), and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs.

The immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases

Day, Michael J
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/04/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
The canine vector-borne infectious diseases (CVBDs) are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health. The successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system. Although significant advances have been made in the areas of molecular speciation and the epidemiology of these infections and their vectors, basic knowledge of the pathology and immunology of the diseases has lagged behind. This review summarizes recent studies of the pathology and host immune response in the major CVBDs (leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, hepatozoonosis, anaplasmosis, bartonellosis and borreliosis). The ultimate application of such immunological investigation is the development of effective vaccines. The current commercially available vaccines for canine leishmaniosis, babesiosis and borreliosis are reviewed.

Malaria and other vector-borne infection surveillance in the U.S. Department of Defense Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance program: review of 2009 accomplishments

Fukuda, Mark M; Klein, Terry A; Kochel, Tadeusz; Quandelacy, Talia M; Smith, Bryan L; Villinski, Jeff; Bethell, Delia; Tyner, Stuart; Se, Youry; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David; Johnson, Jacob; Wagar, Eric; Walsh, Douglas; Kasper, Matthew; Sanchez, Jose L;
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
Vector-borne infections (VBI) are defined as infectious diseases transmitted by the bite or mechanical transfer of arthropod vectors. They constitute a significant proportion of the global infectious disease burden. United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) personnel are especially vulnerable to VBIs due to occupational contact with arthropod vectors, immunological naiveté to previously unencountered pathogens, and limited diagnostic and treatment options available in the austere and unstable environments sometimes associated with military operations. In addition to the risk uniquely encountered by military populations, other factors have driven the worldwide emergence of VBIs. Unprecedented levels of global travel, tourism and trade, and blurred lines of demarcation between zoonotic VBI reservoirs and human populations increase vector exposure. Urban growth in previously undeveloped regions and perturbations in global weather patterns also contribute to the rise of VBIs. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) and its partners at DoD overseas laboratories form a network to better characterize the nature, emergence and growth of VBIs globally. In 2009 the network tested 19...

Vector-borne Infections

Rosenberg, Ronald; Ben Beard, C.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans.

Arthropod-borne infections in travelled dogs in Europe

Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt
Fonte: EDP Sciences Publicador: EDP Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
Pet animal movement is ever increasing within the European Union and in that context canine vectorborne infections gained a considerable importance. Information on these infections in travelled dogs is nevertheless limited. A first prospective study on vector-borne infections was conducted in 106 dogs travelling from Germany to countries in South and South-East Europe. The dogs were screened prior to and consecutively up to three times after travel by haematological (Giemsa-stained buffy coat smears, Knott’s-Test), molecular biological (PCR) as well as serological (IFAT, DiroChek®-ELISA) methods for arthropod-borne infections. Seven animals were seropositive for antibodies against Babesia canis sspp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis prior to travel to Italy, Spain, France, Croatia, Greece, or Hungary. In the consecutive screening after return there was no increase in the number of seropositive dogs. None was positive in direct methods. The mean duration of the stay was 17 days and 51% of the dogs were prophylactically treated with ectoparasiticidal formulations. Preliminary data from this study on canine vector-borne infections indicate a low risk for infection during a limited single stay in endemic countries.

Seroprevalence of Some Vector-Borne Infections of Dogs in Hungary

Farkas, Robert; Gyurkovszky, Mónika; Lukács, Zoltán; Aladics, Balázs; Solymosi, Norbert
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
The first comprehensive study on the prevalence of canine vector-borne pathogens (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis) was carried in Hungary because, except for babesiosis and dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria repens, there were no data on their regional distribution and prevalence. In 2011 and 2012, 1305 blood samples were collected from randomly selected, apparently healthy pet dogs in 167 localities of 19 counties of Hungary. All sera samples from dogs were screened for simultaneous qualitative detection of circulating antibodies to E. canis and B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum and D. immitis antigen using SNAP® 4Dx (IDEXX Laboratories). Overall, 170 dogs (13.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 11–15) were serologically positive to one or more of the tested pathogens. A. phagocytophilum was the most prevalent pathogen detected in 102 dogs by antibody titers (7.9%, 95% CI 6.5–9.5), followed by D. immitis (2.4%, 95% CI 1.0–4.0, n=64) and B. burgdorferi (0.4%, 95% CI 0.0–1.1, n=11) out of 1305 tested dogs. The least prevalent infection was with E. canis, with only two positive dogs (0.16%, 95% CI 0.03–0.6). Co-infection was found in eight dogs (0.61%...

Vectorial capacity, basic reproduction number, force of infection and all that: formal notation to complete and adjust their classical concepts and equations

Massad, Eduardo; Bezerra Coutinho, Francisco Antonio
Fonte: FUNDACO OSWALDO CRUZ; RIO DE JANEIRO, RJ Publicador: FUNDACO OSWALDO CRUZ; RIO DE JANEIRO, RJ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
A dimensional analysis of the classical equations related to the dynamics of vector-borne infections is presented. It is provided a formal notation to complete the expressions for the Ross' threshold theorem, the Macdonald's basic reproduction "rate" and sporozoite "rate", Garret-Jones' vectorial capacity and Dietz-Molineaux-Thomas' force of infection. The analysis was intended to provide a formal notation that complete the classical equations proposed by these authors.; European Union [282589]; European Union; LIM01 HCFMUSP; LIM01 HCFMUSP; CNPq; CNPq

Vectorial capacity, basic reproduction number, force of infection and all that: formal notation to complete and adjust their classical concepts and equations

Massad,Eduardo; Coutinho,Francisco Antonio Bezerra
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
A dimensional analysis of the classical equations related to the dynamics of vector-borne infections is presented. It is provided a formal notation to complete the expressions for the Ross' Threshold Theorem, the Macdonald's basic reproduction "rate" and sporozoite "rate", Garret-Jones' vectorial capacity and Dietz-Molineaux-Thomas' force of infection. The analysis was intended to provide a formal notation that complete the classical equations proposed by these authors.

Maximum Equilibrium Prevalence of Mosquito-Borne Microparasite Infections in Humans

Amaku, Marcos; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Massad, Eduardo
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
To determine the maximum equilibrium prevalence of mosquito-borne microparasitic infections, this paper proposes a general model for vector-borne infections which is flexible enough to comprise the dynamics of a great number of the known diseases transmitted by arthropods. From equilibrium analysis, we determined the number of infected vectors as an explicit function of the model's parameters and the prevalence of infection in the hosts. From the analysis, it is also possible to derive the basic reproduction number and the equilibrium force of infection as a function of those parameters and variables. From the force of infection, we were able to conclude that, depending on the disease's structure and the model's parameters, there is a maximum value of equilibrium prevalence for each of the mosquito-borne microparasitic infections. The analysis is exemplified by the cases of malaria and dengue fever. With the values of the parameters chosen to illustrate those calculations, the maximum equilibrium prevalence found was 31% and 0.02% for malaria and dengue, respectively. The equilibrium analysis demonstrated that there is a maximum prevalence for the mosquito-borne microparasitic infections.

Bayesian data assimilation provides rapid decision support for vector-borne diseases

Jewell, Chris; Brown, Richard
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Predicting the spread of vector-borne diseases in response to incursions requires knowledge of both host and vector demographics in advance of an outbreak. Whereas host population data is typically available, for novel disease introductions there is a high chance of the pathogen utilising a vector for which data is unavailable. This presents a barrier to estimating the parameters of dynamical models representing host-vector-pathogen interaction, and hence limits their ability to provide quantitative risk forecasts. The Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) outbreak in New Zealand cattle demonstrates this problem: even though the vector has received extensive laboratory study, a high degree of uncertainty persists over its national demographic distribution. Addressing this, we develop a Bayesian data assimilation approach whereby indirect observations of vector activity inform a seasonal spatio-temporal risk surface within a stochastic epidemic model. We provide quantitative predictions for the future spread of the epidemic, quantifying uncertainty in the model parameters, case infection times, and the disease status of undetected infections. Importantly, we demonstrate how our model learns sequentially as the epidemic unfolds, and provides evidence for changing epidemic dynamics through time. Our approach therefore provides a significant advance in rapid decision support for novel vector-borne disease outbreaks.

Evaluation of blood and bone marrow in selected canine vector-borne diseases

De Tommasi, Anna S.; Otranto, Domenico; Furlanello, Tommaso; Tasca, Silvia; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Stanneck, Dorothee; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Baneth, Gad; Capelli, Gioia; de Caprariis, Donato
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
This paper was originally published in Parasites & Vectors (AS De Tommasi, D Otranto, T Furlanello, S Tasca, C Cantacessi, EB Breitschwerdt, D Stanneck, F Dantas-Torres, G Baneth, G Capelli, D de Caprariis, Parasites & Vectors 2014, 7, 534); Background: Bone marrow (BM) is a major hematopoietic organ that can harbour a variety of vector-borne pathogens; however, knowledge of BM pathological changes in dogs infected with vector-borne pathogens is limited. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the pathological changes in canine BM associated with natural infections by four vector-borne pathogens, as well as to determine the relationships between such changes and abnormalities of the peripheral blood. Methods: Cytological disorders and pathological changes of the BM of 83 dogs naturally-infected with one or more of four vector-borne pathogens (i.e., Anaplasma platys, Leishmania infantum, Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis) were evaluated and compared with the corresponding hematological findings. Results: Dysgranulopoiesis and dysmegakaryocytopoiesis were the most frequently observed BM abnormalities in infected dogs. Erythroid suppression, and lymphocytic, monocytic and macrophage hyperplasia were also observed. Interestingly...

Arthropod borne diseases in Italy: from a neglected matter to an emerging health problem

Romi,Roberto
Fonte: Istituto Superiore di Sanità Publicador: Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
In medical entomology, "Arthropod Borne Diseases", or "Vector Borne Diseases" (VBD) are intended as a group of human and animal infections caused by different pathogen organisms (protozoa, helminthes, bacteria and viruses) transmitted by the bite of a bloodsucking insect or arachnid. It is commonly known that the infectious diseases transmitted by Arthropods are mainly affecting tropical and subtropical countries, nevertheless some of them were or are still common also in the northern hemisphere, where they are usually maintained under control. VBD still represent some of the most important public health problems in the endemic areas but are becoming source of concern for developed countries too. Since the last decades of the past century, a number of VBD has been spreading geographically, being recorded for the first time in areas outside their original range. This phenomenon is strictly related to the peculiar epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, that are considered the most susceptible to climatic, environmental and socioeconomic changes. This article is a short overview of the VBD endemic and emerging in Italy. The possibility that some exotic vectors and/or pathogens could be introduced and become established in Italy is also discussed.